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go over the matter in full, and report to me Roosevelt as the ally of big business is too
thereon ? Please do not file the suit until I herculean a task.
hear from you."

The grief and horror
The Titanic Disaster
It is the last

of the Titanic tragedy Mr. Roosevelt's Statement

Safety at Sea on the Harvester Trust sentence of this

are leading to an earletter which has nest, resolute, and concerted effort to make apparently been put forward by the Taft sup- such a calamity impossible in the future. The porters as showing some improper attitude investigation by a committee of the United on the part of President Roosevelt.

The States Senate is only one of the ways in which implication seems to be that Mr. Roosevelt this question has been taken up. It will be ordered the suit against the Harvester Com- followed by an investigation in Great Britain pany to be held up for improper reasons. under the direction of the British Board of In a statement issued the day after the papers Trade, which has a high reputation for thorhad been sent to the Senate, Mr. Roosevelt oughness and possesses large authority ; declared that he took precisely the same action meanwhile, discussion in public press and in the Harvester Trust case that he took in all suggestions made by men of special knowlsimilar cases; that while he, of course, was edge through letters have done much to throw entirely responsible for the action taken, it light upon the problem. Certain things have was taken with the full approval of the entire become clear and positive through the testiCabinet, including Mr. Taft; that there mony taken by the Senate Committee : as to remained at the time less than one and a speed, it has been shown conclusively, espehalf years of his Administration, during which cially by the evidence of Quartermaster Rowe, time, because of the vast amount of work who read the ship's log just before leaving the imposed upon the Bureau of Corporations vessel, that a speed of twenty-two and oneby Congress, it was impossible for the Bureau half knots, or close to it, was being mainto finish the investigation of the affairs of the tained by the Titanic while going through a Harvester Company; that during the three region extremely dangerous despite the fact years of Mr. Taft's Administration Mr. Taft that it was a starlight night, and against recould at any time have ordered the Attorney- peated warnings that ice was in the vicinity: General to proceed against the Harvester There is no defense for this rate of speed Company or have requested the Commissioner under the circumstances, and there is little of Corporations to hurry the completion of doubt in the public mind that it was mainthe report on the Company; and, finally, that tained in a blind confidence in the Titanic's at the time the action was taken it immunity to serious disaster, and a desire to certain that Mr. Roosevelt himself was not make a good showing for a first trip. Heregoing to run for President, while Mr. Taft after this kind of navigation should be, and expected to run, so that “if the action taken probably will be, strictly forbidden by the in the Harvester Trust case did secure the steamship companies and by the law, and good will of that trust, or any of the Morgan repetition of this way of endangering passeninterests, for anybody, it secured their good gers' lives will in itself be considered evidence will for Mr. Taft." But, Mr. Roosevelt of reckless and unseamanlike conduct on the concludes, as a matter of fact, in neither part of the commander of the ship. Equally case did I consider in any way whether any certain is the conclusion that when ice support would be gained for or alienated is reported ships should take a more southfrom either me or Mr. Taft.

In both cases, erly course than has been the custom. and in all other cases of the kind, I consid- This is accepted as sound by the companies ered nothing but what was demanded by themselves, and they have widely adverright and justice.” We do not believe that tised their orders to their captains to act this attempt to use the Senate and the rec- in accordance with that principle. The ords of the Department of Justice to advance United States Hydrographic Office had the political fortunes of the President will previously issued warnings which were not avail with any one who either reads the cor- heeded, but now, through consultation berespondence itself or knows Mr. Roosevelt's tween the Hydrographic Office and the record in his relation to the trusts. To companies, safer routes have been definitely attempt to hoodwink the people of the agreed upon and are now being used. As to United States into considering Theodore the number of lifeboats, it will no longer be


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argued by the companies that it is useless to ears when he got the Titanic's call, and ten take a full supply; in fact, the steamship minutes later the call would have failed to owners have vied with one another in buying reach him. - Moreover, the rivalry between :: new boats, and have gone far beyond the companies and their hostile attitude to one inadequate laws of Great Britain and the s another form a source of danger; so does the United States in furnishing means for saving interference of amateurs; so does the desire passengers even under such unusual and of some wireless operators to sell to newspaperhaps almost unheard-of circumstances as pers the stories of wrecks—this is quite posthose of the loss of the Titanic. It has even sibly the cause of the world's being held in been suggested that when a passenger buys suspense so long while waiting for anything a steamship ticket he should get with it a like a definite account of what had happened. coupon entitling him to a numbered place on Again, the Titanic's compartment bulkheads a safety boat or raft, and so good a judge of above the water line closed by hand. Anaval marine affairs as Admiral Chadwick, in an officer of practical experience writes to The newspaper letter, indorses this idea as the 3 Outlook : * The insufficiency of water-tight only road to the comparative safety to all bulkheads as usually-fitted to merchant vessels offered by boats.” Another radical propo- rî has almost amounted to a scandal among naval sition (although we are told that it was dem- architects for many years.

That these bulk-) onstrated to be practicable by models as long heads have proved insufficient in a great ago as the Paris Exposition) is also indorsed many cases is a matter of record, the failures by Admiral Chadwick —that is, to make the in most cases being due to lack of stiffening tops of deck cabins into detachable life-saving members. The loss of the Republic was rafts capable of holding many scores and due directly to the giving way of one or perhaps hundreds of people.

more of her bulkheads.” Finally, the Senate

investigation shows that not only must there

Vi bé new laws and better inspection in each

One point of much maritime country, but there must be an The Titanic Disaster Other Reforms

importance brought international agreement, and steps are being

out by the investiga-' taken to bring about such an agreement either tion is the slackness of boat drills on board through the Hague Conferences or otherwise. ships ; in many cases these drills seem to be mere perfunctory attempts to comply with the technical requirements of the

Ina crisis of life and

The Titanic Disaster law ; increased vigilance in inspection and ;

Heroism and Brutality

death, 'such as that more drastic laws should make this impossible.

which existed Still another point of criticism in the Titanic board the Titanic after the collision with the was that the lookouts in the crow's nest were iceberg, the stress of danger, the confusion not supplied with marine glasses. The dif- in men's minds, the love of life, and the desire ference of a half-minute in reporting ice to save life, all influence conduct so that char-. ahead might have saved the ship. Anum- acter is put to a supreme test. It is easy ber of matters requiring reform were shown here to recognize in many cases heroism, unto exist in connection with the use of wireless selfishness, and sacrifice. It is easy also to see telegraphy; a few years ago there was no in other cases that this level was not reached, such thing, now it is not only an aid to safe and probably in some cases that the lowest, navigation, but absolutely indispensable ; it most selfish motives prevailed. But it is well: follows that every vessel should be ade- to refrain from denunciation or condemnation, quately equipped—and it is not adequate remembering human frailty, and rememberequipment to have one operator, paid, per ing also that the accounts of what actually did i haps, the meager sum of twenty-five dollars happen are contradictory, and that it is unsafe a month, on a ship carrying hundreds of pas- to dissect motive and impulse too closely. sengers. The Titanic had two wireless Nothing in the Senate Committee's testimony operators, but the Carpathia had only one. has excited public reprobation more than the An operator must be on duty at any given statement of officers and passengers that in moment or there is serious danger that a one case the quartermaster in command of call for help may be unanswered--the Car- a boat rejected brutally the pleas of his women pathia operator had started to go to bed, and passengers that he should go to the rescue of: was just about to take the receiver from his those who were struggling in the water. On


If it puts

the other hand, the third officer of the Titanic,

the conduct of one or two ships which Mr. Pittman, declares that he wished to return were comparatively close to the scene of the to the spot where hundreds of passengers Titanic disaster. Officers from the Titanic were struggling and crying out, but that the declare that they saw the lights of a vessel people in his boat absolutely refused to allow after the collision, but that no response was him to do so. In both cases it is urged in made to their repeated signals of distress. behalf of those who apparently so heartlessly At least one ship admits being reasonably saw men and women dying without help that close to the scene, but declares that it was to have entered among the hundreds of impossible to reach the spot of disaster bestruggling people would have been sure cause of intervening ice and the serious dandestruction to the boat. So with the personal ger to its own two thousand passengers. conduct of passengers and officers on the Here again it is well to suggest reflection and ship; there are some names which will stand the fullest knowledge as it may come from out as those of men and women of calm and the complete tes:imony before condemnation heroic character ; others certainly do not is pronounced. reach this standard, and in some cases there will always be a difference of opinion as to the

The man who knowingly sells a

Fraudulent degree of blameworthiness to be attached to


brass ring for a gold one everyindividual acts. Naturally, the head of the

body brands as a fraud, and if company, Mr. Ismay, has been most severely he can be convicted he is sent to jail. Some attacked because it was felt that he carried newspapers have been engaged in the same a special and cogent responsibility ; Mr. kind of nefarious business. It is the busiIsmay's own testimony and that of several ness of the newspaper, first of all, to provide ? other officers or passengers was to the effect information for those who buy it. that he did everything in his power to aid under the guise of information what is passengers to get into boats, and that he really fiction, it is engaged in just as bad a entered the last boat to be launched on the business as if it were selling, under the guise side of the deck where he was at work only of leather, strips of cardboard. Of course when calls had been made for women and there is no way of making error impossible. children to go into the boat, and none had Indeed, when the ordinary man who knows appeared. He intimated, in his testimony, nothing of newspaper business reads the news that he considered his own relation to the in his paper, he has little idea of the multiship that of an ordinary passenger, and de

tude of chances for error that creep in, in the clared that he had not directed or suggested collection, preparation, and printing of that to the Captain anything with regard to the

One of the greatest triumphs of navigation of the ship—a statement which a modern times is the great newspaper organilarge part of the public seem inclined to take zation which secures, prints, and distributes with reservations. Mr. W. E. Carter, who the news with an incredible promptness and entered the same boat with Mr. Ismay, told

often with astonishing accuracy.

What we practically the same story, but added the sig- refer to here are not those slips of the pen nificant statement as regards himself and or of the tongue or of the type which result Mr. Ismay that after the officer in charge often in the misreporting of current events. Inhad called for women he " said that if we fallibility of the human mind is no more to be wanted we could get into the boat if we took found in newspaper offices than elsewhere in the place of seamen. He gave us the privi- this world. What we refer to is the deliberlege because we were first-class passengers. ate offering of the product of the imagination Mr. Ismay was the representative of a com

This is not an occasional offense. pany responsible for the lives and property It is a frequent, we may say habitual, pracwhich the ship was carrying. It is a mis- tice. A particularly glaring and impudent fortune that his conception of his duty was instance of this was furnished by one of New neither so clear nor so high as that of the York's newspapers, the "Evening Telemen who did not leave the ship until they gram.” The Cunard steamship Carpathia were cast into the sea. Noblesse obligehad arrived in New York Harbor on Thursday one meaning for Major Butt, Colonel Astor, evening, April 18. Just about as this vessel Colonel Gracie, Mr. Millet, and other men, was docking newsmen twenty blocks away and another meaning for Mr. Ismay. Dif- were crying through the streets “ The Titanic ference of opinion may also exist as regards Extra ” of that paper. Naturally, those who


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as news.

publication at the time. What is this, if it is not obtaining money under false pretense ?

had been waiting anxiously for the news of the survivors of the Titanic which the Carpathia was bringing to port, and were particularly anxious to learn how the men and women on board the Titanic had conducted themselves at the time of the great crisis in their lives, were expecting news—that is, information. We all know now that the shock of the collision was but slightly felt, that there was no sign of damage above the water line, that there was no panic, that throughout the whole experience there was a remarkable exhibition of poise, of self-restraint, and of good sense. Yet the “ Evening Telegram," which, by the way, is practically, though perhaps not technically, the evening edition of the New York “Herald,” told a story from which we quote these sentences :

Stunned by the terrific impact, the dazed passengers, many of them half clad, rushed from their staterooms into the main saloon amid the crash of splintering steel, rending of plates, and shattering of girders, while the boom of falling pinnacles of ice upon the broken deck of the great vessel added to the horror. In wild coniusion men, women, and children rushed about the sa ons and cabins of the great steamship as though driven out of their senses. . . In a wild, apparently ungovernable mob, they poured out of the saloons to witness one of the most appalling scenes possible to conceive. . . . For a hundred feet the bow was in a snapeless mass of bent, broken, and splintered steel and iron. . . . Not all of the first-cabin passengers were among those who aided the crew to fight off the inob, and some were among those who added to the horror and the panic by struggling to be the first aboard the lifeboats. Then came the shudder of the riven hulk of the once magnificent steamship as she slid back from the shelving ice upon which she had driven, and her bow settled deeply into the water. “ We're lost! We're lost!” was the cry that rose from a hundred throats. “The ship is sinking! We must drown!” . . . Husbands were separated from their wives in the battle to reach the boats... There was no time to pick or choose. One by one the little fleet drew away from the towering sides of the giant steamship whose decks were already reeling as she sank lower in the water. “The Titanic is doomed," was the verdict that passed from lip to lip. « We will sink before help can come !" Those who read the story at that time had a right to believe that they were reading, not the product of a wild and foolish imagination, but the report of actual fact as near as it was possible to give it. Now we know that there was not the slightest basis for any such tale as this. The only possible explanation for the appearance of this wild story at the very moment that the Carpathia was docking is that it was written beforehand and held for

The tense situation between Mediation in Labor Disputes

the locomotive engineers

and the railway companies last week brought one fact sharply into public attention. This is that no one set of men, nor any two sets of men, should be permitted to endanger with impunity public comfort and public safety. If the locomotive engineers had gone on strike—and for a moment the strike seemed inevitable—in a large section of the country railway travel would have been stopped, business would have been prostrated, the transportation of merchandise and even necessities like food would have suffered. Happily, while we have not yet reached the point of forbidding under penalties the precipitation of such a condition, we have provided a tentative method of averting what should be a criminal offense. Under the Erdman Act, the United States Commissioner of Labor and the presiding Judge of the United States Commerce Court are intrusted with the duty, when such a condition arises with respect to the railways, of acting as mediators on the request of either party to the dispute, and are allowed, although not directed, even when such request is not made by either of the disputants, to volunteer their friendly offices. This last is what took place last week in the railway quarrel. Each side, so to speak, issued its ultimatum ; and without humiliating concessions further negotiations seemed impossible. Judge Knapp, of the Commerce Court, and Commissioner Neill thereupon urged the opposing generals in what threatened to be a devastating war to allow a truce and to confer with Judge Knapp and Mr. Neill in an effort to adjust the dispute without the calamity of a general strike.” The result may be, and we have confidence will be (although doubtless after much bargaining), mutual concessions and a fair public discussion of the issues involved. The truth is that we have reached a point in our industrial history where neither strikers nor capitalists really dare affront the people of the country by entering arbitrarily upon a war in which the supposed non-combatants, namely, the public itself, would be the chief sufferers. Something of the same condition has existed as regards the anthracite dispute, although here, of course, the Erdman Law does not apply. As we write, a




settlement by mutual concession is expected, although at one time both parties declared that any concession was impossible. In both these great industrial disputes there is at the bottom a very large question which sooner or later must be faced. In the engineers' strike, for instance, the argument runs roughly something like this: the engineers declare that for public safety only men of high skill and experience should be employed ; that living cost has so increased that former wages are insufficient; that if skill and care among those who constantly have our lives in charge is to be maintained, living wages must be paid, and that the time has come for a morement in this direction. On the other hand, the companies reply that if they increase the pay of engineers they must ultimately increase the pay of all employees; that this means a charge on the railways which can be met only in one of two ways—by raising rates (to which the Inter-State Commerce Commission ohjects) or by decreasing dividends. The railway managers seem to take it for granted that the first course is really the only available one, and argue that railway stock is so widely held in small amounts that to decrease dividends would be not only to lower the market value of stocks, and thereby injure business, but to decrease also the incomes of such an enormous number of people that it would really be a blow at the consumer-that is, the user of railways. This is a question which requires calm consideration, for it affects industrial conditions fundamentally; it may, however, be said that no large industrial concern dealing with public safety and public comfort should be allowed to make the payment of large dividends its first consideration ; before dividends should come fair treatment and reasonable pay to its employees, safety and reasonable treatment for both employees and public, and finally the maintenance in proper condition of the industry itself. So long as the alleged necessity of maintaining the stock market value of securities and of keeping up whatever dividend rate has been established are considered paramount, the industrial question in its largest aspects will remain unsettled.

has been placed in charge of a woman. Surely if there is any branch of government for which a woman would be naturally fitted, it would be that which is concerned with the children of the Nation. There is no material so plastic as a child. There is no function more noble than that of molding this human material into character. That is why the ordinary ambitions that move and women in this world seem small compared with the ambition that can and ought to be the motive power of the mother in the household. The care, protection, and training of children is woman's work because it is, after all, the greatest of human du ies. So long as society is simple in its organism most of this work can be done within the home. To-day, however, industry has so invaded the household and human relations have become so complex that some duties which once could be performed fairly well, at least, by parents now fall upon society. The factory, which is of modern invention, has seized upon children and carried them out of the home; the school, which was once the creature as well as the servant of the neighborhood, has now become a great institution far beyond the control of any group of parents; even the courts are finding new duties in their relation to delinquent children, whose delinquency is often chiefly that of their parents.

The Nation can no longer afford to leave to each neighborhood the questions that concern the children of that neighborhood. The whole Nation has become itself a neighborhood. This Children's Bureau is the first expression of the Nation's care as a Nation for all the interests of all its children. Of Miss Lathrop much is expected. So far as we know she has had little or nothing to do with the movement which has created the Bureau. The appointment comes to her not because of any reward for efficiency on her part, but as the expression of belief on the part of the President that of all who were available for the position she was the most able, the most fit for the place. she has been a resident of one of Chicago's great social settlements, one of the greatest in the country—Hull House. Miss Jane Addams, the head of Hull House, has told in her autobiographical volume, “Twenty Years at Hull House,” that when Miss Lathrop was appointed as a county visitor to investigate cases for outdoor relief within the region of which Hull House was the center, “the commissioners were at first dubious

For years

The newly established ChilMiss Lathrop Bureau Chief

dren's Bureau in the Depart

ment of Commerce and Labor is to have for its chief, if the Senate approves, Miss Julia C. Lathrop. This is the first time, we believe, that a Federal Bureau

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