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40. Gaetulae urbes: the Gaetuli dwelt in the country south of Numidia. genus: in apposition with urbes. See note on genus, I, 339.

41. inhospita syrtes: inhospitable on account of the barbarian tribes in its neighborhood.

42. siti : ablative, expressing the cause of deserta.

43. Tyro: ‘from Tyre. The idea of motion from is implied in surgentia. dicam : see note on temperet, II, 8.

44. Germanique minas: added by way of epexegesis, to define more particularly the nature of the war.

45. Iunone : ablative absolute with secunda. As Juno is the guardian of Carthage, if she has favored the coming of the Trojans, it must be for some good to her people.

49. quantis rebus, etc. : 'with what fortune will the Carthaginian glory raise itself!'

50. Tu: both here and in 1..47 is used to impress the advice more forcibly.

54. incensum : '(already) burning.'

55. pudorem: her regard for the memory of Sychaeus led her at first to look upon the love of Aeneas as a violation of duty and as a cause of shame.

56. per aras: “at the altars’; namely, of the gods immediately mentioned.

57. de more: join with mactant. Cf. III, 369. bidentes: bidens, as a victim for sacrifice, usually, though not invariably, means a 'sheep,' i.e. a sheep intended for sacrifice. Sheep two years old have two conspicuous teeth of the permanent set.

58. Legiferae: a Greek title (= Deo mopópos), the lawgiver' as goddess of civilization.

61. inter cornua fundit: “she pours the libation between the horns'; thus consecrating the victim. She is occupied both in propitiating the gods by sacrifice, and in divining the future by inspecting the entrails (inhians exta).

62. pingues : because of the numerous victims sacrificed upon them.

63. Instaurat: celebrates the day with offerings '; renews' the sacrifices throughout the day.

64. Pectoribus : has the final syllable long.
66. Est: from edo ; .consumes.' molles : 'melting,' “tender.'

69–73. qualis — arundo: “such as the hind, struck by an arrow, which unawares a shepherd, hunting with his weapons, in the Cretan woods, has transfixed from afar unwittingly, leaving the winged weapon (in the wound).' liquit: is closely appended by -que to the foregoing proposition, and is equivalent to a present participle.

75. Sidonias opes : Phoenician wealth’; the splendor of her new city. paratam : ‘prepared' to receive Aeneas, and thus to save him from longer trial and delay.

77. eadem convivia : i.e. a repetition of the banquet of yesterday.

80. ubi digressi (sunt) : when they (the guests) have retired. vicissim : 'in her turn'; in contrast with labente die.

82. stratis relictis : 'on the couch left' by Aeneas.

84. Ascanium: he too is absent, but in fancy she caresses him; in the same sense as she hears and sees Aeneas. Conington, however, takes Detinet literally

85. si: .(seeking) whether.' See note on I, 181.
87. bello: dative with parant.
88, 89. minae Murorum ingentes : for muri ingentes et minantes.
89. machina: “derricks,' or cranes.'

90–128. Juno seeks to entrap Venus, and to prevent the founding of the destined Trojan empire in Italy, by proposing to bring about a marriage between Aeneas and Dido, to which Venus, knowing that the fates cannot thus be frustrated, artfully consents.

90. Quam : refers to Dido.
91. famam: i.e. care for fame.

94. numen: subject of est understood; 'your power is great and famous.' Others read nomen, “fame.'

96. adeo: adds force to me ; ‘nor me, at least ’; even if it escapes others. veritam : limits te.

98. quo, etc.: sc. tenditis. What further object have you to accomplish by such a contest? You have already entrapped Dido.

102. Communem : 'in common.'
102, 103. paribus Auspiciis : 'with joint authority.'

104. dotales : ‘as a dowry.' By the Greek and Roman custom, a gift was presented by the bride, or by her father, to the bridegroom. Here Juno takes the place of the parent. tuae dextrae: i.e. to thy protection and control.

105. Olli: see I, 254, and note. Venus meets Juno with still deeper dissimulation.

106. regnum Italiae : “the (destined) kingdom of Italy,' the Roman empire that the fates had decreed. Juno intends, if possible, to detain Aeneas and the Trojans in Carthage, so that Libya, instead of Italy, may be the seat of the great dominion; thus the destined empire would be turned away' or 'diverted' to Africa.

109. factum : “the act’; namely, of uniting the two races.

110. fatis : ablative of cause of incerta feror, not of incerta alone. I am moved with doubt by the fates.' si: interrogative; whether.'

114. excepit : 'replied’; lit. 'took (the discourse) from (her)”; i.e. took it up where she ceased.

117. Venatum : see note on II, 786.

121. alae : applied frequently to the cavalry of a legion; here, to horse. men or mounted huntsmen.

123. nocte: as in 1, 89.
124. Speluncam : see note on I, 2.
125. Adero: as Iuno pronuba she presides over nuptials.
126. Conubio, etc. : cf. I, 73.

128. dolis repertis : ‘in her detection of the stratagem (ablative absolute).' She smiled, for she knew from her late interview with Jupiter (I, 227 sqq.) that the fates would prevent the fulfillment of Juno's design of keeping the Trojans away from Italy.

129-172. Aeneas and Dido, with their attendants, go to hunt among the mountains. Through the contrivance of Juno, they are overtaken by a storm, and both are brought together into the same cave.

131. lato ferro: see note on silvis, I, 164.

132. ruunt: is joined by zeugma with all the nominatives. Efferuntur would have been more proper with retia, plagae, and venabula. odora canum vis: for canes acri odoratu ; 'the keen-scented hounds.'

137. chlamydem: for the accusative with circumdata, see note on exuvias, II, 275. limbo: ablative of description.

138. in aurum: her hair is either bound with a band of gold or by a net of golden threads.

139. fibula : apparently a clasp, fastening the girdle round her waist. Cf. I, 492; and see also note on I, 448.

143-150. Aeneas is compared to Apollo, as (in I, 498–504) is Dido to Diana. 142. agmina iungit: “joins his train' with hers. Cf. II, 267. 143. hibernam: “his winter home.' 146. picti: “tattooed.'

148. Fronde: i.e. the laurel, sacred to Apollo. fingens: his statues rep. resent the hair neatly arranged. auro: a golden diadem.

149. Tela: the arrows in his quiver. Aeneas is as buoyant in movement, and as glorious in his looks, as Apollo.

151. ventum (est): for the tense with postquam, see note on 1, 216. 152. deiectae, etc. : .driven down from the summit of the rock’; cf. X, 707.

154. Transmittunt cursu = transcurrunt. The reflexive se is sometimes omitted with transmittere, as often with traicere.

155. montesque relinquunt = montibus relictis.
158. votis: perhaps better taken as indirect object with dari.
164. amnes: 'torrents’; quickly formed by the rain in hilly regions.

166. Prima: adverbial. In this and the following lines the various parts of a Roman wedding ceremony are represented. The witnesses are Earth and Juno pronuba, both of whom foster marriage rites. The lightning's flash furnish the nuptial torches, and the shrieking of the nymphs is the wedding song (hymenaeus).

167, 168. conscius Conubiis : witness to the nuptials’; referring both to the lightning and the air. For the dative with conscius, see H. 453, 3; LM. 536; A. 234; B. 192; G. 359; (H. 400, I).

170. specie famave: ‘by propriety or report.'

173-195. Fame, a monster whose form and character are described, reports the alliance of Aeneas and Dido to Iarbas, a powerful Gaetulian prince, who is a suitor for the hand of Dido, and from whom she had purchased the right to settle in Africa.

175. Mobilitate - eundo : 'she is refreshed by speed and gains strength by traveling.'

176. primo: adverb. When a rumor first springs up, it is reported with something of doubt and timidity.

178. ira - deorum : 'incited with anger against the gods'; because her offspring, the Titans, had been hurled down to Hades. Deorum is objective genitive.

181. cui: introduces sunt (understood with oculi), and sonant. quot — Tot: for every feather there is an eye, a tongue, and an ear.

184. caeli medio terraeque: for inter caelum et terram. 185. Stridens: refers to the rushing sound of her wings.

somno: ablative of manner.

186. custos: "sentinel’; that she may detect everything. tecti: the private house'; as opposed to turribus, ' palaces,' or 'public buildings.'

188. nuntia: in apposition with illa.
189. tum : 'now'; while Aeneas was at Carthage.

192. Cui viro: to whom as a husband.' dignetur: subjunctive in indirect discourse.

193. hiemem fovere: a bold expression for hiemem inter voluptates transigere. quam longa (sit): ‘as long as (it is)'; i.e. the entire winter. Cf. VIII, 86.

194. Regnorum : the kingdoms of both; that of Dido, as well as the future kingdom of Aeneas.

195. virum - ora: 'the mouths of men.'

196–218. Iarbas calls upon Jupiter, his reputed father, to avenge the insult cast upon him by Dido in rejecting his offers of marriage, and in receiving Aeneas, a mere fugitive from Asia.

201. Excubias aeternas : unceasing sentry'; in apposition with ignem. The fire was keeping, as it were, never-ending vigils in the service of the gods.

202. Pingue: see note on 1. 62. variis : 'changing '; 'ever renewed.' solum, limina : accusatives with sacraverat.

203. animi: an old locative. See note on II, 61. 204. media inter numina : 'in the very presence of the gods’; in the temple.

206. nunc: hitherto the worship of Jupiter has been unknown in this country; it is 1, Iarbas, who have honored Jupiter by establishing it here.

207. Lenaeum honorem : 'the libation of wine.'

209. caeci : 'without aim.' Are the lightnings, after all, not under thy direction?

210. inania murmura: empty mutterings.' miscent refers to the confused' sound of thunder.

212. pretio : see I, 367. 213. leges: for imperium, dominion (over the place).' Others translate, "conditions' under

Fig. 34. — Jupiter Ammon which the land' is held.

(1. 198) 215. Paris: the term is applied to Aeneas in contempt of his nation, as

well as of his present connection with Dido. Iarbas would claim to be another Menelaus.

216. Maeonia: more strictly a Lydian country, but distinguished by the same habits of dress as Phrygia, whose inhabitants wore a peaked cap with lappets passing round the face, and meeting under the chin. In Fig. 35 the lappets are folded up on the temples. madentem: anointing the hair with perfumed oils was also a custom of Asiatic origin.

217. Subnixus : supported.' Potitur : note the shortened form. See note on II, 774.

218. inanem : "empty'; that brings me no Fig. 35. — Phrygian or Trojan real advantage; referring to the general report

Youth (11. 215 sqq.) that Jupiter is all-powerful. 219-278. Jupiter sends down Mercury to reproach Aeneas for his forgetfulness of his destiny and duty in lingering so long at Carthage, and to require him to prepare immediately for his departure.

219. aras tenentem: to be taken literally. Worshipers laid hold upon the altars as if thus to come into close contact with the god.

220. moenia : i.e. of Carthage.
225. Exspectat: 'tarries'; intransitive.

228. ideo: ‘for such a purpose ʼ; namely, as that of dwelling at Carthage. bis : Aeneas was rescued by his mother from Diomed (see note on 1, 97),

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