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and again when in danger of perishing in the sack of Troy. See II, 632, 633. vindicat: the present tense implies ‘has saved and is still saving.'

229. fore: sc. ilium. The infinitive depends on Promisit. gravidam imperiis : ‘teeming with empire'; referring to the future power of Rome.

230. qui regeret: H. 591; LM. 836; A. 320; B. 283; G. 631, 1; (H.

503, 1).



231. Proderet: ‘should propagate.' mitteret: Aeneas was destined to subjugate the world through his descendants, the Romans.

232. accendit: sc. eum.
233. ipse: in contrast with Ascanius.

234. pater: if the father has no high ambitions,
he should not grudge his son.
235. spe: is not elided before inimica.

Such a hiatus occurs often in the thesis of a foot.

237. hic — esto: “let this be our message.'
242. virgam : the caduceus, or wand.'

244. morte — resignat: “unseals the eyes (of the deceased) at death.' He unseals the eyes of the dead

before conducting them to Hades. Fig. 36. — Mercury (11. 238 sqq.)

245. Illa fretus: depending on this.'

248. Atlantis, etc.: 'even Atlas, whose pinebearing head,' etc. cui: dative of reference nearly equivalent to the genitive of possession. H. 425, 4, N.; LM. 538; A. 235, a ; B. 188, 1, N.; G. 350, 1; (H. 384, 4, n. 2). "Pine-bearing' is a frequent appellative of mountains.

250. mento: ablative, ‘from his chin.'

252. nitens: “poising himself. Mercury first rests on Mount Atlas, and then darts down to the place of his destination.

253. toto corpore: with his whole weight ’; allowing the weight of his body to have its full effect, without any resistance from the wings.

254. avi: some bird of the kind that feeds on fish, and darts down to the water, when it has caught sight of its prey.

257. ad : governs litus. Cf. note on 1, 13. secabat: has the same termination as volabat in the foregoing verse. Such oιμοιoτέλευτα, Or verses with like endings, though perhaps accidental, are occasionally met with in Virgil. See I, 625, 626; III, 656, 657; V, 385, 386; VI, 843, 844.

259. tetigit: for the tense, see note on I, 216. magalia: see note on 1,421. 260. tecta novantem = nova tecta aedificantem.

264. discreverat: she had interwoven between the long threads of the cloth (telas) cross threads of gold. The cloak was woven, therefore, by Dido herself, in accordance with primitive customs.

265. Karthaginis: art thou, Aeneas, laying the foundations of mighty Carthage, Carthage, the city of that Juno, who seeks your destruction?



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268. tibi: for ad te.
271. teris otia : dost thou squander idle hours?'
274. Iuli: see note on I, 267.
276. Debentur: they are due' or 'destined' to him by fate.

277. Mortales visus: “human vision’; here referring only to Aeneas. medio sermone : in the midst of his words'; when he had scarcely ceased to speak, and without waiting for an answer.

279–295. Aeneas calls his captains together in secret, and orders them quietly to get everything in readiness for the voyage.

283. agat, etc.: dubitative subjunctive; "what can he do,' etc. See note on I, 565.

ambire: approach'; for the purpose of conciliating her. The word is used regularly of those who canvass for votes.

286. In partes rapit varias: 'speeds (his thoughts) along different paths’; i.e. thinks rapidly of various expedients. Cf. Tennyson, Passing of Arthur, 228:

"This way and that dividing the swift mind.' 287. Haec: with sententia. 288. vocat: his plan is explained by what he does.

289-291. aptent, cogant, parent, and Dissimulent: subjunctive in indirect discourse after an idea of commanding implied in vocat.

These words would be expressed in the imperative in direct discourse.

290. Arma parent: they must arm themselves that they may be ready to resist any attempt to prevent their departure. See below, ll. 592 sqq. rebus novandis : ‘for forming new plans.'

292. Nesciat, speret: see note on dignetur, l. 192. rumpi: the present, because the matter is already in progress.

293. Temptaturum (esse): the construction passes over into indirect discourse, depending on dicens or putans implied. aditus: ‘the approaches ’; the

ways of addressing her so as to give the least offense. Sc. sint with Tempora, and sit with modus.

294. rebus : is in the dative with dexter ; 'adapted to circumstances.' omnes: the Trojan chiefs.

296–449. Dido becomes aware of the secret preparation of the Trojans, and bitterly reproaching Aeneas, still begs him, with entreaties, and by repeated messages, conveyed by Anna, to change his purpose, or at least to postpone his departure.

297. prima excepit: “the first to detect.'

298. Omnia — timens: 'fearing all things (even while) secure.' Eadem : “the same' that had already roused Iarbas. impia: “fell.' furenti: is proleptic. The report rendered her furious.

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300. inops animi: cf. 1. 203 and II, 61.

301. commotis sacris: when the vessels and symbols are brought forth from the temple.

302. audito Baccho: 'when Bacchus is heard'; i.e. when the cry, lo! Bacche, is heard, announcing the Bacchanalian rites.

303. Orgia: subject of stimulant.

305. Dissimulare — sperasti: ‘didst thou hope also to conceal?' Not only has he resolved to leave her, which she regards as an outrage, but he expected to conceal his departure.

307. data dextera: the right hand given in mutual pledge of love.

308. moritura: 'destined to die.' He must know that neither her honor nor her disappointed love will suffer her to live if he departs.

309. moliris : for paras. Cf. III, 6.

310. aquilonibus : ablative of time; “at the time of the stormy winds”; in the wintry season.'

314. Mene fugis ? “is it I whom you flee?' Per: for the separation of this preposition from its case in adjurations, see H. 676, 2; G. 413, N. 2; (H. 569, II, 3). dextram: cf. l. 307.

316. conubia: their secret union, as opposed to hymenaeos, the formal marriage. inceptos: the formal marriage had not yet taken place, but Dido understands that a private betrothal, or the beginning' of the nuptials, has been made.

317. quicquam meum: "anything in me.'

318. domus labentis: 'my house (or family) falling (i.e. ruined, if you now desert me).'

320. Nomadum: for Numidarum.

321. infensi Tyrii: nothing was more natural than that her Carthaginian or Tyrian nobles should be jealous of Aeneas and the newcomers.

322. qua — adibam : by which alone I was approaching immortality.' Sidera adire = 'to win immortality.' Cf. III, 462.

323. moribundam: see note on 1. 308.

324. Hoc nomen, etc.: since I am permitted now to call thee only stranger, instead of husband.

325. Quid moror ? i.e. to die. an: is it then?'

326. Destruat: H. 603, II, 2; LM. 921; A. 328; B. 293, III, 2; G. 572. (H. 519, 2).

327. suscepta fuisset: among the Greeks and Romans it 'was the custom for the father of the new-born infant to lift it up (suscipere or tollere) in his arms, in token of his intention to protect and rear it; hence, suscipi in a secondary sense, “to be born.' Suscipio is used here in the same sense with reference to the mother.

329. tamen: “after all.'

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330. capta : 'captured,' either by Iarbas, or some other enemy.

332. obnixus : struggling' against his emotions. The perfect participle for the present. Cf. I, 155.

333. plurima : trans. in the antecedent clause, as in 1, 419; 'never will I deny that thou hast done me very many favors (lit. deserved of me), which thou canst mention ( fando Enumerare)”; i.e. no matter how many claims you may make to my gratitude, I own them all.

337. Pro re: ‘for (in defense of) my conduct.'

339. Praetendi, etc.: 'I have never carried before thee (i.e. caused to be carried before thee in bridal procession) the (marriage) torches of a husband'; with the accessory idea of ‘make pretense of a marriage.' aut: see note on II, 602. foedera: marriage .contracts.'

340, 341. meis Auspiciis : 'under my own direction’; at my own will. componere curas: “to end my toils. 342, 343. dulces Reliquias: “the dear remnant.'

colerem : 'I should cherish’; should be now cherishing in my own native land.

344. posuissem, etc.: 'I should have built for the conquered with my own hand a new-created Troy.'

346. Lyciae sortes : 'Lycian oracles’; so called from the Lycian oracle of Apollo at Patara. Cf. 1. 143.

347. Hic amor: “this is my love'; this destined Italy is the land which I must love as my own.

349, 350. Quae Invidia est (tibi)? etc.; "what cause of jealousy is it that the Trojans settle?' etc. Et nos, etc. : it is right for us also (as well as you).'

353. turbida imago : the countenance of his father, seen in his dreams, seems to be troubled, and to reproach him for dallying in Carthage. See

Cf. I, 30.

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VI, 696.


357. Testor utrumque caput: i.e. both thine and mine.
362. iam dudum : 'long before ' he had finished.
363. totum : "his whole person’; from head to foot.

364. Luminibus tacitis : with silent glances.' Join sic with accensa : being thus enraged. profatur: historical present.

366. cautibus: construed with horrens; rough with jagged rocks.' 367. admorunt ubera : 'gave thee suck.'

368. Nam quid, etc.: 'why do I conceal my indignation ? For what greater wrongs (ad quae maiora) do I reserve myself ?'

369. fletu : ablative of cause. The third person of the verb, ingemuit, indicates that, in her scorn and distraction, she does not address Aeneas directly.

371. Quae quibus anteferam: “to what (emotion) shall I first give utterance?' lit. "what shall I say before what?'

373. Nusquam tuta fides: if Aeneas has violated his faith, nowhere in the world can man be trusted. litore : ablative of place where.


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374. Excepi : not accepi, as if he had come of his own accord to Carthage.

376. incensa feror : cf. I. 110. Nunc: 'now'; when it suits your convenience.

379. Scilicet: in bitter irony. is labor, ea cura : see note on II, 171. The fortunes of Aeneas, forsooth, are the occasion of labor and anxiety to the gods in their tranquillity.

382. pia: cf. II, 536. quid possunt: ‘have any power'; quid is a kind of cognate accusative used with an adverbial force. Cf. note on I, 465.

383. hausurum : 'that you will suffer’; drain to the bottom, take in the whole, suffer all extremes; te would be expressed in prose. Dido: accusative, object of vocaturum.

384. atris ignibus : 'with smoky fires’; suggested by the idea of the Furies, who pursue the guilty with flaming and smoking torches. The sense of the pas. sage is: as long as I live I shall, though absent, be present to your conscience, like a Fury; and when I am dead, my ghost shall haunt you everywhere.

387. Manes: for Hades.

388. medium sermonem : see note on l. 277. auras : for lucem, the light of day.'

390. multa: adverbial. See note on I, 465. metu : “through fear' that if he says anything more in his own defense he will but increase her anger.

392. thalamo: dative for in thalamum. H. 419, 4; LM. 540; A. 258, 2, N. 1; B. 193; G. 358, N. 2; (H. 380, 4). Cf. V,451. stratis : ablative of place.

397, 398. litore Deducunt: ‘draw down (the ships) from the shore '; i.e. launch. Cf. III, 71.

399. Frondentes: in their haste the Trojans bring branches from the woods with the leaves still on, and timber unhewn, for forming oars, yards, benches, etc.

401. cernas: the second person singular of the imperfect subjunctive is the usual form in prose for expressing the indefinite ‘one might,' “could,' etc.; H. 552, 555; LM. 720; A. 311, ?, N. 1; B. 280, 3; G. 258; (H. 485, N. 1); but the present here is more lively.

404, 405. It — Convectant: both agree with agmen. See note on II, 31.

406. Obnixae: for the construction, see H. 397; LM. 477; A. 187, d; B. 235, B, 2, c; G. 211, Exc. (a); (H. 438, 6). agmina cogunt: 'muster ranks.'

407. moras : = morantes.

409. fervere: ‘is aglow ’; animated with the stir of the multitude hasten. ing their departure.

412. quid cogis : see note on III, 56.
413. Ire in lacrimas: “to resort to tears'; i.e. to tearful entreaties.
414. animos : ‘her proud spirit.'

415. frustra moritura: she would die in vain if it should after all be true that Aeneas may be won back.

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