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471. Remigium: for remiges, “rowers.' Aeneas might need oarsmen, as some of the Trojans had been left in Crete, and others may have perished. socios: the old companions of Aeneas, as opposed to remigium or remiges, those just added to his company. armis : in its usual meaning.

475. dignate : 'deemed worthy of.'
476. bis erepte: see note on II, 642.
477. tibi: see note on II, 274. tellus : see note on en, I, 461.

478. hanc: ‘this,' the nearest shore of Italy, as in l. 396. praeterlabare: sc. ut, after necesse est.

480, 481. Quid ultra Provehor: 'why am I carried too far (in discourse) ?' ultra, i.e. quam opus est.

483. subtemine: a thread of gold wrought into the cloth in figures.

484. nec cedit honori: ‘nor does she fail to show due honor'; lit. 'nor does she yield to the honor due him.' For the form of the chlamys, see Fig. 76.

485. Textilibus : 'woven.' Phrygia was famous for beautiful woven fabrics.

486. et haec: Helenus has made appropriate presents to your friends; I make these also' to you.

487. Sint, testentur: see note on I, 20.

489. Mihi: with super, which has the force of an adjective; sole surviving image to me.'

491. pubesceret: 'would be growing up.'

493. Vivite felices : a parting salutation, like our farewell,' but more impressive, because less frequently used. quibus, etc.: 'whose destined (sua) fortune is already achieved.' alia ex aliis in fata : ‘from one destiny to another’; nothing settled and fixed.

497. Effigiem Xanthi: see note on l. 302.
499. Auspiciis: see note on II, 396. fuerint: future perfect.

obvia : «exposed to

500. Thybridis: an older form for Tiberis, limits vicina. H. 435, 4; LM. 536; A. 218, d; B. 192, 1; G. 359; (H. 391, II, 4).

503. Epiro, Hesperia: "(situated) in Epirus (and) Hesperia'; referring to Rome and Buthrotum.

504. utramque: in apposition with urbes. We will make our kindred cities and nearly related nations both one Troy in spirit.'

505. ea cura: 'this duty. Perhaps Virgil has in mind the friendly relations actually established by Augustus, after the battle of Actium, with the people dwelling in the Chaonian country.

506-587. Aeneas sets out again on his wanderings. He sails as far north as the Ceraunian promontory, and from thence crosses over to the port of Venus (portus Veneris), on the Italian side, in Calabria. After sacrificing, and seeking, according to the directions of Helenus, to propitiate the favor of Juno, they resume their voyage, and pass by the harbor of Tarentum, the promontory of Lacinium, Caulon, Scyllaceum, and then come in sight of the volcano of Aetna, to the shores of which they are driven in seeking to shun the terrors of Scylla and Charybdis. The country about Aetna is inhabited by the giant race of Cyclops. The Trojans pass a night on the shore at the foot of Mount Aetna, and are terrified by the strange noises of the volcano.

506. pelago: 'over the sea,' as in II, 179. Ceraunia: mountains on the coast of Epirus, north of Buthrotum, forming the promontory nearest to Italy. iuxta : follows its case, as in IV, 255.

507. Italiam: see note on I, 2.

508. ruit: sets’; contrary to the signification of the same word in II, 250. opaci: proleptic, belonging in sense to the predicate. Compare Tennyson's imitation :

'And the sun set and all the ways were dark.'

510. Sortiti remos: "after assigning the oars by lot.' They determined by lot what men should be ready to take the oars when the signal was given at midnight to commence the voyage across the gulf. Otherwise there might be disorder and delay.

512. Nox Horis acta: night is conceived of as a goddess riding through the sky in a chariot conducted, like the god of day, by the hours, also personified. Cf. V, 721.

517. Oriona: the first two syllables here form a spondee. See note on 1, 535.

518. cuncta constare: ‘that all is settled.'

519. clarum : ‘loud.' signum: Virgil is thinking of the Roman signal given by a trumpet. Cf. 1. 239. castra: see note on IV, 604.

522. humilem : appearing low because distant in the horizon. In fine weather it is possible to see entirely across the Adriatic from Otranto to Albania.

527. in puppi: he stands near the image of the tutelar god in the stern of the ship.

528. The genitives are governed by potentes. See note on I, 80. 529. vento: an ablative of means. secundi: cf. subitae, I. 225.

530. portus: the harbor intended is probably portus Veneris, about six miles south of Hydruntum, in Calabria. The place, where the temple was located, was Castrum Minervae. patescit: cf. rarescent, l. 411, and note.

531. in arce: 'on a height.' The temple of Minerva, built by Idomeneus, was on a summit, and from a distance appeared to be near the shore. But as they approached, the lower grounds between this height and the water gradually came in sight, and thus the temple seemed to recede (refugere) from the shore.

533. ab Euroo fluctu: '(sheltered) from the eastern wave,' i.e. the harbor, curved like a bow, seems to withdraw away from the waves driven on by the east wind. Cf. 1. 570. Others make ab fluctu the personal agent in a poetical sense of curvatus.

534. cautes: cliffs,' or rocky promontories at each extremity of the harbor. These break the force of the waves, and also conceal the harbor itself (Ipse latet), though they open to the eye (patescunt) of the voyager as he draws near. They are the points of two ridges of towering rocks (turriti scopuli) which run out into the sea, on either side, in two natural walls.

535. gemino — muro: stretch down their arms in two similar walls.' Cf. I, 162.

537. primum omen: 'as the first omen.'

540. Bello: dative, as in II, 315. armenta and Quadrupedes (1. 542): are here varied terms for equi.

541. olim : ‘sometimes.' curru: dative.
542. iugo: 'under the yoke'; an ablative of means or instrument.
543. et: "also’; a token of peace as well as’ of war.

544. quae prima: the temple of Pallas is the first shrine which presents itself on their arrival, and thus the goddess seems to be the first to greet them.

546. Praeceptis: 'according to the instructions.' See 11. 436 sqq. ima: "as the most important.' See note on 1, 419.

549. obvertimus : supply the dative, pelago. Cf. VI, 3. The sail yards are turned by the ropes attached to the cornua. Hence, to turn the cornua is to turn the yards; and this, again, is to turn or give direction to the sails, which must receive the wind from aft and belly toward the front; i.e. in the present case, toward the sea.

550. Graiugenum: see 11. 398 sqq.

551. Hinc: 'then,’ ‘next.' Herculei: one tradition ascribed the founding of Tarentum to Taras, son of Neptune, another to Hercules, and still another to Phalantus, a descendant of Hercules.

552. diva Lacinia : the temple of Iuno Lacinia, one column of which is still standing, was on the promontory of Lacinium in Bruttium, six miles southeast of Croton. contra : 'opposite' to the Tarentine shore.

553. navifragum: on account of frequent gales and the lack of harbors.

554. Tum: 'then,’ after having coasted the southern extremity of Italy, and doubled the Heracleum promontory, they come in sight of Aetna. e fluctu : far off on the sea and rising therefrom.

556. fractas ad litora voces: roar of the breakers on the shore.'

558. haec illa : “this certainly is that Charybdis,' that, namely, which Helenus described to us.

max.

559. canebat: see ll. 420 sqq. 560. Eripite : sc. vos.

561. rudentem : describes the noise made by the water as the prow rushes through.

565. ad Manes: a bold figure to signify down to the very bottom. desedimus : 'we have sunk.' The perfect, used with the present above (tollimur), makes the contrast still more striking. Page compares Psalm cvii. 26:

“They mount up to heaven, they go down again to the depths: their soul is melted because of trouble.'

566. clamorem: 'a resounding echo.' Clamor, voces, and gemitus are all applied here to the noise of waves.

567. elisam : 'dashed forth.' rorantia astra : 'the dripping stars.' The expression is bold, but justified by the appearance of objects at the moment through the spray.

568. reliquit: ‘has left.' This action precedes adlabimur: we float to the shores of the Cyclops, after we have been deserted both by sun and wind.

570, 571. So far as regards the haven itself, it is capacious and safe; but the noises and fires of the neighboring mountain suggest danger. ruinis: *with desolation, referring to the destruction caused by the eruption of stones and ashes.

573. Turbine fumantem, etc. : “smoking with pitchy eddies and with glowing ashes.

576. sub auras: is not high into the air, but simply up into the open air, as opposed to the inner depths of the mountain.

577. glomerat: ‘rolls,' gathers up,' at the mouth of the crater. 579. insuper : cf. I, 61.

580. flammam exspirare, etc.: 'that huge Aetna piled above (him) emits flame from its broken cavities.' caminis : the openings forced (ruptis) by the flames through the sides of the mountain.

582. subtexere: 'overspreads.' The subject is Trinacriam, though we should have expected Aetnam.

583. monstra: 'prodigies’; the noises of the volcano, which the Trojans do not comprehend.

588–654. In the morning the Trojans discover a stranger approaching from the woods. He describes himself as a follower of Ulysses, lately deserted by his companions, who had fled in haste from the island, after es. caping from the cave of the Cyclops, Polyphemus. The cave of Polyphemus and his bloody feasts are described by Achaemenides, the stranger.

588. primo Eco: “at the first dawn.' H. 486; LM. 630; A. 256; B. 230; G. 393; (H. 429).

590. macie: ablative of manner.
591. cultu: refers to his clothing and external appearance.
593. With the nominatives supply erat illi.

594. tegumen: for vestis. cetera : 'as for the rest. Apart from his squalid appearance, the other indications of language, dress, and equipment proved that he was a Greek, and, indeed, he had been engaged in the Trojan

war.

599. testor: equivalent to precor.
600. lumen: for aëra.
601. terras : for ad terras. See note on I, 2.
602. Scio: is by synizesis pronounced as a monosyllable.
605. Spargite me: equivalent to me discerptum spargite.

606. pereo : retains its final vowel before hominum, without shortening it; i.e. this is a case of hiatus. hominum : emphatic; ‘of men’; not by the hands of monsters like Polyphemus.

607. genibus: ablative of place; “prostrating himself (volutans sc. se), at our knees, he clung there.'

608, 609. fari, fateri: for the infinitive, see note on l. 134. deinde: belongs to hortamur understood. It does not always stand at the beginning of its clause. See I, 195. agitet: 'is (now) pursuing him.'

610. multa : cf. I, 465, and note.
611. pignore: the pledge is the giving of the right hand.

614. Nomine: ablative of specification. genitore - Paupere: ‘my father Adamastus being poor,' denotes the reason why Achaemenides had engaged in the Trojan war.

615. fortuna: the poverty to which he was born.

616. crudelia limina: several of his companions had been killed and devoured by the Cyclops, Polyphemus, who had confined the whole party in his cave, until they escaped through the artifice of Ulysses. linquunt: see note on I, 494.

618. sanie dapibusque cruentis: '(the house) of blood and gory feasts.' Ablatives of quality or description. Sanie has no modifying adjective, contrary to usage (H. 473, 2; LM. 643; A. 251; B.224; G. 400 (H. 419, II)), but the influence of cruentis extends to sanie also.

619. Ipse: Polyphemus. See note on I, 40. Sc. est.

621. Nec visu, etc.: no one can endure to behold him or to speak to him. ulli: limits the predicates visu facilis and dictu affabilis. For the supine, see note on I, 111.

629. -ve: see note on II, 602.
630. simul: for simul atque ; "as soon as.'

631. per: denotes extension, and suggests the enormous length of the giant's body.

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