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182. biremes : for ships' in general.

183. arma: perhaps the shields were fastened on the stern and sides of the ship, as was the custom in the Middle Ages.

185. armenta : the plural is designed merely to indicate a large number.

190. Cornibus arboreis: join with alta. vulgus : 'the herd,' as opposed to ductores.

193. fundat et aequet: the subjunctive implies that he did not intend to cease from the chase before he had killed the seven. H. 605, I; LM. 878; A. 327; B. 292; G. 577; (H. 520, I, 2). humi: H. 484, 2; LM. 621; A. 258, d; B. 232, 2; G. 411, R. 2; (H. 426, 2).

194. Hinc: 'thereupon.'

195. deinde: usually a dissyllable in poetry. In prose the order would be, deinde vina quae bonus Acestes heros, etc. Cf. III, 609; and the position of quippe, l. 59. cadis : dative for the prosaic construction, quibus cados onerarat. Cf. VIII, 180. Acestes, the son of a Trojan woman named Segesta, dwelt in the western part of Sicily, and had hospitably entertained Aeneas and his followers there during the winter just passed.

196. Litore: ablative of place. abeuntibus : namely, at the commencement of their present voyage, as described above, 1. 34.

198. enim: gives the ground of some proposition understood, as nil desperandum. ante malorum : ‘of former evils'; equivalent to praeteritorum malorum. See note on l. 21.

200. Scyllaeam-experti: see III, 554. Adjectives derived from proper names are often substituted for the genitive case; as, Hectoreum corpus, II, 543; Herculeo amictu, VII, 669.

201. Accestis : for accessistis. H. 238, 3; LM. 383; A. 128, b; B. 116, 4, c; G. 131, 4, 6, 1; (H. 235, 3).

203. et haec: 'these sufferings also'; these we now endure, as well as those I have just mentioned.

204. discrimina rerum : ‘perils of fortune.'

205. fata - Ostendunt: the fates have been revealed to Aeneas by the ghost of Hector, II, 295; and by that of Creusa, II, 781; by the oracle at Delos, III, 94; by the vision of the Penates, III, 163; by the prophecy of Cassandra, III, 183; by that of the harpy Celaeno, III, 253; and by that of Helenus, III, 374.

205. illic — Troiae : “there it is the will of the gods for the realms of Troy to rise again.

209. Observe the emphasis given to spem vultu and corde dolorem, both by their position in the verse and by the reversed order of the words (chiasmus).

211. costis : denotes here the carcases, and viscera the fleshy parts, or all within the hide. Cf. VIII, 180.

212. Pars: as a collective noun, is followed here by a verb in the plr

H. 389, 1; LM. 477; A. 205, C; B. 254, 4, 6; G. 211, Ex. a; (H. 461, 1). veribus : 'on spits.' See note on regnis, l. 226, and cf. III, 287. trementia : still quivering.'

213. aëna : 'bronze vessels.' The water was heated, says Servius, not for cooking any portion of the flesh, for boiling was not then practiced, but for washing the hands. Perhaps, however, the poet had in mind, as he has frequently, the customs of his own times.

215. Implentur : with the force of the middle voice, “they fill themselves.' Bacchi: is put for wine as above, 1. 177, Ceres for wheat. So frequently Vulcan for fire, Jupiter for the sky, etc. For the genitive, see H. 458, 2; LM. 594; A. 223; B. 212, 1; G. 383; (H. 410, V, 1).

216. Postquam: H. 538, 3; LM. 881; A. 324; B. 287, 1; G. 561; (H. 471, 4).

mensae remotae : 'the viands were removed'; lit. 'the tables.' 217. Amissos — requirunt: “they mourn in continued conversation their missing friends. Requirunt here very nearly = desiderant, regret.'

218. credant: depends on dubii. seu, Sive: are used by poetic license for utrum and an, 'whether — or.' See note on si, I. 181.

219. extrema: “the final (doom)'; i.e. death. vocatos: 'when called.' Perhaps Virgil alludes to the custom of pronouncing the word vale over the body of the dead at the moment of death, and also at the funeral pyre, when the body had been burned. See note on II, 644.

220. pius : ‘loyal to duty.' “ His (Aeneas's) distinguishing epithet (pius) suggests not one heroic quality merely, but the character of a son who loves his father, of the king who loves his subjects, of the worshiper who reverences the gods” (Nettleship, Lectures and Essays, p. 104). See note to l. 10.

223–305. A scene in Olympus. Venus comes to Jupiter while he is contemplating the affairs of men, and with tears complains of the hardships of Aeneas, who is debarred through the anger of Juno from his destined home in Italy, in spite of his piety, and the fates, and the promises of Jupiter, while Antenor, another Trojan prince, has been permitted already to find a restingplace on the shores of the Adriatic. Jupiter consoles her by reaffirming the promise that she shall hereafter receive her son into Olympus, and that his descendants in Italy, the Romans, shall rule the world. Mercury is then sent down to Carthage, in order to exercise a secret influence on Queen Dido and the Carthaginians, that they may be prepared to give the Trojans a friendly reception.

223. finis: 'an end’; i.e. of their mournful conversation. aethere summo: “from the summit of the sky,' i.e. from Olympus,

224. Despiciens: looking down upon.' velivolum : 'sailwinged.' jacentes: 'spread out '; as they would appear when seen from a great height

227. tales

225. latos : = late habitantes. sic recalls despiciens : 'thus (looking downward, I say). Cf. VII, 668; VIII, 488. 226. regnis : probably dative in regna. Cf. Latio, 1. 6.

-curas: ‘meditating upon such cares'; such, namely, as are occasioned by the present condition of Aeneas in Libya, to which especially Jupiter has turned his attention, while he stands on the summit of heaven.'

228. Tristior (quam solita): sadder than was her wont.' She was by distinction the “smiling goddess.” oculos: accusative with the passive verb suffusa, in imitation of the Greek. H. 416; LM. 510; A. 240, C; B. 180; G. 338; (H. 378).

230. terres, absolutely: ‘dost inspire terror,' “terrify.' 231. Quid : “what offense.'

232. funera : 'disasters.' Funera signifies here not only deaths, but other great calamities.

233. ob Italiam : 'because of Italy'; because Juno desires to keep the Trojans from Italy, and so prevent the founding of the Roman empire, she is striving to render the whole world, or every shore, inaccessible them, and will thus bring about their destruction. clauditur : in prose the subjunctive would be used here in a clause of result, quibus being equal to ut eis. The indicative presents the circumstance more vividly as an actual fact, not as a conceived consequence.

234. hinc: "hence,' or “from them,' referring to Aeneas and the Trojans, and equivalent to ab his. olim: ‘hereafter.' volventibus annis : sc. se ; ‘in the course of revolving years, or ages ’; ablative absolute.

235. fore is here equivalent to orituros esse. revocato : restored' or reëstablished.' The blood or race of Teucer, the Cretan ancestor of the Trojans (III, 108), has well-nigh perished in the fall of Troy. Jupiter has promised that it shall be revived in Italy through Aeneas and his followers.

236. omni dicione : 'with unlimited sway.' qui tenerent: see note on verteret, l. 20.

237. Pollicitus: sc. es. Cf. X, 827

238. Hoc: ablative; 'with this (promise).' occasum -Solabar: instead of me solabar de occasu, ‘I was consoling myself for the fall.' Cf. X, 829; XII, 110.

239. fatis : ablative of price. Sc. melioribus, or aliis, with other (or propitious) fates’; i.e. the promised kingdom in Italy. rependens : ‘balancing,' offsetting.'

240. Nunc: is emphatic, “even now,' wh we had a right to look for better fortunes.

243. tutus : “safe,' notwithstanding the warlike character of the Illyrians and the Liburni, and the dangers of the navigation.

244. Timavi: the springs of the Timavus, a few miles northwest of Trieste, flow through an indefinite number of subterranean cavities into the Adriatic


at the distance of a mile from the source. Virgil here describes a strange phenomenon, by which the sea during a storm is forced back through these channels, deluging the fields, 245. Vasto - montis : i.e. from the reverberation of the waters in the

See note above on l. 55. 246. It - sonanti: “the sea comes bursting forth, and covers the fields with its roaring flood.'

247. Hic tamen: though he encountered these perils in coasting the Adriatic, “yet here,' etc.

248. nomen: he called the nation Veneti, and thus 'gave a name to the nation’; or it may be understood, he gave his own name to the nation,' calling them Antenoridae. arma fixit : "hung up his arms.' In token of gratitude he fastened his arms to the wall or doorposts of the temple of his patron deity. Cf. III, 287.

249. compostus: for compositus ; 'buried he rests in peace. Componere often denotes, as here, the last offices performed in the sepulture of the dead, implying especially the depositing of the body, or of the funeral urn, in the tomb.

250. Nos: expresses the maternal feeling of Venus, which makes the interest of Aeneas her own. caeli arcem : 'the abode of heaven’; i.e. Olympus. The poets are fond of designating it by the expressions arx caeli, aetherea domus, lucidae sedes, igneae arces, and the like. adnuis : Jupiter has at some time promised that Aeneas shall be received into heaven after his death.

251. infandum: H. 421; LM. 512; A. 240, d; B. 183; G. 343, 1; (H. 381 and 557). amissis : only one ship was actually lost. unius : refers to Juno.

252. Prodimur: this word casts reproach, by implication, upon Jupiter himself, and is justified by the heavy grievances of which she complains. “We are betrayed; we are left unprotected by thee from the cruel machina. tions of Juno, though we are but obeying thy will and that of fate.”

253. sic — reponis ? «dost thou thus restore us to power?' Is it thus that thou fulfillest thy promise of reëstablishing our Trojan empire in Italy? sceptra: the symbol of power, instead of imperium. H. 752, 3; A. 386, metonymy; (H. 637, III).

254. Olli: archaic form for the dative illi.

257. metu: for metui. See note above on l. 156. Cytherea: Venus was so called from the island of Cythera, near which she sprung from the sea. immota: in the predicate.

258. tibi: for the ethical dative, see H. 432; LM. 541; A. 236; B. 188, 2,b; G. 351; (H. 389). Lavini: for Lavinii.

259. feres ad sidera caeli: in accordance with the promise alluded to above, 1. 250.

261. Hic: refers to Aeneas. haec cura: anxiety on his account.

262. volvens : is descriptive of the unrolling of a scroll or volume, in which the decrees of fate are conceived to be written.

263. Italia: see note on Italiam, l. 2.

264. mores: is here 'constitution,' or 'civil organization and laws.' Cf. VI, 852; VIII, 316. viris : ‘for his people.'

265. He shall be engaged in this work of establishing his power three years after having subdued Turnus and the Rutulians. Then, we are to understand, he shall be taken into heaven. Some traditions said that Aeneas was drowned in the Numicius; others, that he was slain in battle, and buried on the banks of that river. regnantem: is not ‘beginning his reign, but continuing his reign. For the distributive numeral in Terna hiberna, see H. 164, 3; LM. 1081; A. 95, 6; B. 81, 4, b; G. 295; (H. 174, 2, 3)).

266. Rutulis subactis : perhaps better regarded as a dative of reference with transierint, although possibly in the ablative absolute construction. Aeneas is conceived by Virgil as embodying in his character the qualities of a warrior, a ruler, and a civilizer of men, the legendary personification of all that was great in the achievements of Rome. His mission is to carry on a contest in Italy, to crush the resistance of its warlike tribes, to give them customs, and to build them cities. ... His must be a life of struggle, of heroic endurance, and of great difficulties overcome' (Nettleship, Lectures and Essays, p. 103).

267. At: often denotes the transition to a new idea or new topic, not inconsistent with the foregoing, but merely different from it. Tulo: for the dative see H. 430, 1; LM. 543; A. 231, b; B. 190, 1; G. 349, R. 5; (H. 387, N.

1). The name Tulus appears to have been invented by the Julian family, or by their eulogists, as the form from which to derive Iulius, and as bearing some resemblance to the name of the Trojan king Ilus, founder of Ilium.

268. Ilus : Ascanius is fancied to have been so called after his ancestor, the king mentioned in the last note. dum - regno: 'while Ilium's state stood in its sovereign power. Regno is an ablative of respect.

269. magnos — orbes : 'great circles of revolving months’; i.e. great annual circles or years, each of which consists of revolving moons or months. Volvendis = se volventibus.' Cf. IX, 7. mensibus : is an ablative of description.

271. vi: 'with strength, strongly, not only in position and fortifications, but in population and resources. muniet: this verb often signifies, not to strengthen that which has been already built, but “to build strong,' or simply 'to build.'

272. regnabitur : passive and impersonal, the government shall be administered by a king.'

273. Hectorea: an emphatic substitute for Troiana, as Hector was the most renowned hero of Troy. regina sacerdos Ilia: “a royal priestess of

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