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safe, by the advantage obtained in this battle-The Russians always have a religious celebration of their victories. * Early in the morning of the 12th of October" (says the Prussia! Gazrite), "a Te Deum was chanted in the camp of Count Woronzow, and in the presence of the Emperor, in celebration of the fall of Varna. The finest weather favoured the solemnity, at which all the diplomatists and officers were present. On the same morning, the Captain Pacha marched out of the citadel, together with the troops in favour of whom a capitulation had been agreed to. On the 13th, his Ma. jesty, the Emperor, attended divine service in the Greek Metropolitan Church of Varna. On the evening of the 14th, his Majesty had it in contemplation to embark for Orlessa, and thence to continue uninterruptedly his journey to St. Petersburg. The corps diplomatique was to embark for Odessa at the same time. Omer Vrione retreatesi immediately after the surrender of Varna, and had taken up a position on the opposite bank of the Kauitshik. He was closely pursued by Prince Eugene of Wur. temberg The Grand Vizier had already advanced as far as Kauiishik, to support Omer Vrione, but in consequence of recent events, had also made a retrograde movement."

We have been thus particular, in our account of these Russian successes, because publick anxiety has been long excited on this subject; and because we know that a considerable nuinber of our readers look to this part of our work, for nearly all the news and politicks that they think it necessary for them to become acquainted with. We shall only add, that it was uncertain, at the date of the last accounts, whether the Russians would, or would not, continue the war in a winter campaign.

On the 241h of October, there was a great meeting, supposed to consist of 30,000 individuals, at Kent, in England. The meeting was held to consider of the propriety of addressing parliament on the Catholick question. The leaders of the opposite parties attended, and made speeches, and, after a good deal of altercation, the mob dispersed peaceably—The anti-Catholick party scemed to have the advantage.

By the last accounts, it would seem that the price of grain has, after a short fall, again become as dear as before.

FRANCE.-By a commercial ordinance, of the 20th of September, the king of France has permitted the importation of provisions, and certain articles of merchandise, into two ports of the Island of Guadaloupe, after the 1st of January, 1829. It appears that the French government have prohibited the export of grain from France, and that 15 cargoes of grain, which were about to be sent from Havre, have been arrested by this prohibition. It is said that the notorious Talleyrand is writing “ Memoirs of his eventful Life,” not, however, to be published till after bis death --He can, probably, tell more secrets, if he will, than any other man living. He is reported to have lately lost three millions of livres, by the failure of a banker in Paris, but that he has still left twenty thousand pounds sterling, per annum-It appears that couriers frequently pass between Paris and London, and that the subjects of discussion are known to be the intervention of France, Britain, and Germany, to compel Russia to make peace with the Turks. The late successes of the Russians seem to have awakened the jealousy of all the other great powers, as they are called—but of Britain more than any other.

Spain.-We have observed no change, during the past month, in the affairs of this kingdom. The yellow fever has prevailed dreadfully at Gibraltar, and was but little abated at the last accounts,

Portugal. The most recent intelligence from Portugal, represents the whole of the northern provinces of this kingdom as being in a most convulsed state. A force of 20,000 Guerillas, hostile to the government, was stated to be within three leagues of Oporto, on the 22d of October. Business is nearly at a stand, in almost every part of the kingdom, and commerce is annihilated. It would seem as if a re-action was tak. ing place; but the mass of the people are so under the influence of popish superstition, and nearly the whole force of that superstition is so enlisted in favour of the usurpation and tyranny of Don Miguel, that any thing friendly to liberty, either civil or religious, is scarcely to be expected at present.

GREECE.—It is stated in the French Moniteur of the 2d of November, that despatches « have been received from the Marquis de Maison, announcing the surrender of the for. tresses of Coron, Modon, Navarino, Patras, and the Castle of the Morea, which had been left by Ibrahim Pacha, in the occupation of 5500 Turkish and Egyptian troops, who were to be immediately embarked for Egypt, with their arms and baggage. The colours of the allied powers, (French and English,) were hoisted in the several forts ; and the Marquis de Maison, states his intention to deliver up Coron to the Greek Government, as soon as it shall send regular troops to occupy it.”

The most recent accounts from this interesting and long oppressed country, speak favourably of its present prospects. It appears that the people, whom the horrible

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ravages of the Arabs and Turks have left in life, are desirous of instruction; and that measures are taken to afford it, and to organize institutions favourable to agriculture, mercantile enterprise, and free government.

TUBKEY.— The late successes of the Russians appear to have produced much excitement at Constantinople. “The standard of the Prophet" has been raised; a measure never resorted to but in cases of great interest and peril. We have seen a particular description of this Mohammedan ceremonial- A splendid procession, commencing at the Seraglio, extended through the city, and terminated in a military camp in the suburbs. What relates immediately to the standard, is as follows-"Behind a body of Niemas of the first rank; many Emirs, the Muftis, Kadis (Judges), &c., was a superb carriage, bearing the case of the sacred standard. The Standard of the Prophet' was itself borne in the hand of the chief of the Emirs, whose office it is to guard this palladium, and who rode on horseback. The standard seems to be of small size; it was covered with green silk; it was surrounded by twelve singers, hymning glory to the Prophet, and as many pages, flinging over it the most costly perfumes. Inme. diately after, followed the Sultan in person, dressed with great simplicity He wore a white shawl over his head, and a scarlet surcoatHe had no guard in immediate attendance upon his person, but he was followed at some distance by about 1000 infantry and 1500 cavalry, regular troops, all trained to the new tactics by the monarch him. self."

It is stated that an immense number of troops, and quantity of cannon and ammuni. tion, are pouring into the camp; and that the Sultan was going to set out for Adrianople. If peace should not take place, during the present winter, it is probable that the most appalling carnage will be witnessed in the next campaign.

ASIA, In the political or civil state of this most populous quarter of the globe, no changes or events of importance have come to our knowledge, for some time past. The rebellion, which for a wbile seriously disturbed the Chinese empire, seems to be nearly of entirely quelled : And that which threatened the expulsion of the Dutch from the island of Java, remains much as it was when we last noticed it. In hither India, the concerns of missions--in our view, the most important concerns in the world-are highly prosperous and promising. The American missionaries have left Palestine, in consequence of the war with Russia, and the part taken by Britain and France in settling the Turkish quarrel with the Greeks. But they have left behind them a seed of divine truth, which we trust will yet spring up, and bring forth much good fruit-We hope it will not be long ere they will be permitted to return, and pursue their efforts to propagate the pure gospel on the soil where it was first proclaimed.

AFRICA.
It appears by an extract of a letter, dated at the Cape of Good Hope, July 22d ult.,
that war was likely to break out between a powerful native chief, by the name of
Chaka (whose territories approach those claimed by the English) and his European
neighbours. Chaka was arivancing, with an army of thiry thousand men, toward the
settlements of the British and their alies, and had defeated one native chief who op-
posed him-killing all, without exception, that fell into his hands. Negotiations were
going forward with this powerful chief; and, in the mean time, every effort was made
to raise a force that might be able to oppose him, if war should ensue.

We observe, with great pleasure, that another corps of emigrants is about to sail for
Liberia

. Many more, it is stated, are desirous to emigrate, than can get away for want of the means to fit out vessels to convey them. Surely our general government ought, by this time, to be satisfied that the colony at Liberia is, on national considerations, deserving of a liberal national patronage.

AMERICA. Buenos AYRES AND BRAZIL.-It appears that peace is fully ratified between these lately belligerent powers. We have not seen the treaty, but understand that neither party has obtained all that it contended for The Banda Oriental, however, will be a separate and independent power. We have little doubt that the war was terminated only because both the contending parties were so exhausted, that they could not continue it longer: And the last accounts represent both as in a state of great stagnation, regard

to any profitable business; and both, also, as suffering grievously from the depreciated paper currency, which was issued to enable them to carry on the war.

Colombia. - The New York Journal of Commerce contains the following article. * We have received Carthagena papers to the 13th of November. They are mostly filled with official documents of no interest. We should not forget to add, however,

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that the celebration of Bolivar's birth-day occupies the principal part of one of them, and that the poet maintains a conspicuous place with his column-long cde.

" There is no longer any doubt as to Santander's fate. His connexion with the late conspiracy, seems to have been proved to the satisfaction of the court before which he was arraigned, and he must, of course, suffer the consequences.

“We have seen a letter, received by the Medina, from a very respectable source, dated Bogota, October 28, which says, that General Santander has been condemned to be executed, and that the president has passed the sentence over to his cabinet for their sanction. This will probably excite a sensation in this country adverse to Bolivar, unless the evidence is made known on which he was convicted: for Santander has, for the past year or two, been a favourite with many in the United States. If it is consistent with the public safety, we hope that Bolivar will generously grant him his par. don, and set him at liberty--it would add an imperishable gem to his character."

MEXICO.-The treaty of amity and commerce, negotiated by Mr. Poinsett, between this republick and the United States, has not, that we can learn, been ratified as yet, by the proper authorities of the former-it was said to be still hanging in suspense before the Senate of the Mexican government. The Mexicans, from their neighbourhood to the United States, are far more jealous of our citizens, and the measures of our government, than any of the other republicks in the Southern part of our Conti. nent. To conciliate them, and yet to preserve our own rights unimpaired, is certainly our best policy; but how to reconcile the two parts of this policy, is a pretty difficult problem.

UNITED STATES.-Congress met, and in both houses a quorum appeared, on the day to which the adjournment of the previous session had been made. The President's message was, in our judgment, one of the best we have ever read-clear, dignified, comprehensive, exhibiting the prosperous state of our country, not only in its finances but in its other various interesis, in a manner fitted to cheer the heart of every real friend to his country—and recognising, in a manner calculated to gratify every Chris. tian, the obligations we are under to the good providence of God, and the demand which it makes of gratitude, on our part, for the distinguished favours of Heaven. We are glad to learn, by every report we have heard from Washington, that the president coniemplates his retirement from office with no apparent regret. We pray that he may go to that retirement under the divine benediction; that it may be peaceful and happy; that it may be spent in still rendering to his country such counsel and services as befit an able statesman in private life; and in those devout exercises which may be bappily preparatory to a state of felicity and honour in a future life, in comparison with which, all the possessions and bonours of the present fleeting scene, are but dust and shadows. With equal sincerity and earnestness, we pray that the president elect may come into office under the smiles, protection, guidance, and blessing, of Him who ruleth over all; that all the predictions of bis enemies may be falsified, and all the anticipations of his friends be realized and exceeded; that he may deserve and possess the confidence and approbation of all partes, in a great republick of enlightened freemen; that his administration may be blessed to promote extensively all the interests of the pelos country, which bis heroic valour has so eminently contributed to defend and honour; and that he may at last receive from the Judge of all, the plaudit, in view of which all human applause is emptiness and vanity"well done good and faithful servant, enter thou into the joy of thy Lord”-Such are the real feelings and prayers of a Christian Advocate, in reference to one that is, and one who, if lite be spared, will shortly be, the chiet'magistrate of a Christian community, enjoying, in an unparalleled degree, the favours of the God of providence and grace,

We are glad to find that the members of Congress, of the opposing parties, seem to have laid aside their former asperities, and to have greeted each other as friends and co-patriots--May such a spirit be truly felt and long continued- The details of congressional proceedings, it would be useless for us to recite. There is, perhaps, not a reader in our country, who takes an interest in political concerns, that does not read a news. paper; and congressional proceedings are favourite articles in all newspapers. We must, however, express an earnest hope, that the petitions may be successful which are going to Congress with numerous signatures, from those whose wishes best deserve regard, that the Sabbath may no longer be desecrated by a national act, in permitting the mail to be carried, and the post offices to be opened, on that holy day; and that the nation may no longer be disgraced by the permission of a traffick in slaves, in the district for which the Congress of the Union immediately legislatt-sMay the year on which we have just entered be distinguished by national righteousness and individual virtue and piety, that, not in empty compliment, but in substantial verity, it may be s happy new year to every American citizen.

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LECTURES ON THE SHORTER CATE-
ORISM OF THE WESTMINSTER AS-

TO YOUTH

face of the ten commandments,

which we have already considered, SEMBLY OF DIVINES—ADDRESSED strongly indicates the positive du

ties of supreme love and gratitude

to our Creator and Redeemer, and LECTURE XIXVIII.

that to worship him, and to obey “The first commandment is him in all that he requires in Thou shalt have no other gods be- his revealed will, is, in the highest fore me."

degree, obligatory on all his rational The first commandment requireth and moral creatures-Hence the us to know, and acknowledge God, propriety of considering, as the to be the only true God, and our framers of our catechism have done, God; and to worship and glorify what is required, and what is forhim accordingly."

bidden, in each commandment. In It may be observed, that all the the first commandment, moreover, a commandments are delivered in the special consideration of the highest form of prohibitions, except the importance is included; and to the fourth and fifth, which would four commandments which immescarcely allow of a negative ex- diately follow the first, reasons are pression. The reason of this no subjoined by the supreme Law doubt is, that prohibitions admit of Giver; all of which have justly reDu exceptions; they oblige, as I ceived the special notice of the auhave heretofore shown, always and thors of this excellent summary of at all times. It is in this form, Christian duty. moreover, that a summary, which In duties themselves there is an the decalogue was intended to be, order, which it is of much imporcan most intelligibly and completely tance to observe. There is scarcely

a greater or more mischievous error, Prohibitions, especially when the than one which has found advosubjects of them are highly impor- cates, even among some who profess tant

, always imply an obligation to a regard to revealed truth; namely, perform certain duties, which are that the principal service which their opposites: and in like man- God requires of us, and which of ner, positive precepts always imply course we need to be much conthe forbidding of those things which cerned about, is the performance of would be a neglect or violation of social duties--the duties of justice the duties required. But in addi- and benevolence to our fellow men. tion to these implications, the pre- Now, that social daties constitute Vol. VII. Ch. Adc.

G

be given.

an indispensable part of all true re- mand teaches us the exclusive ligion, we both admit and inculcate. and absolute supremacy of Jehovah But we maintain that the duties as our God and Redeemer, and the first in rank and importance, are righteous claim which he has to our those which we owe immediately to highest love and unreserved obediGod, our Creator and Redeemer; ence; and these lie at the foundation that as he is infinitely the greatest of the whole law; so that without and best of all beings, if reverence, a cordial reception of these traths, love, service and worship, be due to we shall never render a careful or Him at all, our obligations to these an acceptable obedience to any submust of necessity be higher and sequent precept. more sacred than any other. We Let us now proceed to consider also insist, and we appeal to all ex. in detail the requisitions of the first perience and observation to confirm commandment, as specified in our the position, that our social duties catechism- These may be consithemselves, not only derive their dered under three particulars, the highest sanction from the command first of which is, and authority of God, but are never “To know and acknowledge God 80 carefully and extensively per- to be the only true God." formed, as by those who preserve Belief in the existence and per. on their minds a constant seose of fections of God, is the foundation the presence of the Deity, and of of all religion. Some potion of a their responsibility to him-which is Supreme Being, as heretofore more to be effected only by a holy inter- particularly shown,* is either a dic: course maintained with Him, in the late of nature, or has been a matter acts of his immediate worship. of such universal tradition, that it These observations, although in has been found among the most substance made in a former part of savage and barbarous people. The these lectures, are introduced at possibility, and even the facility, of this time, because they receive the discovering the existence of God by most powerful confirmation by the the light of nature, seems to be disorder in which the precepts of the , tinctly asserted by the apostle

, moral law have been delivered to when he says (Rom. i. 20). "" The us by God himself. The first four invisible things of him from the commands of the decalogue, you creation of the world are clearly will observe, relate to the duty seen, being understood by the things which we owe directly to Him; which are made, even his eternal thus laying the most solid founda- power and Godhead; so that they tion for the six which follow, in re are without excuse." But this, lation to the duties which we owe notwithstanding, a knowledge of to each other. We may even pro. “the true God,

as the apostle in ceed a step farther, and remark that the same place distinctly shows, the first command forms, as it were, a basis to all the rest:* this com

* In order to preserve the connexion

of those principles and facts that must Ridgley's remark on the location of always be conjoined in reasoning, the the first commandment is exceedingly author has thought it right to repeat pertinent and just. He says.--" It is fitly with a little variation in the languages placed before all the other commandments, because it is, from the nature of larged upon, in some of the first let

.

some things which are stated and ch the thing, necessary to our performing tures of his course. It was thought bet the duties which are required in them. ter to do this, than to be constantly waking The object of worship must first be references, which, if made, many would known,

before we can apply ourselves, not regard, and thus would lose the forme in a right manner, to perform any duty of the reasoning. Let this be considered prescribed, whether respecting God of as an apology, made once for all, for the man."

repetitions which may bereafter appear.

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