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Trojan descent ’; sacerdos and Nia in apposition with regina, which we may translate as an adjective.

274. partu dabit: shall bear.'

275. lupae nutricis: the infants Romulus and Remus were nourished by a she-wolf until they were discovered by the shepherd Faust ulus. Trans. : * exulting in the tawny robe of his wolf-nurse'; i.e. 'a wolf such as nursed him.' tegmine : ablative with laetus, which is used poetically to signify possessing or using, with the accessory idea of pleasure or advantage. It is analogous to the ablative with contentus, praeditus, and fretus.

276. Romulus -- gentem : Romulus shall receive the race' (under his power); i.e. succeed to the dominion. Gentem is the Alban or Trojan nation. The Ascanian dynasty of Alban kings terminates with Amulius and Numitor. Romulus receives the dominion which is passing away with them, and reëstablishes it in Rome.

276, 277. Mavortia Moenia: the walls, or city of Mars. Rome is so called because its founder, Romulus, is the son of Mavors, or Mars. de: cf. 11. 367, 533.

278. His: the Romans. ego : the expression of the pronoun gives greater weight to the promise; even I, who have the power both to promise and fulfill. nec — pono : 'I assign neither boundaries nor periods to their power.' Metas refers to the territorial extent, and tempora to the duration of their dominion. 279. Quin : ‘nay, even,' what is still more worthy of remark.

280. metu: perhaps better taken as an ablative of means or manner with fatigat. “She wearies out or exhausts with fears,' i.e. by exciting fears; by some taken as an ablative of cause, on account of her fears. Cf. 1. 23, id metuens.

281. Consilia — referet: cf. XI, 426. fovebit : shall cherish with me'; i.e. equally with me.

282. rerum dominos : lords of the world.' togatam: the toga was the distinguishing dress of the Roman citizen.

283. Sic placitum : 'thus I have decreed.'

284. domus Assaraci: the Romans are so called because their founder, Aeneas, was the great-grandson of Assaracus, the son of Tros. Phthiam: the

home of Achilles. Fig. 5.

Roman clad in the Toga (l. 282)

284, 285. Mycenas, Argis : the one ruled by Aga

memnon, the other by Diomedes. It is pleasing to Venus to hear that the descendants of the conquerors of Troy shall one day be subjugated by the descendants of the vanquished Trojans. Greece and



Macedon were brought under the sway of Rome by T. Quinctius Flamininus, L. Aemilius Paulus, and L. Mummius between B.C. 200 and 146.

285. Argis: here the ablative of place where. See note on campis, l. 97. Cf. VI, 766. Dominor governs the dative orly in the later Latin writers.

286. Origine : join with Troianus as an ablative of quality. See note on 1. 164. Caesar: the reference here is plainly to Augustus, who was also called Julius (l. 288), in consequence of his adoption by the dictator, his full name being thereafter C. Julius Caesar Octavianus. The title, Augustus, was conferred in B.C. 27. Cf. 1. 289. The eulogy of Augustus is like many found in Virgil, Horace, and other writers of the period. Cf. VI, 792-798; VIII, 678– 688.

287. terminet: the relative clause expresses the end or purpose for which he shall be brought into the world by destiny. See note on 1. 20. astris : in allusion to his expected deification. His glory shall be like that of Hercules, Achilles, and other heroes, who have been received into Olympus. Cf. Milton, Par. Lost, 12, 370:

‘and bound bis reign With earth's wide bounds, his glory with the Heavens.' 289. olim: of future time, as in l. 20. caelo: ablative. After accipere the place is either in the ablative or in the accusative with a preposition. spoliis Orientis onustum: Augustus at the battle of Actium, B.C. 31, according to the expression of Virgil, VIII, 687, gained Oriental spoils.

290. secura : 'thou free from alarm. hic quoque : ‘he also’; Augustus as well as Aeneas. Augustus was called Divus and Deus by the Romans, and temples were erected and sacrifices made to him in the provinces, even before his death and apotheosis.

291. tum : i.e. in the reign of Augustus, which was looked upon as the beginning of a new Saturnian or golden age, “when first the iron age should cease, and the age of gold arise.” Cf. VIII, 319. Aspera secula : 'the age of strife.'

292. Fides : faith between man and man is the bond of society. Cana: also sometimes applied to Vesta, “hoary,' or 'venerable,' as pertaining to the primitive and most righteous period. Vesta: the goddess of the hearth, represents religion and domestic virtue. “Romulus reconciled with Remus' indicates the restoration of concord among the citizens of Rome.

293. Iura dabunt: shall administer laws,' shall rule.' For the plural of the verb, see H. 389, 4; 463, II; LM.470; A. 205; B. 255; G. 285; (H.461,4).

293, 294. dirae, portae: one of the arches of Janus, called here the gates of war,' situated at the foot of the Argiletum near the Roman Forum, was always closed in time of peace. This happened but four times before the Christian era,

– first during the reign of Numa, next in the year B.C. 235, shortly after the first Punic war, and twice in the reign of Augustus, namel.


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in B.C. 29 and 25. The image of war, conceived of as a Fury, chained within, is of course a poetic fancy. Some suppose it refers to an ancient painting of War by Apelles, placed by Augustus in his new forum. ferro - artis : is an instance of hendiadys (see note on l. 61) for ferreis compagibus artis.

294. impius : has reference to the recent civil and fraternal bloodshed during the contest between Caesar and Pompey, and then between Augustus and Antony.

297. Maia: one of the seven daughters of Atlas, called the Pleïades. Her son by Jupiter was Mercury, the messenger of the gods (see Fig. 36). For the case, see H. 469, 2; LM. 609; A. 244, a; B. 215; G. 395; (H.

415, II).

298-300. pateant, arceret: H. 546; LM. 805; A. 287, e; B. 268, 3; G. 511, R. I; (H. 495, II). Hospitio: the ablative of manner, equivalent to hospitaliter, as in III, 83; or possibly a dative of the end or purpose. fati nescia : 'ignorant of fate’; ignorant of the destiny of the Trojans, which decreed that they should settle in Italy, she might suppose they intended to make their abode in Africa, and hence repel them from her territories.

301. oris : adstare, ástand,' or 'light upon,' takes either the ablative or dative.

302. iussa facit: 'executes the commands (of Jupiter).' He does this by so influencing the minds of the Carthaginians and their queen, that when the Trojans shall present themselves, their reception will be friendly. ponunt: often used in poetry for deponere.

303. volente deo : because the god wills it. Probably Mercury is meant.

305-417. On the following morning Aeneas walks forth, attended by Achates alone, to explore the neighboring country. In the forest he is met by Venus disguised as a huntress, to whom he tells the story of his misfortunes. She directs him to continue his walk until he shall reach the new city of Car. thage, where he will meet with a kind reception, and she assures him of the safety of the twelve missing ships. She then reveals herself in her real form just as she is vanishing from his sight. Aeneas pursues his way, protected by his mother, who renders him and his companion invisible by surrounding them with a thick mantle of cloud.

305. At: see note on 1. 267. volvens : a free use of the present participle for the past, and equivalent to qui volvebat; an opposite use to that of comitatus, below, l. 312.

306. Ut primum : “as soon as. See note on 1. 216. This clause denotes the time of constituit, not of the infinitives. Exire, explorare, and referre depend on constituit ; “but pious Aeneas, who was (or had been) meditating much throughout the night, when the genial light first dawned, resolved to go forth,' etc.


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307. vento: ablative of instrument. The interrogative clauses, quas accesserit and qui teneant, depend on quaerere. See note on l. 181. For the omission of et before quaerere, see H. 657, 6; LM. 752; A. 208, 6; B. 346; G. 473, R; (H. 636, 1, 1). The second -ne here is not strictly ‘or,' but a second whether.

308. inculta : refers to locos and oras. H. 395, 2, N.; LM. 480; A. 187, b; B. 235, 2, b, B; G. 286, 1; (H. 439, 3). videt lengthens the last syllable by the ictus. H. 733, 5; LM. 1114; A. 359, f; B. 367, 2; G. 721; (H. 599). The final vowel was originally long.

309. exacta : 'the things ascertained.'

310, 312. Classem — Occulit: 'he conceals the fleet in the wooded hollow, under the overarching rock, where it is surrounded by trees with their projecting shadows.'

310. convexo : refers to the secessus longus, l. 159. Nearly the same description is found in III, 229, 230, where secessu longo is substituted for convexo.

312. comitatus: H. 222, 2; LM. 353; A. 135, b; B. 112, b; G. 282; (H. 231, 2). The participle is used here not only as a passive, but as a present participle. The regular form would be Achate comitante. Cf. secutae for sequentes, l. 499.

313. Bina : see note on terna, l. 266, and Fig. 65.

314. Cui : limits obvia ; advanced to meet him.'

315, 316. Virginis — fatigat: Venus had appeared to Aeneas on other occasions, and especially in the last night of Troy, fully revealed as his divine mother; she now assumes the countenance and dress of a virgin, and also the weapons of the chase, such as best a Spartan virgin, or a Thracian huntress, like Harpalyce. Trans. : ‘Having as. sumed the face and dress of a virgin, and the arms of a vir

Fig. 6.

Diana of Versailles gin (either) a Spartan or such as the Thracian Harpalyce (is, who) wearies her steeds, etc.

We often have with qualis, as here, not only an ellipsis of




its antecedent, talis, but also of a verb, and sometimes of a connective. Here all three are omitted; namely, talis, est, quae (or cum). Cf. below, l. 498; IV, 143.

318. de more : “after the manner’; i.e. of huntresses. 319. diffundere: for diffundendam. See note on 1. 66.

320. Genu: accusative of specification with Nuda. sinus : 'with the knee uncovered, and the flowing folds of her dress gathered up in a knot '; accusative with a passive participle, with the reflexive force of the Greek Middle voice; cf. the similar construction, 1. 228. The statue of Diana with the stag, now in the gallery of the Louvre, corresponds to this description. The dress consists of two pieces, the tunic underneath, and the mantle over it. The tunic is shortened by being partially drawn up underneath the girdle, and allowed to fall over it in a fold, thus bringing the bottom of the tunic a little above the knee. The light mantle is then folded, and knotted round the waist. It seems to be this gathering up of the tunic and knotting of the mantle that Virgil has in mind.

322. Vidistis: H. 574, 581; LM. 933; A. 306; B. 302; G. 595; (H. 508, I and 4).

325. For the ellipsis of dixit, see note on l. 76.

326. mihi: for the dative of the agent after the passive, see H. 431, a ; LM. 545; A. 232, b; B. 189, 2; G. 354; (H. 388, 4).

327. quam— memorem? .whom can I call thee?' For the mood, see note on l. 565.

328. nec hominem sonat: “nor does thy voice sound human.' Sonat takes an accusative of the inner object (cognate accusative). Cf. VI, 50; see H. 409, 2; LM. 503; A. 238, a; B. 176, 4; G. 330; (H. 371, II, N.). certe : see note on late, 1, 21.

-an: H. 380, 3; LM. 702; A. 211, 6; B. 162, 4, a ; G. 457; (H. 353, 2, N. 4). sanguinis : for the case, see H. 442; LM. 560; A. 216, a, 2; B. 201; G. 370; (H. 397, 2).

330. Sis felix: ‘be propitious.' quaecumque : sc. es. 331. tandem : join with iactemur.

332. Iactemur: see note on videat, 1. 181. -que : at the end of the line loses its final vowel in scanning. H. 738, N. 2; LM. 1137; A. 359, 6, R.; B. 367, 6; G. 745, 3; (H. 613, N. 5).

335. dignor: as a deponent, signifies ‘I deem worthy of,' and governs the accusative of the direct object (me), and the ablative of that of which one is deemed worthy (honore).

338. Carthage is here called the city of Agenor, because its founder, Dido, is descended from him.

339. fines : 'the country,' or 'territory,' around the city in distinction from reg na, 'realm,” which is here the organized state. genus: though

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329. An

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