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a'scepter resting vertically on the ground, into the side of the hill; or, as some understand it, against the door of the prison. Note the alliteration 'which marks the ring of the blow on the hollow mountain side' (Page).

82. in latus : a more vigorous construction for in latere. Cf. In puppim below, l. 115. agmine facto: in battle array’; lit. 'a battalion being formed’; a military figure.

83. Qua: 'where,' by whatever way. H. 476; LM. 644; A. 258, 8; B. 218, 9; G. 91, 2,(; (H. 420, 1, 3)). Cf. Milton's Par. Regained, 4, 413: –

Nor slept the winds
Within their stony caves, but rushed abroad
From the four hinges of the world.'

84. Incubuere : “they descended upon. The verb in this sense is fol. lowed by the dative. Cf. II, 514. totum : sc. mare, in the accusative after ruunt, which is transitive here, though intransitive in the foregoing sentence.

87. -que que : see note on l. 18. virum : the Trojans.

92. solvuntur frigore : "are paralyzed with chilling fear. Fear is analo gous to cold in its effect on the blood. Cf. III, 175; XII, 905.

93. duplices : for ambas, 'both’; as in VII, 140; X, 667, and elsewhere.

94. terque quaterque : a climax is usually expressed by “thrice'; but Latin, as well as Greek poets, sometimes add 'four times,' for still greater emphasis.

95. quis: H. 182, footnote 3; LM. 288; A. 104, d; B. 89; G. 105, N. 2; (H. 187, footnote 5).

96. oppetere: sc. mortem, 'to meet death.' gentis: limits fortissime. H. 442; LM. 560; A. 216, a, 2; B. 201, 1; G. 372; (H. 397, 3).

97. Tydide : his contest with Aeneas is described in the Iliad, V, 239–318. Aeneas was saved on this occasion by Venus. occumbere: sc. morti. cam. pis : ablative of place where. H.483; LM. 627; A. 258, f; B. 228; G. 385; (H. 425). See note on Italiam, l. 2.

97, 98. mene — Non potuisse : for the exclamatory infinitive, see note on 1. 37. Trans. : 'That I could not have!'

99. telo iacet : lit. 'lies by the spear ; i.e. “ lies slain by the spear.' Instrumental ablative.

102. iactanti: the dative limits the whole proposition, procella adversa ferit. H. 425, 2; LM. 537; A. 235; B. 188; ,G. 352; (H. 384, II, 1, 2)). • As he utters these words, a blast, roaring from the north, opposite (to the course of the ship), strikes the sail. Aquilone : ‘from the north.'

104. tum prora avertit: sc. sese. et undis Dat latus: the ship, no longer impelled by the oars, falls into the trough of the sea, and is immediately struck by the whole weight of a mountainous wave, breaking upon its side.

105. cumulo: 'in a mass'; join with insequitur as an ablative of manner. 106. Hi: those in one ship; his : those in another. Cf. below, l. 162, hinc - hinc.

107. harenis : ablative of means, 'with the sands'; not of the shore, but of the bottom of the sea.

109. quae in fluctibus : sc. sunt. The rocky islets referred to are possibly the Aegimuri, thirty miles north of Carthage.

110. mari summo: .at the surface of the sea ’; an ablative of place.

111. brevia et syrtes : shoals and sand banks'; not the so-called Syrtes Maior and Minor on the African coast. miserabile: H. 394, 4; A. 189, d; (H. 438, 3). visu : H. 635; LM. 1007; A. 303; B. 340, 2; G. 436; (H. 547).

114. Ipsius: refers to Aeneas. The i in the genitive as in Unius, l. 41. a vertice : for desuper ; 'from above'; from the point to which the wave has risen so as to stand almost vertically to the ship, and to descend .right down' upon the stern. pontus: equivalent to fluctus ; as when we say, *A sea strikes the ship.'

115. In puppim: cf. in latus, 1. 82. excutitur magister : “the helmsman is struck from his seat.' The helmsman, or pilot, of Orontes's ship was Leucaspis. See VI, 334.

116. in caput: 'headlong. illam : the ship, in contrast with the persons on board.

118. rari: 'here and there'; referring to the voyagers seen struggling in the sea, less numerous than the arms, planks, and valuables floating all about per undas. Note the spondees, in strong contrast with the dactyls of the preceding line, which suggest the fierce whirl of the eddy.

121. qua vectus (est) Abas: '(the one) in which Abas sailed.'

122. Vicit : 'has overpowered'; either by driving them away at the mercy of winds and waves, or by casting them on rocks and sands. It does not mean . destroyed,' for all were saved except the ship of Orontes. laxis compagibus : H. 489; LM. 638; A. 255, a; B. 227, 1; G. 409; (H. 431, 4). omnes: Sc. naves.

123. rimis : ablative of manner.

124-156. Neptune hears the storm raging on the sea, and is indignant that Aeolus has sent the winds to invade his dominion. He rises in his chariot to the top of the waves, rebukes and disperses the winds, and rescues the Trojan ships.

124. misceri: 'agitated.' 125. Emissam : 'let loose.'

126. Stagna: the waters near the bottom of the sea are supposed not to be disturbed by ordinary winds; hence, they are called here “standing' or “still waters. These are now “thrown up' (refusa) from the bottom to the surface by the violent agitation of the whole mass of the waters. vadis: the ablative with refusa. graviter commotus : deeply indignant' or 'with deep displeasure,' not 'violently agitated' or 'roused to fury’; it is the stern displeasure of a god, conscious of his supreme power, and calmly exercising his authority to restrain or punish, without any external excitement. Hence placidum caput, in the next verse, is not inconsistent. alto Prospiciens :

“looking forth upon the deep’; alto, the dative for in altum. Cf. pelago, l. 181.

129. caelique ruina: ‘by the destructive force of the air'; lit..by the rushing down of the sky'; referring to the furious descent of the winds. 130. fratrem: Neptune was a son of Saturn, and therefore

brother of Juno. That this storm had been brought about by her stratagems was at once apparent to him.

131. Eurum Zephyrumque: all the winds are implied, although only two are mentioned. dehinc: is scanned as one syllable. H. 733, 3; LM. IIII; A. 337, ( ; B. 367, 1; G. 727; (H. 608, III).

132. generis, etc.: ‘pride of your birth’; referring to the divine origin of the winds as sons of Aurora and Astraeus.

133. Iam: ‘now at length'; i.e. having been presumptuous in other ways, have you now dared to do this?

135. Quos ego - -: for the fig. ure of aposiopesis, see H. 751, I, N. I; A. 386; G. 691; (H. 637,

xi, 3). The remainder of the Fig 3. – Neptune

threat, ‘will chastise,' is left unexpressed because “it is better (now) to allay the excited waves.'

136. Post: adv., 'hereafter.'

139. sorte : the whole kingdom of Saturn was allotted to Jupiter, Neptune, and Pluto; the former receiving heaven, Neptune the water, and Pluto the regions under the earth.

140, 141. aula - regnet: let him display his power (se iactet) in that court, and reign in the close shut prison of the winds.' Carcere is related to regnet, as in l. 52, antro, to imperio premit; i.e. the place in which his



is exercised. Cf. VI, 766. Eurus alone is mentioned by name, though vestras shows that all the winds are addressed.

142. dicto : H. 471, 8; LM. 619; A. 247, b; B. 217, 4; G. 398, R. I; (H. 417, I, N. 5).

144. adnixus : instead of the usual construction in the plural, adnixi, refers both to the Nereid, Cymothoe, and to the sea god, Triton. H. 395; LM. 479; A. 187, b; B. 235, 1; G. 286; (H. 439).

145. scopulo : this is the same as the saxa latentia, above, l. 108. For the case, see H. 462; LM. 601; A. 243, a; B. 214; G. 390; (H. 434, N. I).

146. aperit syrtes : 'opens a way through the sand banks'; the agger harenae mentioned in l. 112.

147. rotis: for curru; ablative of means.

148. Ac veluti, etc.: the poet has in mind such scenes as often transpired in the Roman forum in his own day. saepe : implies quod saepe accidit, “as often happens.' Cf. X, 723.

150. Observe the caesura here in the fourth foot. arma: their fury leads them to seize such arms as stones and firebrands only. No citizen was allowed to carry warlike weapons

Fig. 4. — A Triton (l. 144) within the walls of Rome.

151. pietate gravem ac meritis : ‘revered on account of his moral worth and (public) services.'

155. invectus, etc. : ‘borne along in the cloudless sky.' The perfect participle is used as a present. See H. 640, 1; LM. 1011; A. 290, b; B. 336, 5; G. 282; (H. 550, N. 1).

156. curru: another form (originally an instrumental or locative) for the dat, currui,

157-222. Aeneas, with seven of his ships, lands in a secure haven, not far from the new city of Carthage. Leaving his companions awhile, he ascends the neighboring rocks to obtain a view of the sea, in the hope of descrying the rest of his fleet. He falls in with a herd of deer, and thus secures food for his friends, whom he addresses, on returning, with consoling words.

157. Aeneadae : 'followers of Aeneas,”“the Trojans.' quae — litora : 'the shores which are nearest.' H. 399, 3; A. 200, b; B. 251, 4; G. 616; (H. 445, 9). For the omission of sunt, see note on famulae, 1. 703.

158. Libyae : the country around Carthage was strictly Africa, and Libya was the region between Africa and Egypt; but the poets use geographical terms with great freedom.

159. secessu longo: ‘in a deep recess. It is not likely that Virgil is describing a real scene on the African coast, though some have tried to identify the spot. 159, 160. insula — laterum : 'an island forms a haven by its jutting sides.' Lying along in front of the cove, and against (ob) the sea, it forms a natural breakwater.

160. quibus : the ablative, expressing the means of frangitur and scindit; .by which every wave from the deep is broken, and divides itself into the deep windings of the bay’; i.e. rolls broken, and so with diminished force, into the haven.

162. Hinc atque hinc: ‘on this side and on this'; 'on either side.' gemini: two rocky promontories, forming the opposite extremities or headlands of the cove.

164, 165. tum — umbra: “at the same time a curtain of woods with waving foliage, and a grove dark with roughening shadow overhang from above. The rocky heights which form the sides and inner wall of the haven are crowned all around with dark masses of trees. Virgil applies the term scaena to this landscape, because it resembles the stage of the Roman theater, when prepared for the sports of fauns and satyrs. silvis coruscis: an ablative of quality or description. H. 473, 2; LM. 643; A. 251; B. 221; G. 400; (H. 419, II). Desuper : ‘from above,' in contrast with sub vertice. horrenti: I prefer the literal meaning, ‘rough, bristling.' nemus: is added to scaena by way of epexegesis.

166. Fronte sub adversa: ‘beneath the brow (of the cliffs) opposite'; opposite, namely, to one entering the bay; therefore situated at the inmost point of the bay. scopulis pendentibus : ‘of overhanging rocks. See note on silvis, l. 164.

167. saxo : the ablative as in l. 164.

169. unco morsu : 'with crooked fluke.' An anachronism. In the Homeric period stones were used for anchors.

171. amore : ablative of manner.
173. tabentes: 'drenched.' in litore : see note on regnis, l. 226.

174. silici, etc.: H. 429, 2; LM. 539; A. 229; B. 188, 2, d; G. 345, R. 1; (H. 386, 2). "First Achates struck a spark from the flint, and caught the fire in leaves, and placed dry fuel around (it), and rapidly roused the flame in the dry wood.' Lit. ‘seized the flame in the dry fuel.' succepit: archaic for suscepit.

178. fessi rerum: H. 452, 2; LM. 575; A. 218, c; B. 204, 4; G. 374, N. 6; (H. 399, III, 2). receptas: “recovered '; i.e. from the sea.

179. torrere : 'to roast '; in order to prepare it the better for crushing with the stone.

181. pelago : dative for in pelagus ; to be taken with prospectum, 'a view far seaward.' See above note on l. 126. si quem : in agreement with Anthea ; "(to see) if he can discern any (one, as) Antheus, etc.' Cf. IV, 328. si is here interrogative; H. 649, II, 3; LM. 812; A. 334, f ; B. 300, 3; G. 460, (6); (H. 529, 11, 1).

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