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A. 348 ; B. 363 fol.; G. 707 fol. ; (H. 579)). Certain mechanical devices may then be resorted to. Take, for instance, the opening line of the Third Book. The sixth foot, since it is never a dactyl, must consist of but two syllables, here, gentem. The fifth foot is regularly a dactyl, here, -vertere. We have now the first four feet to determine. The first foot is plainly a spondee, since the Post in the first syllable is necessarily long, and the a in- quam is long, being followed by m and r (of res). The fourth foot is also a spondee since the -i, the sign of the genitive case in Priami, is long, and by elision there remains but one syllable (-que e-) before the beginning of the fifth foot. This must be, and as a matter of fact is, long. Of the remaining syllables composing the second and third feet, the diphthong - in Asiæ we know is long. The only combination possible then is res Asi-, and -æ Pria-. We thus learn, without consulting a lexicon, that the four vowels in Asi- and Pria- are short. In this way the line may be read without a previous knowledge of root vowels.

The same method may be applied with like success to many other lines."

For an explanation of common terms in Latin prosody often recurring in the Notes of this book, such as Elision, Hiatus, Cæsura, etc., see H. 720 fol.; LM. 1109 fol.; A. 359 fol.; B. 368 fol.; G. 718 fol.; (H. 596 fol.).



The text of Virgil occupies a unique position among the works of Roman writers in that it was transmitted to us by several very ancient manuscripts. These are seven in number, and they date from the fourth and fifth centuries A.D. Three are fragmentary, containing only a few leaves, while the other four are practically complete. All are written in the capital' script, the oldest form of writing employed in Latin manuscripts. One of the most valuable is known as the Schedae Vaticanae. It begins with the third book of the Georgics and extends through the eighth book of the

i Compare Whiton's, Auxilia Vergiliana, Boston, 1892.

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This manuscript is preserved in the Vatican Library. It is written in the rustic capital script,


and dates from the fourth or fifth century A.D. The page given contains 11. 576-598 of Book XII.



Aeneid. It is adorned with interesting miniatures. Of nearly equal value are the more complete Codex Palatinus, and the fragmentary Schedae Rescriptae Veronenses, the Verona palimpsest. Slightly inferior is the Codex Mediceus, preserved in the Laurentian Library of Florence. From a subscriptio, or note appended to the Eclogues, we learn that this manuscript cannot be later than A.D. 494. Of less importance still is the Codex Romanus. Of the seven leading manuscripts, the two remaining are so incomplete that they have little value in determining the text of the poems. They are the Schedae Rescriptae Sangallenses, another palimpsest which has but ten leaves preserved, and the Schedae Berolinenses or Puteanae, which has but seven leaves containing each forty lines. The later manuscripts of Virgil are numerous, thus attesting the popularity of the poet during the Middle Ages. But few of them, however, are worthy of any independent consideration when they vary from the readings of the older capital manuscripts. Ribbeck derives all existing manuscripts of Virgil from one common original called an archetypus,' written with but little regard for calligraphy in the cursive style, and filled with numerous conjectures, glosses, and interpolations.

No Latin author was quoted more extensively than Virgil by ancient scholars and grammarians. Nearly every line may be found somewhere in the works of later Roman writers, cited word for word. These quotations are not always of value in emending the text as we receive it in the manuscripts, for in such citations the memory was relied upon largely, and no need was felt of confirming the reading by reference to a reliable manuscript. We know that Virgil's Aeneid was used as a text book in Roman schools also. An interesting confirmation of this are the scratchings upon the walls of ancient Pompeii of the opening lines of both the first and second books, Arma virumque cano and Conticuere omnes, lessons that the school children were conning on their way to or from school.

Some writers, as Aulus Gellius (second century A.D.), Nonius Marcellus (third century), and Macrobius (fourth century), often

not merely quoted passages from Virgil, but discussed them as well from the standpoint of the textual critic. These discussions are exceedingly interesting, and the emendations thus upheld are sometimes adopted by modern textual critics against the united testimony of the manuscripts. The most important grammarians who commentated on Virgil's poems are M. Valerius Probus (latter part of the first century A.D.), Aelius Donatus (fourth century), and Servius (fourth century), the most famous of the Virgilian commentators.

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The first printed edition of Virgil, the 'editio princeps,' was published in Rome about 1469. The first edition from the Aldine press appeared in 1501, and during the sixteenth century a large number of editions were printed. Not until the seventeenth century, however, do the really critical texts and commentaries appear.

Some of the early editions are those of Ruaeus (1675, with numerous later reprints), Heinsius (1676), Burmann (1746), Heyne (1767-1775), the same revised and edited by Wagner (1830–1841), Lemaire (1819–1822), and Hofmann-Peerlkamp (1843).

Later and recent editions are :

(a) Of the entire works : — F. Dübner, Paris, 1858. 0. Ribbeck, Leipzig, 1859-1868. Later edition of text only

with Mss. readings, 1894-1895. This is the great critical

edition. A. Forbiger, Leipzig, ed. 4, 1872-1875.

. * J. Conington and H. Nettleship, London, 1872-1875. Bell.



1 Books recommended for a High School library are marked with an asterisk. The names of the publishers and the list prices are also added.

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