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418. imposuere coronas: in token of joy at their departure.

419, 420. si — potero: “if (= since) I could have expected so great a sorrow, I shall also prove able to endure it.' It is what I ought to be expected to sustain, inasmuch as it was easy to foresee that it would come. tamen : ‘yet,' though I express this hope of bearing up under the trial.

422. colere, credere : historical infinitives.

423. molles aditus et tempora: hendiadys for tempora viri molliter ade. undi.

424. hostem superbum : 'the haughty foe,' once a friend, now, like a disdainful enemy, unmoved by prayers.

426. Aulide : see note on II, 116. -ve: see note on II, 602.
428. Cur = ut ea re : so that.'
430. ventos ferentes : cf. III, 473.

433. Tempus inane: ‘mere time’; i.e. a brief period “free from the love and passion of the former period. spatium : ‘respite’; opportunity for my grief to subside.

434. dolere : “to endure grief.' 435. oro: sc. te.

436. Quam — remittam: “and when you shall have granted it to me, I will repay (it) generously (cumulatam, lit. heaped up) at my death.' morte : an ablative of time, as below, 502, and III, 333; or possibly ablative of

No interpretation this much-disputed passage is thoroughly satisfactory.

438. Fertque refertque: “both bears, and bears again (to Aeneas). Cf. V, 709; XII, 866.

440. placidas: he is disposed to give a kindly hearing, but duty forbids.

443. it stridor : “the rush (of winds) resounds.' altae : proleptic, taken closely with consterniunt, deeply strew.'

445, 446. Cf. the similar expression in Dryden, Eleonora, 93, 94: —


And lofty cedars as far upward shoot
As to the nether heavens they drive the root.'

448. Tunditur: 'is assailed.'

449. Mens: the resolution of Aeneas. lacrimae: the tears of Dido and Anna.

450. fatis exterrita : rendered frantic by her destiny,' now fully confronting her.

452, 453. Quo magis peragat - Vidit: “that she may the more readily accomplish her design, she saw,' etc. The sequence of tenses is irregular. The subjunctive here with quo denotes the destination or purpose of some higher power; as if she were made to see these signs, that she might thus be led on to her fate.

455. obscenum : ‘ill boding. Cf. III, 262. 456. visum: used substantively; "appearance.'

457. in tectis : within her palace.' In the open court of the palace there was a memorial temple dedicated to the Manes of Sychaeus, Dido's coniunx antiquus. 459. Velleribus niveis: 'with snowy woolen bands (fillets).'

See note on I, 417

462. bubo: feminine only in Virgil. It was a bird of ill omen, and whenever it appeared in Rome an expiatory sacrifice was made. culminibus : ‘on the (palace) roofs.' Tennyson is indebted to Virgil, in Lancelot and Elaine, in the following lines (992 sqq.) :

Death like a friend's voice from a distant field
Approaching through the darkness, called; the owls
Wailing had power upon her.'

464. piorum : "holy.'

467, 468. semper — terra: an impressive foreshadowing of death. viam: H. 409; LM. 504; A. 238; B. 176, 4; G. 333, 2; (H. 371, II).

469-473. Her mind is filled with diseased fancies; she is like Pentheus, who was driven mad by the Furies (the Eumenides, or Dirae) because he opposed the introduction of the Bacchanalian rites into his kingdom of Thebes; or, like Orestes, also represented on the stage (scaenis) as pursued (agitatus) by the Furies. In the Bacchae of Euripides, l. 918, which Virgil may have in mind, Pentheus says, “I seem to see two suns, and Thebes, and the seven-gated city double.' In the Eumenides of Aeschylus, Orestes, fleeing from the avenging shade of Clytemnestra, and from the Furies (cf. III, 331), seeks refuge in the temple of Apollo at Delphi. The Furies follow to the door of the sanctuary, which they are afraid to invade, and therefore sit, guarding the entrance (sedent in limine Dirae).

474-552. Dido makes preparation for her suicide by causing a funeral pyre to be erected in the court of the palace, ostensibly for the purpose of burning an image of Aeneas, and the arms and clothing left by him; which ceremony, she assures Anna, will magically work the cure of her love for Aeneas, or else restore him to her affections. A sorceress from the Hesperides has given her instructions to perform the ceremony, with the promise of such a result; and Dido causes Anna to believe that she intends nothing more than to go through with these magic rites. In the night, when by herself, she gives utterance to her bitter anguish.

475. secum: 'with herself (alone)'; without the knowledge of Anna, or any confidant. modum: the mode of accomplishing her death.

Cf. 1, 209.

476. Exigit: “plans '; •determines.' The deceptive conversation with her sister, which immediately follows, is a part of the plan.

477. spem — serenat: 'shows calm hope in her countenance.'

479. It was a common superstition that incantations had power to bind or Telease lovers.

482. aptum: lit. 'fitted with,' i.e. óstudded with.' 483. Massylae : i.e. Libyan.

484. Hesperidum templi: the temple' or 'sacred inclosure' of the Hesperides is the fabulous garden where the golden apples were guarded by the dragon. epulasque: the connective -que joins custos and the antecedent of the relative clause, Quae dabat, “the keeper and the one who. servabat: the priestess preserved the fruit by keeping the dragon watchful.

486. Spargens, etc.: sprinkling liquid honey’; i.e. on the food. soporiferum : has no reference here to the present action, but is used as the general appellative of papaver.

487. carminibus: by her incantations'; magical rites accompanied by forms of words in verse.

488. curas: ‘pangs of love.'

490. videbis: is applied to mugire, because visible motion as well as sound is conceived of in the quaking of the earth.

493. invitam: the apology is rendered necessary by Roman rather than by Carthaginian manners; for magic rites were not reputable at Rome. accingier: sc. me; "that I have recourse to’; lit. 'gird myself.' For the archaic infinitive in -ier, see H. 244, 6; LM. 389; A. 128, 1, 4; B. 116, 4, a; G. 130, 6; (H. 240, 6). For the accusative artes, used with accingier, which has a middle force, see note on exuvias, II, 275, and cf. II, 383.

494. secreta : “unobserved.' tecto interiore: 'in the interior (court) of the palace. sub auras: “heavenward'; i.e. in the open air.

496. exuvias : relics.'
498. iuvat, etc. : 'it pleases (me), and the priestess (so) directs.'

500. tamen: though the deadly paleness that suddenly overspreads the countenance of Dido might have excited suspicion, yet Anna does not believe that her sister is contriving her death under the pretext of sacred rites.

501, 502. nec mente Concipit: “nor does she imagine.'

502, aut: see note on II, 602. morte: an ablative of time. She apprehends nothing more serious than such funeral rites as were performed at the death of Sychaeus.

504. penetrali in sede: 'in the secluded court '; namely, the tectum interius mentioned in l. 494.

505. taedis - secta: join with ingenti.
506. Intendit - sertis : for intendit loco serta.
507. super: adverbial, .above,' on the couch.

508. Effigiem: an image of wax, which, as it melted in the fire, was supposed to betoken either the softening and yielding of the estranged lover, or else his wasting away and death. futuri: ‘of what is to come '; i.e. of her approaching death.

509. sacerdos: the sorceress mentioned in l. 483.

510. Ter centum : = trecentos ; for a large and indefinite number. tonat ore: she utters aloud'the names of three hundred gods. Cf. VIII, 716. Chaos: is sometimes applied to the infernal regions, as denoting immeasurable void space, and here personified as an infernal god.

511. Tergeminam Hecaten: 'triple-formed Hecate. Compare also the following words, tria ora Dianae, ' Diana of three faces, since the goddess was worshiped as Luna in heaven, Diana on earth, and Hecate in Hades. See Fig. 52.

512. simulatos, etc.: ‘feigned waters of the Avernian lake?; common water being used instead of the genuine water of the Avernus.

513.' messae quaeruntur : ‘are sought and cut.' aënis : bronze was more potent in magic than iron.

514. lacte: ‘juice.'

515, 516. Quaeritur praereptus amor: "and search is made for the love charm, torn from the forehead of the colt just foaled, and snatched away beforehand from the mother.' amor: 'love charm,' is put for the hippomanes. or excrescence on the forehead of the new-foaled colt, which the dam was supposed instantly to seize and swallow, unless anticipated.

517. Ipsa : Dido. piis: ‘pure.' Before making a sacrifice the hands are washed in running water.

519. Testatur deos: she calls upon the gods to witness and avenge her wrongs.

519, 520. conscia fati Sidera: the stars look down upon the destinies of


520. non aequo foedere : ‘not on equal terms '; i.e. with unrequited love.

521. Curae: dative of purpose or end; lit. * (has) for a care’; i.e. has under his protection.

526, 527. Quaeque — quaeque: both water fowl and land birds. 527. somno: ablative. positae : lulled.'

528. From the fact that this line occurs elsewhere (IX, 225) with a slight change, and is not given by all the manuscripts, it is believed to be an interpolation.

529. At, etc.: ‘but not thus did Dido (soothe her woes).' animi: see note on II, 61. Compare Tennyson's imitation (The Marriage of Geraint, 1. 531):

'She found no rest, and ever failed to draw
The quiet night into her blood.'


531. ingeminant curae: 'her griefs redouble.'
532. aestu: cf. VIII, 19.
533. Sic adeo insistit : .so therefore she begins.' Cf. XII, 47.

534. quid ago ? 'what shall I do?' The present as in II, 322. join with experiar. inrisa : ‘set at naught'; namely, by Aeneas.

536. sim dedignata, etc.: H. 593, 2; LM. 839; A. 320, e; B. 283, 3, b; G. 634; (H. 515, III) Óthough I have so often already scorned them as suitors.

537. igitur: supposes that the answer 'no' has been given to the foregoing question. ultima Iussa : 'the most debasing commands'; putting myself under their power as the humblest slave.

538. quiane iuvat, etc.: sc. eos ; “because (forsooth) it is a pleasure to them to have been formerly relieved by my aid.'

539. bene : join with memores.

540. fac velle: suppose (me) to be willing. Quis sinet: who (of them) will suffer me?'

542. Laomedonteae: used reproachfully, as in III, 248, with reference to the falsehood of Laomedon toward Apollo and Neptune, and afterward to Hercules, a character which his descendants are supposed to have derived from him.

543. ovantes: as taking away the Carthaginian queen in triumph, and also rejoicing to start on the voyage.

544. stipata : see note on comitatus, I, 312.
545. Inferar: shall I attack them?' lit. “ be carried against them.'
546. pelago : ablative; on the sea.'
547. Quin morere: 'nay, die’; the imperative, addressed to herself.

548. She accuses, in the excess of her grief, her absent sister, recalling the first conversation between Anna and herself about Aeneas (see 11. 9-55).

550. Non licuit (mihi)! may be rendered interrogatively: "might I not have?'

551. more ferae : i.e. in solitude.

554-584. A youthful form, like that of Mercury, appears to Aeneas in his sleep, and warns him instantly to depart. The Trojans immediately set sail.

554. certus eundi: resolved on departure. Here the genitive of the gerund is used, and in l. 564, the infinitive, with certus.

556. Vultu redeuntis eodem : the vision appears with the same counteDance' as of the god himself when delivering the message in 11. 265 sqq.

558. Omnia : the Greek accusative. This line is hypermetrical, the final que being elided before the initial Et of the next line. Cf. note on I, 332.

561. quae — pericula : "what dangers immediately await you?' deinde, as in VI, 756, 890, of the time immediately coming.

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