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622. sic: “thus' transformed. Dardanidum : genitive as I, 565. 623, 624. Traxerit, reservat: for the mood, see note on l. 621.

626 sqq. Septima : the seventh summer commenced with the departure of the Trojans from Sicily, and their speedy arrival in Carthage. See I, 755. From l. 46 we learn that at the time of the games a year had elapsed since the funeral of Anchises. Virgil's chronology therefore is slightly inconsistent. vertitur : 'is closing’; finishing its revolution. Cf. III, 284. freta and terras: are governed by ferimur (=“traverse'). For this use of the passive of fero, cf. vecti, I, 524.

saxa Sideraque: objects of emensae. 630. fraterni: as in l. 24, on account of the relationship between Aeneas

and Eryx.

631. iacere : instead of quominus iaciamus. H. 608, 3; A. 331, g; G. 549, N. 1;:(H. 535, IV). civibus: “to (our) countrymen.'

632. nequiquam : for we have failed to secure for them a new abode.

633. Nullane iam : shall no walls now,' etc.; are we now at length to give up all hope?

634. Hectoreos : Hector is dear to them, and his heroic deeds are associated with these two rivers. Cf. l. 190. They had hoped to find a new fatherland, where old names should be revived just as they were by Helenus in Epirus (see III, 497). 638. Iam

- res : 'even now is it the time to act ’; lit. 'for things to be done.'

639. mora: sc. est. tantis : ‘so great ʼ; namely, as this dream. quattuor arae : 'four altars' on the shore, erected to Neptune, perhaps, by the captains of the four ships, before engaging in the race.

641. prima : Cf. I, 24. 642. procul: with Sublata, “high.' Cf. 1. 775. 646. vobis : the ethical dative; “you have not Beroë here.' 648. qui spiritus illi: what a (godlike) air she has !' 651. quod, etc.: “because she alone (of all) was deprived of such a festival.'

655. spectare : historical infinitive. ancipites, Ambiguae: 'uncertain,' 'hesitating.'

656. fatis : with the voice of fate.' 657. paribus alis : cf. IV, 252.

659. Tum vero: when it was manifest that a goddess had been advising them, they were the more stimulated to execute their purpose.

660. focis penetralibus : ‘from the sacred hearths’; i.e. of their tempo. rary dwellings by the seashore.

661. spoliant: of the burning 'boughs' (frondem, etc.). 662. immissis habenis : i.e. with unbridled fury.

663. abiete : ablative of material, for ex abiete ; “painted sterns of fir' is equivalent to “sterns of painted fir.'

664, 665. Nuntius perfert: 'bears tidings ’; lit. “reports as a messenger.? 665. Incensas naves: “the setting on fire of the ships. See note on II, 413.

667, 668. ut — sic: even thus as he was ’; not laying aside his arms, and still mounted. equo : ablative expressing the means of petivit, and is closely related to acer.

669. Castra: see note on IV, 604. magistri: Epytides and the other custodes. See note on l. 546.

670. iste : 'that (madness of yours).' 672. En: see note on I, 461.

673. Galeam, etc.: he takes off his helmet to verify his words. inanem : "empty'; a natural appellative of the helmet when removed from the head.

674. ludo ciebat: cf. ll. 585 and 593.
676. diversa per litora: ‘along different parts of the shore.'
677. sicubi Saxa: 'wherever (there are) hollow rocks.'

679. Mutatae: “transformed,' coming to themselves.' excussa : Juno, through Iris, had stimulated them to execute a mad purpose. Her influence is now shaken off,' driven from their souls.'

681. udo: water has been cast on the outside, but does not penetrate into the closely packed calking of tow, or oakum, through which the fire is stealing its way.

683. Est: see note on IV, 66.
684. heroum : Aeneas and his captains.
685. abscindere : historical infinitive.
687. exosus : sc. es.

688. quid, etc.: 'if (thy) pity, which is of old, has any regard for mortal sufferings.' Quid is an adverbial accusative.

689. da -- classi: the infinitive is the direct, and classi the remote, object; 'grant that the fleet may escape the flames.'

691. tu: gives emphasis to the petition. quod superest: 'that which (alone) remains '; the only thing which remains for thee to do, and for me to desire or pray for, if my ships are now destroyed, is that thou at once destroy me with thy thunderbolt.

693. effusis imbribus : ablative absolute, expressing means. 694. sine more: 'without precedent'; i.e. with great fury. 695. Ardua terrarum : 'the hills.' See note on I, 422; and cf. VIII, 221;

campi: 'the plains'; the level lands. ruit — austris: down poured from all the sky its murky stores of rain, black with misty southern blasts' (Papillon).

697. super: “to overflowing.'

XI, 513

700-778. Aeneas in his perplexity is advised by the aged Nautes to leave a portion of his followers in Sicily to form a new colony under the rule of Acestes. In a nocturnal vision Anchises appears to him, and approves of the counsel of Nautes, recommending that only the hardy and warlike youth be conveyed to Italy. He then consults his captains and Acestes. The new colonists are set apart, the ships are repaired, the new settlement is planted, and a temple is consecrated to Venus on Mount Eryx. All preparations being made for the voyage, the dast farewells are exchanged, and Aeneas, with his diminished number of followers, sets sail once more for Italy.

versans :

701, 702. ingentes

was shifting about and pondering mighty cares in heart, now this way now that.'

704. unum : more than all others.

706, 707. Haec —ordo: parenthetical: ‘he was wont to give such (haec) replies (reveal by replies such things), as (quae) either the great wrath of the gods,' etc. Other editors take haec as referring to Pallas; i.e. she was wont to give replies (through Nautes),' etc.

708. solatus : with the force of a present participle. Cf. I, 312. Isque: ‘and (therefore) he.' Isque resumes the sentence interrupted by the parenthesis, while, at the same time, this sentence is connected with the parenthesis

by -que.

710. Quidquid erit : "whatever shall happen'; i.e. whatever fortune shall bring

711. divinae stirpis : see 1. 38. 713. superant: = supersunt; ‘those who are left over from the lost ships.'

716. quidquid: indefinite pronouns and adjectives in the neuter gender are often used of persons.

717. habeant sine : see note on memoret, II, 75.

718. permisso nomine : the honor of calling the new city Acesta being granted by you, though you yourself are the real founder. Cicero, in Verr. 5, 33, 72, says that Segesta (the name given by the Romans to the site of Acesta) was founded by Aeneas, and that the people from that circumstance held themselves bound to the Romans, not only as allies and friends, but also as kinsmen.

721. bigis subvecta, etc. : upwafted on her steeds.' See note on III, 512. polum tenebat : ‘was in midheaven.'

722. facies: not the shade of Anchises dwelling in Hades, but a form or phantom sent from heaven his image. See note on VI, 696.

728. pulcherrima: see note on plurimus, 1, 419.
729. corda: cf. II, 349.
730. dura - cultu: ‘hardy and savage in habits of life.'
731. ante: “first '; i.e. before you proceed to Latium.

732. Averna alta : a cavern on the side of Lake Avernus was supposed to be one of the entrances to Hades.

734. tristes umbrae: in apposition with Tartara.

736. Nigrarum: black victims were sacrificed to the infernal gods. See VI, 243 sqq. sanguine : ablative of means. By slaying many black victims she will secure an entrance for you.

738. torquet cursus : she has passed the zenith and is turning her course down toward the horizon.

739. saevus : “pitiless'; for it breaks off my interview with you. Ghosts and dreams must flee before the dawn. With the sentiment, cf. Shakespeare, Midsummer Night's Dream, 3, 2, 379:

'Yonder shines Aurora's harbinger,
At whose approach ghosts, wandering here and there,
Troop home to churchyards.'

Cf. also the words of the Ghost in Hamlet :

Methinks I scent the morning air.'

741. Quo deinde : 'whither now.' 743. sopitos ignes: he renews the fires on the domestic hearth, that

may offer a sacrifice of wheat and incense to Vesta and the Penates. Cf. III, 177, 178.

744. Larem : the household god. Usually the plural, Lares, occurs in Virgil. penetralia: “the shrine’; put for the goddess herself.

745. Farre pio: 'with the sacred (sacrificial) wheat.

749. consiliis : 'to his plan' or present purposes.

750. Transcribunt urbi matres : they transfer matrons, or elderly women, to the new city or colony by enrolling their names on the list of citizens. But only part, or at least not all, of the women were thus left to dwell in Sicily. See XI, 35. populumque volentem : those of the men who wished to

remain. Fig. 47. – A Bronze Lar (1. 744)

752. Ipsi: those who are to proceed on

the voyage. 753. navigiis : dative with reponunt. This line is hypermetric. See note on IV, 558.

754. bello: the dative with vivida.

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755. designat aratro: this was a sacred ceremony in marking out the boundary of a new city.

. 756. domos: he allots the places for dwellings. Ilium, the city, Troiam, the region or district, including the city.

758. forum: seems here to be put for iudicia, the courts, the proceedings of which constituted the characteristic business of the forum.

760. A priest or flamen is appointed for the tomb of Anchises, and the wood far around it is set apart, or consecrated. Join late with sacer.

761. Anchiseo: a possessive adjective put for the genitive of the noun. See note on Scyllaeam, I, 200.

762. novem: see note on nona, 1. 64. aris : ablative of place. 764. creber et adspirans : ‘and blowing fresh ’; a proleptic expression.

768. non tolerabile nomen: the very name of the sea was suggestive of hardship, and not to be borne.

772. Eryci: 'to Eryx,' as a deified hero, and one of the gods of the place. Tempestatibus : 'to the Storms, which may forbear to molest them, if propitiated. Cf. III, 120.

773. ex ordine: one after another.' 774. caput: join with evinctus. tonsae : 'trimmed.' Cf. 1. 556. 775. procul : 'high up’and apart from the rest; join with stans. Cf. 1. 642. 777, 778. Cf. III, 130, 290.

779-871. Venus, in her dread of the persistent anger of Juno, appeals to Neptune for his interposition to prevent any further disaster by sea to the fleet of Aeneas. Neptune reminds her of his former friendly acts to Aeneas both on sea and land, and promises now to protect him, requiring, however, that one of his crew shall be lost on the voyage. Meanwhile, the whole fleet proceeds under full sail, led by the ship of Aeneas, which is steered by the pilot Palinurus. In the night Aeneas and all on board fall asleep, except Palinurus, who watches, and keeps the helm alone. Somnus descends from the sky, and tempts him to sleep, and, in spite of his resistance, overpowers him with Lethean influence. Palinurus falls over into the sea, still grasping the helm, and carrying a fragment of the ship, torn off with it. Aeneas is awakened by the irregular motion of the ship, and perceiving the fate which has befallen Palinurus, bemoans his loss, while he himself directs the course.

781. nec exsaturabile pectus : ‘and her insatiate revenge.' 782. omnes: "all'; even the most humiliating.

783. longa dies : ‘length of time.' pietas: his piety in general as well as toward Juno.

784. infracta: 'subdued.' Juno knows the fates concerning Aeneas, but she still persists.

785. exedisse : 'to have devoured'; strongly expressive of her hatred.

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