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dents of birth ; it cannot be denied, that in both respeits
the part which relates to war is much better peformed in
popular governments than in monarchies.

That which weare by reason lcd to believe is confirmed to
us by experience. We every-where see the difference be.
tween the courage of men fighting for themselves, and
their pofterity, and those that serve a master who by good
success is often rendered insupportable. This is of such
efficacy, that no king could ever boast to have overthrown
any considerable commonwealth, unless it were divided
within itself, or weakened by wars made with such as
were also free; which was the case of the Grecian
commonwealths, when the Macedonians fell in upon
them: whereas the greatest kingdoms have been calily
destroyed by commonwealths; and these also have lost
all strength and valour, and spirit; after the change of
their government. The power and virtue of the Italians
grew up, decayed, and perished, with their liberty.
When they were divided into many commonwealths,
every one of them was able to send out great armies, and
to suffer many defcats before they were fubdued ; so that
their cities were delivered up by the old men, women,
and children, when all those who were able to bear arms
had been nain: and when they were all brought under
the Romans, either as affociates or subjects, they made
the greatest strength that ever was in the world.

Alexander of Epirus was in valour thought equal, and in power little inferior, to Alexander of Macedon: but having the fortune to attack those who had been brought up in liberty, taught to hazard or suffer all things for it,


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and to think that God has given to men hands and fwords only to defend it, he perished in his attempt ; whilft the other encountering Navish nations, under the conduct of proud, cruel, and for the most part unwarlike tyrants, , became master of Asia.

Pyrrhus seems to have been equal to either of them; but the victories he obtained by an admirable valour and conduct, cost him so dear, that he desired peace witli those enemies who might be defeated, not subdued

Hannibal, wanting the prudence of Pyrrhus, lost the fruits of all his victories; and being torn out of Italy, where he had nested himself, fcH under the sword of those whose fathers lie had dcfcated or Nain; and died a bani hed man from his ruined country.

The Gauls did once bring Rome, when it was small, to the brink of destruction; but they left their carcases to pay for the mischiefs they had done; and in succeeding times their invasions were mentioned as tumults rather than wars.

The Germans did perhaps surpass them in numbers and strength, and were equal to them in fortune as long as Rome was free. They often entered Italy; but they continued not long there, unless under the weight of their chains; whereas the same nations, and others like to them, assaulting that country, or other provinces under the emperors, found no other difficulty than what did arise upon contests among themselves who should be master of thein. No manly virtue or discipline remained among the Italians: those who governed them, relied upon tricks and Thists; they who could not defend themselves tered some of those nations to undertake their quarrels against others. These trinklings could not last: the Goths, fcorning to depend upon those who in valour and strength were much inferior to themselves, seized upon the city that had commanded the world, whilft Honorius was so busy in providing for his hens, that he could not think of defending it. Arcadius had the luck not to lose his principal city ; but passing his time among fidlers, players, eunuchs, cooks, dancers, and buffoons, the provinces were securely plundered and ransacked by nations, that are known only from their victories against him.

It is in vain to say, that this proceeded from the fatal corruption of that age ; for that corruption proceeded from the government, and the ensuing defolation was the effect of it. And as the like disorder in government has been ever since in Greece, and the greatest part of Italy, thofe countries, which for extent, riches, convenience of situation, and numbers of men, are cqual to the best in the world, and for the wit, courage, and industry of the natives, perhaps justly preferable to any, have linee that time been always exposed as a prey to the first invader, Charles the Eighth of France is by Guicciardin, and other writers, represented as a prince cqually weak in body, mind, money, and forces : but as an ill bare is said, to make a good dog, he conquered the best part of Italy without breaking a lance. Ferdinand and Alphonso of Arragon, kings of Naples, had governed by trepanners, false witneffes, corrupt judges, mercenary soldiers, and other ministers of iniquity ; but these could afford no help againit an invader;, and neither the oppreffed noB 3


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bility, nor people, concerning themselves in the quarrel, they who had been proud, fierce, and cruel, against their poor subjects, never durst look an enemy in the face ; and the father dying with anguish and scar, tlie fon Thamefully fled from his ill governed kingdom.

The same things are no less evident in Spain. No people ever defended themselves with more obstinacy and valour than the Spaniards did against the Carthaginians and Ronan, who surpassed them in wealth and skill. Livy calls them“ gentem ad bella gerenda & reparanda natam," and who generally killed themselves when they were mastered and disarmed, “ nullam sine armis vitam “ effe rati." But though the mixture of Roman blood could not impair their race, and the conjunction of the Goths had improved their force; yet no more was rc quired for the overthrow of them all, than the weakness and baseness of the two lewd tyrants Witza and Rodrigo, who disdained all laws, and resolved to govern according to their luft. They who for more than two hundred years had refifted the Romans, were entirely subdued by the vile, halt-naked Moors, in one flight shirmish; and do not to this day know what became of the king who brought the destruction upon them. That kingdom after many revolutions is with many others, come to the house of Austria, and enjoys all the wealth of the Indies; whereupon they arc thought to have affected an universal monarchy. “ Sed ut funt levia aulicorum ingenia,” this was grounded upon nothing except their own vanity : they had money and craft; but wanting that folid virtue and strength, which makes and preserves conquests, their kings have nothing but Milan that did not come to them by marriage: and though they have not received any extraordinary disasters in war, yet they languish and confume through the defects of their own government, and are forced to beg asistance from their mortal and formerly degisid enemies. These are the best hopes of defence that they have from abroad; and the only enemy an invader ought to fear in their desolate territorities, is that want and famine which testifics the good order, strength, and stability of our author's divine monarchy; the profound wisdom of thcir kings in fubtilty finding out fo fure a way of defending the country; their paternal care in providing for the good of their subjects ; and that whatfoever is defective in the prince, is assuredly supplied by the fedulity of a good council.

We have already said cncugh to obviate the objecions that may be drawn from the prosperity of the French monarchy. The beauty of it is false and painted. There is a rich and haughty king, who, is blefied with such neighbours as are not likely to disturb him, and has nothing to fear from his miserable subjects; but the whole body of that state is full of boils, and wounds, and putrid fores: there is no real strength in it. The people are {o unwilling to serve him, that he is faid to have put to death above fourscore thousand of his own soldiers within the space of fifteen years, for flying from their colours ; and if he were vigorously attacked, little help could be expected from a discontented nobility, or a starving and

If to diminish the force of these arguments and examples, it be said, that in two or three

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despairing people.

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