Theory of Morals: An Inquiry Concerning the Law of Moral Distinctions and the Variations and Contradictions of Ethical Codes

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C. C. Little & J. Brown, 1844 - 272 strán (strany)
"This is the first of six Treatises which collectively I propose to entitle "Rudiments of the Science of Man." They will be published in the following order : Theory of Morals, Theory of Politics, Theory of Wealth, Theory of Taste, Theory of Knowledge, Theory of Education. The peculiarity of these Treatises will consist in an attempt to apply rigorously and systematically to their several subjects the Inductive Method of Investigation,?a method which in Physical Science has proved successful beyond expectation; but which, hitherto, for powerful but temporary reasons, has been very partially employed, and, in consequence, with very small results, upon the yet nobler and more important Science of Man. The daily increasing interest with which that science is regarded, and the great social problems which depend upon it for solution, seem to demand for its several branches a more patient, thorough, comprehensive, experimental investigation, than they have yet received. Such will be the aim of these Treatises. However short of that aim I may fall, I shall at least claim the merit of an earnest, honest, thoughtful, laborious endeavour"--Matériel publicitaire. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved).

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Composite Nature of Actions Event and Motive
10
Positive and Negative Actions
11
Characteristics of Praiseworthy Indifferent and Wrong
13
To the Case of Gluttony
19
Homicides justifiable in a Mystic Point of View Reli gious Persecutions Hereticide 155
23
Wounds Blows Poisons and other Injuries to the Per
24
Progress of Spiritualism
26
Paradox of Selfsacrifice thence resulting
32
Necessary Connexion between Perception and Emotion
36
List of simple original Emotions 53 Law of their joint Operation
39
General Direction of human Action
42
Difference in this Respect between the Child and the Man the Savage and the Civilized the Educated and the Uneducated
43
Sentiment of Benevolence Love Humanity
44
Ambiguous Use of the Term Selfinterest
45
Difference between Good and Evil in general and Mor al Good and Evil
46
Reasons of the superior Rank assigned to Emotions of Benevolence
47
Reason why many benevolent Men adopted that Theory
48
True Sense of the Word Happiness as descriptive
49
Selfsacrificing Theory of Morals
50
Paradoxes to which that Theory leads
51
Required Modifications of the Disinterested Theory of Morals
54
Moral Classification of Actions looking to the Motive as Meritorious Obligatory Indifferent Permissible and Criminal
55
Considerations which determine this Classification stat ed in five Propositions
56
Conclusions which will follow the Establishment of these Propositions
58
CHAPTER II
59
Consequences of that Law
60
Complaint owes its Efficacy to that Law
62
Second Law of the Action of the Sentiment of Benevo lence
63
Sentiment of Malevolence Law of its Action Anger Retaliation Revenge
64
Mutual Relations of the Sentiments of Malevolence and Benevolence
65
Origin of Punishments
66
Variations in the Force of the Sentiment of Malevolence
67
How it spreads
68
It often rests upon purely fanciful Grounds
69
Why we hate those we have injured
70
Effect of visible Beauty upon Benevolence
71
Effect of the Sexual Sentiment upon Benevolence Love
72
Effect of Admiration upon Benevolence Romantic Love Loyalty Devotion Indifference Ennui Contempt
75
Origin of Attachments or Friendships Benefits
76
Coloring thence afforded to the Selfish Theory of Morals
77
Sentiment of Selfcomparison Law of its Action
78
Bashfulness Pride Vanity Modesty Humility
80
Politeness Flattery Sycophancy Popularity
81
Government originates in it
82
It constitutes the chief Motive to the Pursuit of Wealth
83
Ambition Covetousness
84
Susceptibility to the Pain of Inferiority essential to or dinary Virtue
85
Desire of Superiority essential to extraordinary Virtue Selfrespect Emulation Shame Love of Reputation Love of Fame Love of Glory
87
Special Coöperations and Oppositions of SelfCompari son and Benevolence
88
Parental Love
89
Love of Knowledge chiefly dependent on Selfcomparison
90
Moral character ascribed to the Love of Knowledge
91
CHAPTER III
92
Necessity of distinguishing between Admiration and Moral Approbation
95
False Shame
96
ticism Folly Credulity
97
Activity Sloth Indolence Idleness Industry
98
Capacity or Ability bodily and mental Healthfulness
99
CHAPTER IV
100
Proper Moral Sense of the Term Virtue What Ac tions are called Disinterested
101
Stoic Definition of Virtue
102
Platonic Definition
104
CHAPTER V
105
All Actions of all kinds originate in Mental Necessity
106
Extent of Moral Obligation in general
107
Light in which Homicide is regarded by some Mystic Codes
140
Forensic View of Homicide Selfdefence
141
Laws of War
142
Duelling
144
Tyrannicide
147
Retaliatory Homicides esteemed permissible and obliga tory 16 Retaliatory Homicides esteemed meritorious Knight
148
errantry Lynch Law
149
Mitigations of criminal Hornicide
150
Infanticide
152
How Civilization affects Ideas respecting Homicide
153
son
156
Restraint Imprisonment
157
Insults
158
CHAPTER II
159
Cases to which these Reasons do not apply
160
Influence of the Distribution of Property on Respect for the Rights of Property
161
Imperfection of the Laws how they diminish Respect for the Rights of Property
162
Malevolence essential to the Continuance of Slavery
163
Important Difference in this Respect between Property in Slaves and other kinds of Property
164
Mystical Defenders of Slavery
165
CHAPTER III
166
Pain of Inferiority the chief Security for Truth
170
Doctrine of the Divine Right of Governors
176
Doctrine of Natural Rights
183
Subordination in the Harem
188
Substitution of Monogamy for Polygamy Its Causes and Consequences
189
Position of Women among the Romans and in Modern Europe
190
Chastity in Women
194
As regards Men
197
Grounds of the Severity exercised towards Women for Breaches of Chastity
198
Communities in which Women approach nearest to Equality with Men
200
Grounds of the Liberty allowed to Married Women in such Communities
202
That Liberty not extended to the Unmarried and why
204
Position of Women in the Northern States of America Societies for Moral Reform
205
CHAPTER VI
206
Philosophical Ascetics
207
Mystic Ascetics
209
Disciples of this Doctrine in all Ages and Countries
211
Mystic Doctrines on the Subject of Chastity
212
War of the Poets against the Ascetics
214
Breaches of the Duty of Friendship esteemed more
218
Various other Influences of the Sentiment of Selfcom parison 82
220
Distinction between Pity and Sympathy
222
Duties to Strangers National Prejudices
228
22 Reasons of the Abhorrence felt for criminal Homicide in civilized Countries 154
230
Political and Religious Cruelties Hatred of Innovators
234
Slow Progress of Freedom of Inquiry
235
Effects of Mystic Sympathy
237
Duties of Selfrespect
239
CHAPTER IX
240
Current Theology modified and determined by current Morals
241
Religious Forms and Ceremonies
242
Philosophical Idea of God Controversy between the Philosophers and the Mystics
244
Attempted Alliance between Philosophy and Mysticism SemiMystics
245
Religious Faith Different Ideas of it
246
Reasons why Religious Faith has been reckoned a Moral Duty
247
That Opinion on the Decline
249
Want of Faith complained of by recent Moralists Their probable Meaning
251
CHAPTER X
252
Upon what subjects Moral Opinions have been most uniform
253
Decisions of Common Sense on Questions of Morals
254
CONNEXION BETWEEN HAPPINESS AND VIRTUE
255
True Aim of the enlightened Moralist
261
Classification of Mankind into Good and Bad Conscien
267
Second Means Alleviation of counteracting Pains
269

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