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Literary and Philosophical Intelligence, etc.
The Level of the Sea.—There is, perhaps, cians of Bologna, and the celebrated French nothing which illustrates in a more strik- naturalist, Reaumur. It was found that its ing manner the exact accordance of Na- brilliancy was in proportion to its freshture's phenomena with the few general ness; but even in a dry state, the phosexpressions or laws which describe them phorescence may be revived by the appliall, than the perfect level of the ocean as cation of fresh or salt water, though brana liquid surface. The sea never rises or dy or ardent spirit of any kind immediatefalls in any place, even one inch, but in ly extinguishes it; and all the acids de. obedience to fixed laws, and these changes stroy it entirely. The luminous water, may generally be foreseen and allowed for. when poured upon fresh calcined gypsum, For instance, the eastern trade winds and rock-crystal, or sugar, becomes more vi. other causes force the water of the ocean vid. Milk rendered luminous by the litowards the African coast, so as to keep quor loses its phosphorescence when mix. the Red Sea about twenty feet above the ed with sulphuric acid, but recovers it on general ocean level; and the Mediterra. the addition of carbonate of potash. A nean Sea is a little below that level, be- single Pholas renders seven ounces of milk cause the evaporation from it is greater so beautifully luminous, that it makes all than the supply of its rivers--causing it to the surrounding objects visible in the dark. receive an additiona} supply by the Strait But, when the milk is excluded from the of Gibraltar; but in all such cases the ef- air, the light is extinguished. Differently fect is as constant as the disturbing cause, coloured substances are powerfully affectand therefore can be calculated upon with ed by this kind of light. "White appears to confidence. Were it not for this perfect imbibe and emit the greatest quantity: exactness, in what a precarious state would yellow and green in less proportions. Red the inhabitants exist on the sea-shores and
will hardly emit any light, and violet the on the banks of low rivers! Few of the in.
least of all, when ihe Pholas is put into habitants of London, perhaps, reflect, when glasses tinged with these several colours. standing close by the side of their poble
Growth of Cotton-Cotton grows in the river, and gazing on the rapid flood-tide pouring inland ihrough the bridges, that
forests of the torrid regions of Africa and although sixty miles from tho sea, they
America, on tall thorny trees, in India on
a lofty shrub, and in Malta and the islands are placed as low as persons sailing upon
of the Archipelago, on
an herbaceous its face, where perhaps at the time there may be tossing waves, covered with wrecks plant." In Guzerat," as related in Forbes' and the drowning. In Holland, which is
Oriental Memoirs, the “rice and cotton a low flat, formed chiefly by the mud and
fields are both planted at the commencesand brought down by the Rhine and neigh former is sown in forrows, and reaped in
ment of the rainy season in June. The bouring rivers, much of the country is really below the level of the common spring which grows to the height of three or four
about three months; the cotton shrub, tides, and is only protected from daily in- feet, and in verdure resembles the currant undations by artificial dykes or ramparts of bush ; requires a longer time to bring its great strength. What awful uncertainty delicate produce to perfection. These would hang over the existence of the shrubs, planted between the rows of rice; Dutch, if the level of the sea were subject neither impede its growth, nor prevent it to change ; for, while we know the water of the ocean to be seventeen miles higher being reaped. Soon after the rice harvest at the equator than at the poles, owing to
is over they put forth a beautiful yellow the centrifugal force of the earth's rota
flower, with a crimson eye in each petal; tion, were the level now established, from
this is succeeded by a green pod, filled with any cause to be suddenly changed but ten
a white stringy pulp; the pod turns brown feet, millions of human beings would be
and hard as it ripens, and then separates the victims.-Scolsman.
into two or three divisions containing the
cotton. A luxuriant field, exhibiting at Light of the Glow-Shell.--The animals which inhabit shells of the genus Pholas, bursting capsule,
and the snowy flakes of
the same time the expanding blossom, the have the property of emitting a phosphor- ripe cotton, is one
of the most beautiful escent liquor which shines with brilliancy, objects in the agriculture of Hindostan. and illuminates whatever it touches. This Herodotus says, the Indians in his time was observed, even by the ancients ; and possessed a kind of plant, which instead of Pliny tells us, that the Pholas shines in
fruit, produced wool, of a finer and better the inouth of the person who eats it, and
quality than that of sheep, of which the narenders the hands and clothes luminous
tives made their clothes. This plant was when brought in contact with them.
no doubt the same as the modern cotton of Many interesting experiments were made India." on this luminous matter by the Academi
Ornithological Ventriloquist.-The cele
brated Monsieur Alexandre, whose powers quantity of gold that was thrown away of ventriloquism have been so much ad. with it. Of late, a person possessed of mired, seems to be outdone in his art by some chemical knowledge, is said to have
an American bird, the yellow-breasted made an handsome livelihood, by instructthe chat (Pipra Polyglotta). When the haunting jewellers, at the rate of five guineas
of this bird is approached, he scolds the in- each, in a method of recovering gold contruder in an endless variety of odd, un tained in the washings. This method concouth monosyllables, difficult to describe, sists simply in adding a solution of coppebut easily imitated so as to deceive the ras, which precipates the gold, and then bird himself
, and draw him onwards to a fusing the residuum with nitre, by which good distance. In this case, his responses the iron in combination is oxydated, and are constant and rapid, strongly expressive the gold left in a pure state. of anxiety and anger; and, while the bird
In boring for water on the island, at the L is always unseen, the voice shifts from
upper end of this village, owned by Mr. place to place among the bushes, as if pro Sewell, a vein of water was struck at the ceeding from a spirit. First are heard depth of 160 feet, which emits an inflamshort notes, like the whistling of a duck's
mable s in large quantities. It is so perwings, beginning loud and rapid, and be- fectly free from the nauseous smell of the coming lower and slower till they end in
oil gas, that its existence was discovered detached potes. Then succeeds something like the barking of young puppies, into the mouth of the well.-Watertown
only by the casual introduction of a light followed by a variety of guttural sounds
Ginger.-A specimen of the growth of hoarser. All these are given with great ve
native ginger, has been left with us by Mr. hemence, and in different keys so as to ap- Raiford, who has raised it successfully for pear sometimes at a great distance, and in
four years past, on common land, and exstantly again quite near you. In mild, se
posed to all the variations of our climate. rene moon-light nights, it continues this That in our office, was planted in February motley medley of ventriloquism the whole
last, is now in full vigour and luxuriance, night long, responding to its own echoes.
and in a few weeks would ripen. From Amer. Ornithology.
several experiments made in its culture on Animal Charcoal.-Some years ago, the
a small scale, it might, it is thought, be
made a profitable article, considering the newspapers gave an account of an estab
demand for it.–Savannah Georgian. lishment at Copenhagen, in which the charcoal made from bones was used with Gas Spring.—The Utica (N.Y.) Sentigreat success in the purification of common
nel gives an account of the discovery of a oils, whilst the gas which was generated
Gas Spring near the Universalist Church served to light a great part of the neigh in that village. It burns with great intenbourhood. An establishment of this kind sity, and affords a brilliant light. Meais being formed at Stockholm. It is said
sures are taken to confine it, with a view of that the most rancid fish oils are made ascertaining its nature more particularly, equal to the finest sperm oil by the use
and exhibit its inflammable properties of this charcoal; and that in consequence
more readily. of the profit resulting from its employment
There is now to be seen at the house, in that way, the gas which the hones give formerly Kirkham's Hotel, Hartford, the out in great abundance can be supplied at head of a sea serpent, fifteen feet in length a much cheaper rate than the gas obtained and seven feet in width, and said to weigh from coals. It is rather singular, that the 1200lbs. It is indeed a curiosity.-Conn. experiment has not been tried in this coun Mirror.
Dyspepsin.—This prevalent, and in many The Paris Journal du Commerce of the
cases, terrible disease, arising from a de18th of October, announces that a young ranged state of the liver, is characterized Frenchroan, M. Caillet, had penetrated to by an inordinate acidity of the stomach, Timbuctoo in Africa, and was soon to be in and until this be subdued, the process of Paris from Toulon, where he had arrived emaciation goes on with a steady pace, on his return. He was addressed to the bidding defiance to all the nostrums and Geographical Society of Paris by the palliatives so plentifully prescribed. French Consol at Tangiers.
Having been a severe sufferer, I feel it a Gold Washings.--Strange as it may ap- duty to others in my case, to communicate pear, it is a fact that till very lately the & simple, safe, and effectual remedy for jewellers were in the constant practice of the morbid and acid state of stomach althrowing away the water into which they luded to. It is nothing more than a strong tip articles of jewellery after they are taken tea of wood soot, drank freely, cold, at out of the boil (a menstruum of nitro-mu the pleasure of the patient. Let the experiatic acid, employed to give them a high riment be fully made, and if others experifinish) without being at all aware of tho ence the same happy result as myself, their
testimony may be given to the publick, In the others the buildings had suffered through the channel of your paper, and severely, most of those which were not prove an extensive benefit to the commu. destroyed presenting fissures from top to nity.-N. Y. Daily Ado.
bottom. The inhabitants bad withdrawn The potato was at first positively pro: bins for a temporary shelter. At Murcia
into the country, and constructed rude ca. scribed in France. Baudin relates, that in his time its use was prohibited in Bur.
three shocks had been felt, and the inhagundy, because it was supposed to gene
bitants were preparing to leave the city. rate leprosy! It was chiefly through the
All this part of Spain is in dismay and de
solation, exertions of the celebrated chymist Parmentier, that the prejudices of the French people against it were removed, and that
LIST OF NEW PUBLICATIONS. it was brought into general use amongst Diplomacy of the United States. them. Yet even as late as the revolution, Domestick Duties; by Mrs. W. Parkes. so little were the vulgar ieconciled to this Leigh's Picture of London. species of food, that on Parmentier be. Examination of the Reasons why the ing proposed for some municipal office, present System of Auctions should be aboone of the voters furiously opposed him, lished. on account of the share he had in their in Rev. Mr. Fuller's Sermon, entitled the troduction. “He will make us eat no " Threshing Instrument." thing but potatoes,” said he, " for it was Arthur Monteith : being a continuation he who invented them."
of the “Scottish Orphans.”
The Mirror; by a Lady. On the 13th, 14th, and 15th, of Septem Second Series « Tales of a Grandfa. ber, powerful shocks of an earthquake ther." were felt in Spain, on the shores of the Second Series of Fairy Legends in the Mediterranean, in the neighbourhood of South of Ireland. Murcia. Guardamar, Terra Vieja, San Garden's Anecdotes of the American Xavier, and especially Terra de la Mata, Revolution, suffered greatly by it. In the latter place Stewart's Journal, 3d edition, with ad. almost all the houses were overthrown. ditions.
NARRATIVE OF THE SICKNESS AND lyn and New York came safely to hand,
and in a state of complete preservation.
But could they have arrived a year ago, SANDWICH ISLANDS.
they might have contributed to the preWe have been permitted to pub- servation of the health of one who, alas! lish the following extract of a letter is now no more, and for whose sake prin
cipally they were doubtless put up. from the Rev. Mr. Bishop, giving as it is, I do feel that it is far more than I an account of the illness and death had ever anticipated, and I am not of his wife, to his friend, the Rev. ashamed to say that it is the most liberal Mr. Sanford, of Brooklyn, New present that I have ever received at the York. Who can read it without I should bave rejoiced to share them, iş the deepest sympathy with the suf
now an angel in heaven, and far beyond ferings of Christian missionaries! the need of earthly luxuries to add to her And yet who is not tempted to envy
health or happiness. their triumphs of Christian faith, to decline, in consequence of nursing
A year ago last April her health began and their expectancy of a crown healthy child without the means of keep: of glory, among the brightest in the ing up her system. It was a time of heavenly state!
drought with us at Hawaii, and vegeta
bles could not be obtained for our tables. Oahu, Sandwich Islands, June 1, 1828. and for three months we were without
Added to this, our supply of four failed, Dear Brother Sanford.--Your truly bread. For myself, I succeeded to keep affectionate epistle of Oct, 17th, was wel along in tolerable health, but that of my comed in April, at the arrival of the rein- dear wife went down, and she became forcement.
invalid. To finish the work which disThe supplies put up for me in Brook. ease had commenced, she undertook out
IE of pure necessity, to nurse two of her sick and new cases have been daily added to
sisters, who were confined at Kailua at the number of those whose desire it is to nearly the same time, in July and August; be saved. so that at the close of their illness, her Thus you see, my brother, how the health was completely ruined and her Lord has turned our mourning into joy,
constitution became a wreck from which and our heaviness into songs of praise. - kishe never recovered.
As for myself, I would not have it other. Early in September she was attacked wise, could I by a word recal her back with dyspepsia in its severest form, and again into this world of pain and sorrow, though every means within our power was I feel confident that He who removed resorted to in order to her restoration, from my children their nearest earthly yet the disease baffled all the efforts of protector, will provide for them a home medicine or change of situation, till finally hereafter. At present I retain my little other disorders setting in she was carried son, now sixteen months old, with me. off. She took her final leave of us on the He has been sick ever since the 1st of 21st of February last, and now rests in peace February last, and for most of the time in the bosom of her Saviour. But she has dangerously. I have given up my time left behind her a sweet savour, whose to attend upon him, so that I have done fragrance smells to heaven. She has be- little else; nor have I done any thing of queathed to us her testimony to the consequence for nearly a year, except worth of religion, and with her dying nurse the sick. I have usually preached voice confirmed the truth of what she once or twice a week, however, though had most faithfully inculcated in her life. that is a small proportion of the amount Her acquaintance in the world was not of a missionary's duty at these islands. I extensive, and ber worth little known, am now on a visit at Oahu, whither I came except by the select few who knew her in April last to meet the brethren of the best, and even those few have never real. mission. I hope to return again soon, and ized the full value of her society until de- spend the summer in travelling over the prived of it. Now they can look back desolate places of Hawaii, and preaching and trace the visible footsteps of her la- salvation to them that sit in darkness. bours of love, and ask, “shall we see her Please to inform Mrs, Cod wise that ber like again!" Now they can bewail the letter to Mrs. B. has been received by breach that her death has made in our me, and merits an answer as soon as time number, with little hope that it can be will permit; she may expect to hear from repaired again. To me she was all that me by the fall ships. There will now be I could desire, lovely and kind as ever no farther need of presents to my Elizayouthful fancy could picture to the mind. beth, but I have two little orphans who She was my only earthly treasure, and have a claim upon the sympathy of Chrismy widowed heart is left desolate and tians in America, and I should be grati. solitary, but not comfortless. The assu- fied to receive ready made articles of rance that her death has proved a lasting clothing, hats, shoes, &c. suitable for chil. spiritual benefit to many who before were dren of both sexes, between the ages of without God and without hope, bids me rejoice and give God thanks for the af. fiction. The circumstances attending I remain, my dear Brother, her death have been instrumental in pro
Yours, in the bonds of the Gospel, moting the most glorious revival of reli
A. BIBHOP. gion of which I was ever a witness. More Rev. J. SANFORD. than 200 persons residing at Kailua, have recently come out on the Lord's side, and taken up their cross for Jesus' sake. Among this number are included almost the whole of her former pupils, who loved Extracted from the Evangelical Church her as a mother, and did every thing in
Journal for Sept. 1, 1827. their power by kind assiduous attentions, Russia.--According to the latest census to soothe the pains of dissolution. They the following appears to be the proporbeard her dying prayers and exhortations, tion of the different religious seets in ber charge to meet her in heaven, and the Russian pire. Christians-Greeks, injunctions 10 holiness of life. They 33,000,000; Roman Catholics, 6,800,000; firmly believed that she had gone to Lutherans, 1,400,000; Armenians, 42,000; glory, and when the funeral solemnities Reformed, 20,000; Moravian Brethren, were past, they all came to Mr. Thurston 9,000; Mennonists, 5,000; total 41,276,000. and me to make the great inquiry, “ what Jews, 500,000; Mahometans, 1,850,000. shall we do to be saved ?" For the last Heathens
Worshippers of Fire, 600,000; three months little else but the subject Lamaits, 300,000; Brahmins, 300. Grand of religion has been the theme of inquiry, total 44,526,300.
3 and 6 years.
A Comparative View of the Number of Haller, 62 cents, which he said he had
Dissenting Congregations in England. found a few days ago, and thought he A statement in the Congregational ought to return to him whose providence Magazine for January, 1828, exhibits the
sent it. After service in the morning! number of churches among the Dissenters presented a paper of which the annexed from the established church in South Bri. is a copy :tain, as follows-Independent, 1203Baptist, 1805—Unitarian, 204—Total, “Lewistown, Pa. Aug. th, 1828. 2212. Of the Scotch Presbyterians no "The persons whose names are under. account had been received, and no esti. written, have expressed their PURPOSE to mate was made.
pay to the Session of the Presbyterian Of Independent Congregations there were Church in Lewistown, on or before the in England
1203 25th day of December in each year, the Wales
209 sums affixed to their names; that the same Scotland
73 may be paid as the yearly contribution of Ireland
25 the Lewistown Congregation to the Board British Isles
4 of Missions of the General Assembly of
the Presbyterian Church in the United Grand total of the United Kingdom 1514 States."
This was subscribed by two of S1 eachi, 60 of 50 cents, and 6 of 25 cents each.
The amount already paid me from the
church in Lewistown, is $21 624. NISSIONS OF THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY
To-day, the 11th of August, I have rode OF THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH. 14 miles to and from East Kishacoquillas
Church, which is under the pastoral care (Continued from page 317.) of the Rev. James H. Stuart; and after
preaching on the delightful subject of To the Executive Committee of the Board congregation gave me their names to be
turning many to righteousness, fifty of his of Missions of the General Assembly.
appended to a form of subscription similar Lewistown, Pa. Aug. 11th, 1828.
to the one dated at Lewistown. The Christian Brethren,- On the 7th and sum of $12 00 was paid me in hand ; and 8th days of the present month, I travelled as some showers of rain prevented a full from Philadelphia to this place. On the attendance of his people, Mr. Stuart re. 9th, in going to and from Meveytown, I tains the paper, to complete the list of rode twenty-two miles; preached to the those who are willing to aid our missionary people of Wayne Church, under the pas operations. ioral care of the Rev. James S. Woods; This evening I have addressed the Sab. was present at the choice of four new el. bath School Teachers belonging to the ders and three deacons; and although Church in Lewistown, and have set be wholly unexpected by the people, yet ob fore them the example of Christ Jesus, tained the names of fifty-seven contribu. the great Sabbath School Teacher; who tors 10 our Missionary Fund, together by bis Spirit, teaches his whole church, with a donation of seventy-five cents, especially on the Lord's day. Yesterday Mr. Woods preached in his Hitherto I cannot but think the Lord Wayne congregation, and received twen. has prospered me as the agent of the ty-five additional names. The catalogue Board; and I feel grateful that I have uniof our patrons in this small and feeble formly met with a kind reception. Par: congregation, which enjoys the labours of ticularly I am indebted in this region of a pastor unly half of his time, consists of country to the Rev. Mr. Woods and one seventy-five contributors of fifty cents of his Elders, Wm. M'Cay, Esq. each, and eight of twenty-five cents each, Yours in gospel bonds, including the Pastor, Elders, Deacons, &c.
Ezra STILES ELY, The whole sum received from the
Cor. Sec. and Gen. Agent. Wayne church, located at Meveytown, commonly called Waynesburg, is $15 The Committee have also received 50.
$15 00 from a few ladies of Landisburgh, Yesterday, the 10th inst. I delivered transmitted by the Rev. Joseph M. Olmthree discourses in the Presbyterian stead to Mr. Nicholas Murray, and by lim Charch at Lewistown; and received as paid to the Board. donations from Edmund B. Patterson, Signed, by order of the Executive ComM.D. 83 00; from Mr. Kersin, a respect.
mittee. able labourer on the canal, 82 00, from
Geo. W. BLIGNT. six others, $2 25, and from Mr. Samuel
Sec. of the Executive Committee.