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board the ship of Agamemnon, opens the wooden horse. The leaders issue forth and commence the attack on the city, setting fire to it in various places with the aid of Sinon, and are soon joined by their whole army at the Scaean gate. Aeneas is warned of the danger in a dream by the shade of Hector, and is roused from sleep by the increasing noise of the conflict and of the flames. He arms himself and hastens from the palace of his father, and, being joined by Coroebus and other warriors, undertakes to defend the city. After a momentary success, his party is defeated, Coroebus and others are slain, and he is left with only two companions, with whom he proceeds to the palace of Priam.

250. Vertitur : the sky itself is conceived to revolve, while the earth stands still. ruit oceano: 'ascends from the ocean'; i.e. Night rises in her chariot from the eastern ocean when the sun sinks in the west. Cf. V, 721; and for this sense of ruit, VI, 539; VIII, 369.

252. Myrmidonum: for Graiorum. dolos: refers especially to the strat. agem of the wooden horse. per moenia : “throughout the city'; not the fortifications merely. See note on 1. 234.

254. phalanx: here = 'host' or 'army. instructis navibus: ‘with their ships drawn up in order.' They advanced in regular array, in order to be

ready for an enemy, and to effect a simultaneous landing.

255. amica — lunae: the friendly stillness of the silent moon’; i.e. 'friendly,' or "favorable' to the projects of the Greeks. According to the postHomeric tradition, Troy was taken at the time of full moon. We should infer from 11. 340, 360, 397, 420, etc., that the moon was sometimes shining, and sometimes obscured.

256. nota: 'well known';

for the Greeks had been ten Fig. 16. — The Greeks descending from the Wooden Horse (11. 259 sqq.)

years encamped upon the

shores. 257. Extulerat, etc. : intensive for the perfect : 'suddenly raised the signal flame'; the signal by which Sinon was to understand when to open the horse. defensus : ‘protected' from discovery in his nocturnal movements.

259. Laxat: this verb is adapted to both objects, Danaos and claustra, by zeugma : 'releases the Greeks, and loosens the bolts.' H. 751, 2, N.; A. P. 430; B. 374, 2, a; G. 690; (H. 636, II, I). The natural order of the ideas is also reversed. This license is termed hysteron proteron.


260. se promunt: for prodeunt. robore : see note on Italiam, I, 2. 262. Demissum

per funem :

: along a rope let down.' 263. primus : this should probably be understood literally, and, in that case, would show that the speaker, in mentioning the names rapidly, was reminded at the moment when Machaon's name occurred, that he was said to have issued first from the horse.

264. doli (i.e. equi) fabricator: he was directed by Minerva. See l. 15. 265. sepultam : cf. 1. 253.

266. portis : ablative of the way by which. See note on l. 187. omnes socios : those who have just landed from the ships.

267. conscia : 'confederate’; implying that those already in the city and those just arrived have a mutual understanding of the plan of attack. 268. Cf. IV, 522.

aegris : 'sorrow-laden’; said of men, as compared

with the gods.


Fig. 17. — Achilles dragging Hector's Body about the Walls of Troy (11. 272 sqq.)

269. dono divum: ‘by the blessing of the gods.' Cf. Spenser, opening lines of Vision of Bellay : –

“It was the time when rest, soft sliding downe

From heaven's height into men's heavy eyes,
In the forgetfulnes of sleepe doth drowne

The carefull thoughts of mortall miseries.'

270. In somnis: ‘in slumber. Cf. 1. 302. Aeneas is repeatedly favored with warnings by visions and dreams.

271. largos fletus: a flood of tears. Cf. I, 465.

272. Raptatus bigis, ut quondam : “(appearing) as formerly (he was), when dragged by the chariot. Aeneas had seen the corpse of Hector in this condition after it had been brought back to Troy by Priam. The ghosts of the slain are conceived to have the appearance of their disfigured and mutilated bodies. See VI, 494.

273. per — tumentes: for loris per fedes tumentes traiectis. lora : the Greek accusative, used with somewhat more boldness than usual, as it is applied not to a part of the person, nor even to the dress. Cf. note on I, 228. The ordinary Greek accusative here would have been pedes, accompanied by loris in the ablative.

274. Ei mihi: H. 432; LM. 541; A. 236; B. 188, 2, 6; G. 351; (H. 389, N. 2). qualis: refers to the appearance of Hector's person.

275. redit: the present in vivid narration. H. 53 3; LM. 733; A. 276, d; B. 259, 3; G. 229; (H. 476, III). qui redit: may be rendered 'returning.' exuvias: “the spoils ’; those, namely, which had been taken from the body of Patroclus, whom Hector had slain in battle, and who had worn the armor of his friend Achilles. Hence, they are called here the spoils of Achilles.' For the accusative, see H. 407; LM. 511; A. 240, C, N.; B. 175, 2, d ; G. 338, N. 2; (H. 377); and cf. note on I, 320.

276. iaculatus: “after he had hurled.' puppibus : ‘upon the ships.' The ships were drawn up from the water, with the sterns toward the land, and surrounded on the land side by fortifications.

278. quae plurima: see note on 1, 419. The wounds are those wantonly inflicted on the dead body of Hector by the Greeks, and the mutilations received when it was dragged by the chariot of Achilles. Ultro : at once,' 'first ’; lit., ‘of my own accord,' without waiting to be first addressed by the ghost; join with compellare. flens ipse: 'myself also weeping’; as well as he.

282. morae: in his dream Aeneas does not realize that Hector is dead, but fancies that he has been long absent, and anxiously waited for.

283. Exspectate: vocative by attraction for the nominative. H. 402, 3; LM. 493; A. 241, 6; G. 325, R. 1; (H. 369, 3). ut: 'how'; i.e. “how gladly'; join with aspicimus.

287. nihil: the object of respondit understood. nec — moratur: 'nor heeds my useless inquiries.'

290. a culmine: ‘from the summit’; from top to bottom. Cf. below, l. 603

291. Sat – datum: 'enough has been done by thee for thy country and for Priam.' (Qua) dextra : ‘by (any) right hand'; i.e. by human prowess.

292. hac: 'with this’; i.e. with mine. For the construction, see H. 579; LM. 938; A. 308; B. 304; G. 597; (H. 510).

293. Sacra : sc. sua. A limiting word pertaining equally to two substantives is sometimes expressed only with the last. Cf. surgentem, 1, 366. The Penates of Troy are those which pertain to the whole state in common, as distinguished from those of individual families.

294. comites: “as companions'; in apposition with hos. his : dative. moenia: for urbem.

295. The order is: quae magna, ponto pererrato, denique statues. Although this city was Lavinium, the poet seems to have Rome in mind.

296, 297. The vision seems to bring the figure of Vesta with the fillets round her head, and other sacra which pertained to her worship, from the penetralia, or sanctuary of the house. Among the Penates of the city or state appear to have been included Jupiter, Juno, and Vesta; perhaps, also, Neptune, Apollo, and other great gods. These are also called Dei Magni. See III, 12, and VIII, 679.

298. Diverso luctu : 'with manifold sounds of woe.' Cf. XII, 620.

299, 300. secreta — recessit: the house of Anchises was remote from the Scaean gate, where the enemy were chiefly assembled, and it also stood by itself. Recessit, as refugit, III, 536, denotes situation rather than motion.

302. summi fastigia tecti: “the battlements on the top of the roof.' Cf. below, l. 458, and note.

303. arrectis auribus : cf. I, 152; II, 206.

304. veluti cum, etc.: as the shepherd, ignorant (inscius) of the remote cause of the devastation around him, is amazed (stupet), so Aeneas, at first stupefied by what he hears and sees, does not comprehend the origin and nature of the uproar. Cf. X, 405; XII, 521. furentibus austris : ablative absolute, expressing time. Austris is used for winds in general, as in I, 536.

305. rapidus montano flumine: \(made) impetuous by the mountain flood. With this and the following line cf. Spenser, Faërie Queene, II, II, 18:

Like a great water-flood, that, tombling low
From the high mountaines, threates to overflow
With suddein fury all the fertile playne.'

306. boum labores: by metonymy for segetes. 307. inscius : 'ignorant (of the cause).'

309. fides : ‘the truth, or “the fact ’; namely, that the Greeks had got possession of the city. Est is to be supplied.

310. Deiphobi: his death is described in VI, 509 sqq.

311. Vulcano : i.e. igni. See note on I, 215. proximus : next' to the house of Desphobus.

312. Ucalegon: a bold metonymy for the house of Ucalegon.' Cf. III, 275. Sigea freta : 'the Sigean waters’; about four miles northwest from Troy.

314. nec sat rationis (est mihi): “nor have I sufficient deliberation'; • I have not a clear purpose in seizing arms'; do not consider what is to be done or gained in fighting.

315. bello : dative for ad bellum. arcem : 'the citadel.'

317. pulchrum: the predicate accusative with esse understood, of which mori is subject. H. 394, 4; 615, 2; LM. 972; A. 189, d; B. 327; G. 422; (H. 438, 3 and 538, 2). succurrit, etc. : “the thought comes over me'; in the midst of the excitement I have one thought only: ‘that it is glorious to die in arms.

Cf. l. 457

318. Ecce : cf. l. 203.

319. arcis Phoebique: priest of the citadel only so far as he was priest of Apollo, whose temple, like those of the other tutelary gods, was on the citadel.

320. Sacra, deos: cf. 1. 293. victos: as in I, 68. 321. trahit: ‘leads.'

cursu tendit: ‘hastens'; lit. 'holds (his way) with running.' limina: “(my) threshold '; the house of Anchises and Aeneas. The arrival of Panthus with the sacra is a fulfillment of the words of Hector's ghost: Troy commits to thee her gods. See l. 293. The poet leaves us to understand that the child and the sacred objects are left by Panthus at the palace of Anchises. See l. 717.

322. res summa: ‘the common weal.' Quo loco: in what condition.' Panthu: the Latin vocative, from the Greek IIá vdov.

quam prendimus arcem ? what stronghold are we to seize?' The present is used for the future, as not infrequently in animated discourse. Cf. III, 88.

H. 533, 2; A. 276, c; G. 228.

324. summa: 'final.'

325. Fuimus, fuit: an impressive way of saying, “we have ceased to be Trojans; Ilium no longer exists.' H. 538, 1; LM. 743; A. 279, a; G. 236, 1. (H. 467, III, 5). Dardaniae : dative.

329. Sinon: see note on l. 259. miscet: “scatters all around.'

330. Insultans: expresses the joy Sinon feels in the success of his stratagem, as well as his contempt for the victims of it. alii: ‘others,' as opposed to that portion of the Greeks who have descended from the horse. bipatentibus portis : ‘at the wide-open gates.' Cf. 1. 266.

331. Milia quot: sc. the antecedent tot, the subject of adsunt understood. See note on I, 430. Mycenis: H. 491, II, 2; LM. 605; A. 258, a; B. 229, 1; G. 391; (H. 428, II).

332. alii: another portion of the main body from the ships. angusta viarum: ‘the narrow passageways. See note on I, 422.

333. Oppositi: opposed’; i.e. to the Trojans who attempt to resist. stat Stricta: a lively substitute for est stricta ; suggesting the position of the blade firmly grasped, and raised for the blow. mucrone corusco: ablative of description.

334. primi: those who are foremost, or at the gate. 335. caeco Marte: 'in the blind conflict.' Cf. IX, 518.

336. numine divum: not by his own deliberate purpose, for he had not sat rationis in armis.

337. tristis Erinys: ‘the grim Fury'; the gloomy spirit of conflict. 339. Addunt se socios : cf. VI, 778. 341. agglomerant: sc. se ; 'gather around.' nostro : for meo, as in l. 139. 343. insano: frantic.'

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