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panels, adorned with these designs; those on one side representing scenes in Athens, those on the other (contra) in Crete. letum : sc. erat. Androgeo : Greek genitive ('Ανδρόγεω), from 'Ανδρόγεως. Androgeos was the son of Minos, king of Crete, who, on a visit to Athens, was murdered by the Athenians (Cecropidae) through envy of his success in the public games. Minos made war upon the Athenians and compelled them to sue for peace, which he granted on condition that seven of their young men and seven of their maidens (1l. 21, 22) should be sent to Crete every year to be devoured by the Minotaur. tum, etc. : 'then (as the next design) there were (represented) the Athenians.' poenas: ‘as a penalty.'

21. miserum: see note on I, 251. septena: the poet mentions the seven sons only, as this is sufficient to suggest the well-known story of the seven of each sex.

22. stat urna: the lots had been drawn from the urn in order to decide who, among the Athenian youth, should be the victims; and these, with their parents and friends, were represented in attitudes expressive of agony. tibus: ablative absolute.

23. Contra: 'on the opposite side '; i.e. on the other fold of the door.

24. Hic: on this side of the door; or in Crete, which is represented on this side. crudelis amor: 'cruel passion’; because cruelly excited by Venus in Pasiphaë. tauri: objective genitive. supposta : for supposita. furto : refers to the artifice of Daedalus, who, according to the story, constructed the image of a cow, in which Pasiphaë concealed herself.

25. mixtum genus: the Minotaur, or progeny of Pasiphaë, half man and half bull.

26. inest : 'is carved' or ' represented on'the door. Veneris — nefandae : “a memorial of unnatural lust.' monumenta: poetic plural for the singular is in apposition with Minotaurus.

27. Hic: “here' (too); on this same valve of the door is also another scene in Crete; namely, the Athenian hero Theseus, after slaying the Minotaur, tracing his way out of the Labyrinth by the guidance of a thread, which had been prepared for him by Daedalus at the intercession of the princess (regina) Ariadne, daughter of Minos, who had become enamored of Theseus. domus: genitive. error: cf. V, 591.

28. sed enim : see note on I, 19. 30. vestigia: the footsteps of Theseus. 31. sineret dolor: 'had grief permitted. On the omission of si, see H. 573, N; LM. 777; A. 310, b; B. 305, 2; G. 598; (H. p. 281, footnote 2); on the imperfect subjunctive for the pluperfect, H. 579, 1; LM. 939; A. 308, a; B. 304. 2; G. 597, R. I; (H. 510, N. 2).

32. conatus erat: sc. ille, referring to Daedalus. 33, 34. Quin protinus Perlegerent: “indeed, they would have examined successively. For the tense, see note on l. 31. omnia : is here a dissyllable, om-nya. praemissus : 'who had been sent forward,' while Aeneas remained in front of the temple. From this it would seem that the Sibyl's cave was at some distance, procul, from the temple of Apollo.

36. Deiphobe : the name here given to the Cumaean Sibyl. Glauci : '(the daughter) of Glaucus.' Glaucus was a marine divinity gifted with prophecy.

38. intacto: ‘untouched'; not yet brought under the yoke.

39. Praestiterit: 'it were best ’; potential subjunctive to express a modest assertion, instead of the indicative of direct statement. H. 552 and 554, 2; LM. 718; A. 311, a; B. 280, 2; G. 257; (H. 486, 1). bidentes: see note on IV, 57

40. sacra Iussa : 'the rites commanded.”

41. alta templa: the lofty or vast cavern of the Sibyl; the same as the Antrum immane, l. 11, and the ingens antrum of the following line. This sacred grotto, or holy place in the depths of the hill, was probably connected with the temple of Apollo (aurea tecta, l. 13) by a passage in the rear, and thus was related to it as an adytum (1. 98).

42. in: ‘into’; i.e. ‘so as to form a cavern.

43. aditus: ‘passages ’; not all necessarily foot passages, but channels, natural or artificial, communicating with the grotto, or antrum, — the adytum, whence is heard the oracular response (l. 98). centum : for a number indefinitely great.

44. Unde: 'out of which'; whenever the Sibyl gives utterance to her prophecies.

45. ad limen: 'to the threshold' at the inner end of a corridor, leading into the antrum. Poscere fata : i.e. to pray for responses, which are revelations of the fates.

46. deus! the priestess, while before the entrance, is already under the influence of the god.

47. fores: the same as limen above. non unus: did not remain the same.'

48. Non comptae: ancient soothsayers wore the hair unbound. That of Deiphobe now becomes disordered.

49. rabie: join with tument. maior videri: 'greater in aspect '; lit. 'greater to be seen.' Videri is an explanatory infinitive dependent on maior. H. 608, 4, N. 1; LM. 952; A. 273, d; B. 333; G. 421, (c); (H. 533, II, 3, N. 2).

50. mortale: accusative; 'a human sound. See note on I, 328. Her whole frame expands, and her voice assumes an unnatural elevation and strength of tone.

51. Iam propiore : already felt, though not even yet in his greatest power. Cessas in vota : dost delay to begin thy prayers ?'

52. neque ante: i.e. not before Aeneas shall have made supplication.

53. Attonitae : the cave of the Sibyl is personified as if itself awed by the presence of the god.

57. qui direxti (direxisti): Apollo, as the patron of archery, gave Paris the skill to hit Achilles (Aeacidae) in the heel, the only point where he was vulnerable.

58. in: governs corpus.

59. duce te: because it was the response of Apollo at Delos (III, 154 sqq.) which led him to undertake his voyage, first to Crete, and finally to Hesperia. penitus : ‘far remote.' He did not actually visit the Massyli (Massylum, the old form of the genitive plural) and the shores of the syrtes, but Carthage, near by them.

60. praetenta: "bordering upon’; followed by the dative, as in III, 692.

61. prendimus : 'we grasp '; the significance of the word is shown the more distinctly by fugientes. Italy is seeking, as it were, to elude our grasp. Cf. V, 629.

62. Hac, etc. : “thus far let Trojan fortune have pursued us’; and let that be enough of ill fortune to satisfy the hostile gods. For the subjunctive, see H. 558, 1; LM. 714; A. 266; B. 275; G. 250; (H. 483, 2).

63. iam fas est : 'it is now right ’; it cannot be opposed now to the divine decrees even that you (Juno, Minerva, etc.) should spare the Trojan race.

66. non indebita : sc. mihi.

67. fatis : 'according to my destiny.' See I, 205. da considere: the priestess, or prophetess, can ‘grant'this, in so far as she can inform them how to secure it. See note on III, 85.

69. An allusion to the temple of Apollo, erected by Augustus on the Palatine, in 28 B.C. In this

mple a splendid statue of the god was placed between those of Latona and Diana.

70. festosque dies: the Ludi Apollinares, which were established in

212 B.C.

71. Te quoque: this vow, made to the Sibyl to consecrate sacred arcana in the future kingdom of Aeneas for the preservation of her oracles, was fulfilled in the history of the so-called Sibylline books. These were at first, in the reign of the Tarquins, deposited in the Capitol; but, after the destruction of the Capitol and its contents by fire in the time of Sulla, 82 B.C., no new collection of such books for state purposes was made, until the building of the above-mentioned temple of Apollo. In this were deposited what were supposed to be genuine Sibylline books, or oracles, collected by Augustus from different sources, and placed in two chests at the foot of the statue of the god. penetralia : “sacred shrines’; i.e. archives for the preservation of the books of the Sibyl.

74. Alma: ‘kind prophetess.' viros: at first two, afterward ten, and finally fifteen men (Quindecemviri Sacris Faciundis) were appointed to the custody of the Sibylline books.

76. Ipsa canas: cf. III, 457.

77. Phoebi — patiens : ‘not yet yielding to Apollo.' Divine inspiration is too much for human weakness at first to sustain, and her nature instinctively struggles against the influence. The prophetess thus resisting is compared to an unbroken horse, which resists the efforts of the rider to subdue his fierceness. immanis: 'wild '; join with bacchatur.

78. si: elliptical and interrogative, as in I, 181; "whether she may.'

79. Excussisse: the perfect infinitive is not used here merely for the pres. ent, a usage which is occasionally met with in poetry, but it denotes the instant completion of the action; she desires to have done with the terrible influence.

80. fingit premendo : ‘forms her to his will by curbing.' The metaphor is continued.

81, 82. The priestess and Aeneas are in the cavern, in antro (see l. 77), in the general sense of the term, and before the threshold (ante fores, l. 47) of the inner grotto, or place of the oracle; but, after Aeneas has made his prayer, the doors spontaneously open, and the Sibyl rushes in, leaving him on the outside; her voice is then immediately heard from within.

84. terrae: sc. pericula. regna Lavini: the kingdom to be established by Aeneas, of which Lavinium is destined to be the chief city.

86. non: limits volent.

89. Defuerint: H. 540, 1; LM. 748; A. 281, R; B. 264; G. 244; (H. 473, I). alius Achilles : this other Achilles is the Rutulian Turnus, who is already being raised up by the fates in Latium to resist the Trojans.

90. Natus dea: Turnus was the son of the nymph or goddess Venilia. See X, 76. For the force of et ipse, see H. 509, 7; G. 311, 2; (H. 452, 6).

90, 91. nec - -aberit: “nor shall Juno, (always) haunting the Trojans, ever leave their side.' Teucris addita : i.e. adhering (in hatred) to the Trojans.

91. cum: the fulfillment of the prophecy is found in VIII, 126 sqq.

93. coniunx: i.e. Lavinia, the daughter of Latinus, who had promised her in marriage to Turnus, but on the arrival of Aeneas violated this promise in order to espouse her to the latter. This was the cause of the war. iterum : join with erit understood. hospita Teucris: “a stranger alien to the Trojans'; just as had been the case with Helen, who had been in like manner the cause of the war against Troy.

96. Qua: sc. via.

97. Graia urbe: Aeneas will find his first ally in Evander, a Grecian prince who had formed a little settlement called Pallanteum, on what was afterward named the Palatine hill, at Rome. See VIII, 49 sqq.

99. Horrendas ambages: “the dread mysteries '; the ambiguous utterances of oracles.

100. ea frena: 'such reins’; i.e. such influences as to make her prophesy thus. The metaphor of 11. 77-80 is resumed.

103. rabida ora: 'frenzied lips. Cf. 1. 80.

105. praecepi, etc.: he has been led to anticipate all hardships and encounter them in thought,' by the revelations of Helenus and Anchises, III, 441; V, 730.

107. palus Acheronte refuso: the pool from overflowing Acheron.' The lake alluded to is probably that called in ancient times Acherusia palus. Its waters were supposed to rise up from the river Acheron in the lower world.

109. Contingat : ‘let it be my lot.'

114. Invalidus : '(though) feeble.' ultra sortem: for the proper lot of old age is quiet and ease.

116. mandata dabat: see V, 731 sqq.

117. potes omnia: ‘you have all power,' i.e. so far as the object of my present petition is concerned; for you control the Avernian entrance to Hades. Omnia, cognate accusative; H. 409, 1; LM. 507; A. 238, b; B. 176, 2, 6; G. 333, 2, R. 6; (H. 371, II (2)).

118. Hecate: see note on 1. 13.

119. Si potuit: if Orpheus or Pollux had such power, because they were divine, I also am of divine parentage, and am therefore entitled to the same privilege.

121. Of the twin sons of Leda, Pollux was the son of Jupiter, and Castor son of Tyndarus; so that one was mortal, the other immortal. But when Castor died, the love of Pollux led him to share his immortality with his brother by descending every other day to the lower world, and allowing Castor to dwell during the same day with the gods in Olympus.

122. viam: see note on IV, 468. Thesea: Theseus descended with his friend Pirithoüs into Hades, to assist him in carrying off Proserpine.

123. Alciden: Hercules brought Cerberus from the lower world, and afterward Alcestis.

124. arasque tenebat: see note on IV, 219. We must suppose an altar placed in front of the limen. 126. descensus Averno: 'the descent into Hades'; dative for in Aver.

See note on Latio, I, 6, and pelago, I, 181. 128. superas ad auras : 'to the upper air’; to this world of ours, above the regions of the dead. Cf. 11. 436, 481, 568, 719.

129. Pauci, etc.: 'a few sons of the gods, whom propitious Jupiter has loved.'

The descent to Hades is easy and open to all; in the natural order of things, mortals are continually thronging to the lower world; but only a


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