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696. Idaea silva : in the pine forest on Mount Ida, south of Troy. The course of the meteor showed that the family of Anchises must flee to Mount Ida.

697. Signantem: ‘marking (its) path'; to be joined with claram. tum: • at the same time.' longo limite: ablative of manner of dat lucem. sulcus : its track'; like a furrow in the air. Servius, the Virgilian commentator (see Introd., p. 26), interpreted the brightness of the star as indicating the future glory the house of Aeneas, its track (sulcus), that there was to be a journey by sea, and the smoke, that they were to experience the horrors of war.

699. se tollit ad auras: 'lifts himself up'; from his couch. See 1. 644.

703. vestro in numine, etc.: «Troy is in thy divine keeping.' Cf. JX, 247. That which survives of the family of Anchises and of the Trojan race represents Troy, and is destined to found a new Troy in another land.

704. tibi: H. 425, 4, N.; LM. 538; A. 235, a; B. 188, I, N.; G. 350; (H. 384, 4, N. 2).

705. clarior: refers to the roaring of the conflagration.
706. aestus, etc. : 'the flames roll nearer their burning floods.'

707. cervici: H. 429; LM. 532; A. 228; B. 187, III; G. 347; (H. 386). Imponere: passive voice, but with middle sense, equivalent to impone te. Cf. 1. 383.

708. subibo: sc. te. umeris: the ablative of means. iste: see note on

1. 521.

Cf. 1. 725.

very rare.

711. longe: 'at some distance.'

The parties must not go in one body, as that would be more likely to attract the attention of the enemy. 712. advertite: with the ablative of animus instead of the accusative is

Trans. as if animos advertite vestros ad ea quae dicam. 713. egressis : ‘as you go out of the city,' etc.; lit. “to those having gone

forth. H. 425, 4; LM. 546; A. 235, 6; B. 188, 2, a; G. 353; (H. 384, 4, N. 3).

713, 714. templum - Cereris : for templum Cereris desertum.

717. sacra: see Hector's admonition, 1. 293. The sacred objects had been conveyed to the house of Anchises by Panthus. See 1. 320.

720. Abluero: to engage in religious rites, or to Fig. 22. — Aeneas flee- touch the sacred things, without first washing the

ing with Anchises hands in “living,' i.e. running, water, was deemed and Ascanius

impious. 721. latos umeros subiecta : stooping (to receive the burden).' See Figs. 18 and 22.

722. super : adverbial. insternor: middle force. Cf. 1. 707. 725. Pone: cf. X, 226. opaca locorum: 'obscure places.'

See note on

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I, 422.

727. adverso glomerati ex agmine: crowded together in an opposing phalanx.' The ablative with ex expresses the composition of the crowd, the material of which it is composed.

729. Suspensum: “anxious.' comiti: see l. 711.

731. Evasisse: “to have passed through in safety. Aeneas now relates the sudden panic which the near approach of a party of Greeks occasioned, and which led, in the confusion of the moment, to the separation of Creüsa from the rest of the party.

735. mihi: H. 427; LM. 539; A. 229; B. 188, 2, d; G. 347, R. 5; (H. 385, II, 2). nescio quod = aliquod; ósome.' H. 651, 2; LM. 818; A. 334, e; B. 253, 6; G. 467, R. I; (H. 529, II, 5, 3)). male amicum: cf. 1. 23; IV, 8.

736. Confusam eripuit: equivalent to confudit et eripuit. Cf. I, 69. cursu: cf. I, 157.

737. nota regione: “from the familiar direction.'

738–740. The irregular construction and arrangement are occasioned by deep emotion. Below (1. 788), the ghost of Creusa reveals to Aeneas that she is in the service of the goddess Cybele, but leaves him uncertain how she was taken away; and this is still a mystery at the time when Aeneas is telling the story.

* Alas! did my wife Cręüsa, torn from me, unhappy wretch ! by fate, remain behind ? did she wander from the path? did she sit down weary? (It is) uncertain. The questions are probably direct. The first interrogative, -ne, would come regularly after misero. For the case of misero, see note on 1. 735.

nec connects incertum (est) and est reddita. 741. Nec amissam respexi animumve reflexi : ‘but I did not look back for the lost one, or turn my thoughts (to her).' respexi: in its literal sense. 742. Cereris : “the temple of Ceres.'

So Apollo, III, 275. For the omission of ad, see note on I, 2.

fefellit: she alone was missing, and was lost by her companions, etc.

745. amens : causal; 'in my madness.' -que: is joined, in scanning, with the following verse.

See note on I, 332. 746. eversa: see note on l. 413.

See l. 714.

744. Defuit

747-804. Aeneas returns through the city, and wanders everywhere in search of Creusa, even venturing into the midst of the Greeks, who now hold complete possession. The shade of Creüsa appears to him, consoles his grief, assures him of her happiness, and predicts his final settlement in Italy. He returns to his friends, who have been joined in the meantime by a multitude of fugitives, and conducts them to Mount Ida.

748. recondo: cf. the use of occulit, I, 312.

749. cingor: with middle sense. Cf. 1. 383. Aeneas had given his weapons to his attendants, while carrying his father.

750. Stat: sc. mihi sententia ; 'I determine.' Cf. sedet, 1. 660.
751. caput: for vitam.
753. Qua: see note on I, 83.

754. Observata sequor per noctem : 'I trace and follow my footsteps back in the darkness'; join retro with sequor. lumine lustro: 'scan with my eyes. Cf. VIII, 153.

755. Horror: put for the objects which occasion horror.

756. si forte, si forte: “if by chance, if (but) by chance. The repetition denotes the mingled feelings of hope and fear. H. 649, 3; LM. 812; A. 334, f; B. 300, 3; G. 460, 1, (6); (H. 529, II, 1, N. 1).

759. aestus: as in l. 706.

761. porticibus, asylo: both ablative of place where. The temple of Juno was a place of refuge and safety, especially on the present occasion, because that goddess was reverenced more than any other by the Argives.

764. mensae: perhaps small tables and tripods of bronze, or of gold and silver. 765. auro solidi: 'of solid gold'; for ex auro solido. Cf. I, 655. 771. sine fine: 'incessantly.'

773. maior: the ghost of the dead was supposed to be larger than the living person.

774. steterunt: has the penultimate syllable shortened by systole. H. 733, 6; LM. 1115; A. 351, 2, N.; B. 367, 3; G. 722; (H. 608, VI). This was the original quantity.

775. adfari, demere: see note on l. 99. The line is repeated in III, 153. 779. Fas: may be rendered 'fate.' aut: instead of nec. See note on 1. 602.

780. Longa — exsilia : 'distant wanderings’; far from your native land. Sc. sunt obeunda.

781. Lydius: the Tiber was often called Etruscan, or Tuscan, because it rises in Etruria; and Lydius is here used by Virgil as synonymous with Etruscus, because, according to tradition, the Etruscans were from Lydia, in Asia Minor.

782. virum : as in I, 264, for hominum; join with arva.

783. res laetae: 'auspicious fortunes.' regia coniunx: Lavinia, the daughter of King Latinus, was destined to be the wife of Aeneas.

784. Parta: destined for thee.' The participle must also be supplied with res and regnum.

See note on I, 553. Creusae: objective genitive; tears for Creüsa.' See note on lacrimae rerum, I, 462.

785. Cf. l. 7. Creusa rejoices that her fate will not be like that of Andromache, and other Trojan princesses, who are about to be carried away as slaves.

See III, 325-327. 786. servitum: H. 633, 2; LM. 1005; A. 302, R.; B. 340; G. 435; (H. 546, 2 and 4).

788. Genetrix: Cybele.

792. collo: is the dative with circumdare, which is separated by tmesis. The lines occur again in VI, 700 sqq.

794. somno: for somnio, 'a dream.' Cf. a similar thought in Wordsworth, Laodamia:

'Forth sprang the impassioned queen her lord to clasp;

Again that consummation she essayed,
But unsubstantial form eludes her grasp

As often as the eager grasp was made.'

797. matresque virosque: “both matrons and men'; in apposition with numerum.

798. pubem : 'a band'; in apposition with the foregoing accusatives, and denoting, as in VII, 219, the whole body of the followers of Aeneas.

799. animis: “in spirit. Their resolution is fixed. Cf. XII, 788. opibus: “in fortune.' They have gathered money, provisions, and the remnants of their movable property.

800. velim: H. 644, 1; LM. 805; A. 287, a; B. 268, 7, a; G. 628; (H. 525, I). "General relatives regularly take the indicative in direct discourse. deducere: the proper expression to denote the planting of a colony.

801. Lucifer: a name applied to the planet Venus as morning star; which, as the evening star, is Hesperus, or Vesper. Cf. I, 374.

803. portarum: all the gates were now guarded by the Greeks. opis: . of (giving) aid'; of delivering my country.

804. Cessi: 'I yielded to fate.' montes petivi: cf. 1. 636.

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Fig. 23. — Present View of the Height upon which Troy was built (Taken from Schuchardt, Schliemann's Excavations. By permission of the publishers.]

NOTE. — The investigations of Dr. Schliemann, followed by those of Dr. Dörpfeld and others in 1893-94, have made it evident beyond any reasonable doubt that the site of ancient Troy was on the hill now called Hissarlik, situated about three miles and a half from the northwestern shore of the Troad, and between the Scamander and the Simois, which came together a short distance northwest of the hill.

The excavations made under the eye of these experts have brought to light nine successive strata, the remains of nine settlements that have occupied this site.

these, the lowest five strata are prehistoric, the second stratum dating, it is estimated, from about 3000 B.C. The sixth stratum is the most important and the most interesting, since this is the one that actually represents the Pergamos of Homer and the ancient Troia of Virgil. Remains of seven large buildings were discovered, of a construction that resembles that of the ancient sites of Tiryns and of Mycenae, the home of Agamemnon. Upon the acropolis were found remains of an ancient temple, surrounded by a wall of fortification, having a strong tower at the northeast angle. Traces of fire were also discovered.

BOOK III

The voyages and settlements of Aeneas before his arrival at Carthage.

The time embraced in the narrative of this book is nearly seven years. It begins with the events immediately succeeding the fall of Troy, which occurred traditionally in 1184 B.C. The Trojan fugitives, under the command of Aeneas, spent the remainder of the summer, and the following winter, in building ships in the harbor of Antandros (sub Antandro), a city on the southern side of Mount Ida. This was the first year, i.e. the first summer and winter, after the fall of Troy. The second year begins with the departure of the exiles (early in the summer) for Thrace, and is spent in the attempt to establish a colony there (1l. 13-69). In the third year the new colony, called Aenos, or, as some think, Aenea, is abandoned, and the wanderers, stopping at Delos to consult the oracle (1. 73), proceed to Crete (I. 131), and commence the colony of Pergameum (11. 132-134). Having passed the fourth year and part of the fifth in Crete, they are compelled by a pestilence to give up this settlement also (1. 190), and sail to Actium in Acarnania, where they remain during the fifth winter (1. 284). They resume their voyage in the beginning of the sixth summer, and first landing near Buthrotum, and meeting with Helenus and Andromache (1l. 294-505), they cross the Adriatic to Portus Veneris, in Apulia (1. 523), and from thence continue their voyage along the coasts of Italy and Sicily to Drepanum (1. 707), which they reach at the close of the sixth summer, and where soon afterwards Anchises dies (1. 710). In the beginning of the following, or seventh summer (see I, 34 sqq.), they start for Italy, but are immediately driven by a storm to the coast of Africa.

1-68. Aeneas, with twenty ships, built in Antandros, passes over to Thrace and attempts his first settlement of Aenea, or Aenos. After commencing his colony, he is warned by the shade of the murdered Polydorus to flee from Thrace, and again sets sail with his followers.

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