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esting details of its progress from oblivion, in volumes of massive proportion, and seemingly left little for writers of the present day to do except to codify, revise, or abbreviate the prolix literature banded over to them. The author has taken advantage of the necessity of a briefer history than has been written, and in a single volume, whose mechanical avoirdupois is not burdensome, has recounted the essential features of the history of Scotland. In this particular alone the book justifies its publication. But he has done more than to condense history into an accessible form, or to reduce its material into such shape that the student may be tempted to acquaint himself with it and use it. Too frequently the secular historian fails to discern the religious spirit of history, or, recognizing the influence of religious events and movements, fails to interpret them correctly or to assign them their true place in the order of phenomena. It was the quietude of the ordinary historian on the religious element in Scotland's history that impelled the author to undertake his task, which he has well accomplished by emphasizing the pronounced religious character of the struggles, institutions, and purposes of his countrymen through the centuries. His work, commeucing with the ante-tradition period, carries the reader from the invasion of Caledonia by the Romans through the successive epochs of self-government and coalition with England to its final absorption into the kingdom of Great Britain, with all that has followed down to the destruction of the “Bloody House." We read of political conflicts merging in battles, religious controversies embittered by social hates and dividing families and churches, and the fate of creeds determined by the drawn sword or by vote of parliament. The picture is bloody, forbidding, but accurately historic and profoundly instructive. With or without larger histories this will be sufficient for the average realer.

Baptist Hymn-Writers and their Hymns. By Henry S. BURRAGE, D.D., Author

of A History of the Anabaptists of Switzerland, etc. 8vo, pp. 682. Portland, Mo. : Brown, Thurston & Co. Price, plain cloth, $3; ornamental cloth, $3 50; half

morocco, $4. The hymn or psalm has always had a conspicuous place in Church worship. It is the heritage and possession of believers, and as one of the means of grace it has inspired the home and the temple with melody, and filled them with the incense of praise. Hymn-writers have constantly appeared in the progress of the centuries, especially since the Reformation, to quicken the Church in its activities and to relieve life of its tedium and labor. All denominations have contributed their quota of hymns to the general fund, but it is doubtful if any denomination can point to a larger number of writers than the Baptist Church. It is, therefore, appropriate that a volume should appear in recognition of the abilities and services of the hymn-writers of this Church. Dr. Burrage has almost exliausted literature in his search for hymns from the pens of those of his own faith, and makes a showing creditable to himself and highly honorable to the people whom he represents. In the biographical sketches of these writers he is skillful in the use of his material, and comprehends the essential

facts, while in discovering the authorship of some popular hymns he surprises the Christian reader at almost every turn. While there is the absence of the spirit of pride or boasting in his work, he justifies the authorship of some disputed hymns by such evidence as allows him his conclusions. The field of his discoveries is a large one. All lands-England, America, Germany, Scandinavia, France, Spain, Greece, India, China, Japan, Africa, Mexico—are searched for the Baptist hymn writer, and the result is always satisfactory. The Anabaptist is surely entitled to large credit for religious poetry, and this volume may be read by all Christians with profit to their minds and hearts.

A Study of the Constitution of the Methodist Episcopal Church: with Papers on

Discipline of Offending Church Members, and the Spiritual-legal Aspects of the Call to the Ministry. By Rev. GEORGE L. CURTISS, A.M., M.D., D.D., Professor in DePauw University. 16mo, pp. 151. Cincinnati: Cranston & Stowe. New

York: Hunt & Eaton. Dr. Curtiss aims to furnish not the history of the origin and development of the Methodist Discipline, but an exposition of the constitutional principles that underlie the exercise of authority in the Methodist Episcopal Church. His long experience as a minister enabled him to detect the necessary limitations of law, and also to see wherein there are possibilities of misuse or abuse of properly conferred responsible power, and so he has wisely set forth, within their limitation, the chief characteristics of the law-making and the law-enforcing bodies of the Church. In the progress of the book, the rights of the member as well as the powers of those in office are briefly but explicitly indicated. He has avoided circumlocutory discussions, and presented the main points, in a dignified style, and with such correspondence with the Discipline that the reader having the one should hasten to possess the other.

A Manual of Historical Literature. Comprising Brief Descriptions of the Most

Important Histories in English, French, and German: together with Practical Suggestions as to Methods and Courses of Historical Study. By CHARLES KEN. DALL ADAMS, LL.D., Professor of History and President of Cornell University.

8vo, pp. 720. New York: Harper & Brothers. Price, cloth, $2 50. The title quite fully describes the book. To study history profitably it is important to understand in advance the character and merits of writers and the nature and scope of their undertakings, or one will read at some risk of losing time and of acquiring imperfect or incorrect data. While specific rules may not be given as an aid in selecting authors, a book characterizing the principal authors of different countries will be invaluable to those who know how to use it. Dr. Adams renders this service to his readers. He sifts German, French, and English literature for the best historical works that have been published, and in fitting words points out their excellences or condemns them for their deficiencies. His plan is so large that he is in many instances entirely too brief in his comments, and many books of great importance are likely to be overlooked by the student because of the paucity of recommendation they receive. With all its worth and its evident proof of labor and fine literary discrimination on the part of the author, we are impelled to write that it is deficient in a very important particular. What is wanted more than any thing else is, not merely a catalogue of books with an analysis of their virtues, but also a particular method or methods of historical study by which the student may select books for himself rather than consult post-graduate courses of study. As a “manual” Dr. Adams's work is satisfactory; but, wanting in a suggestive method of study, it is imperfect.

Lost Chapters Recovered from the Early History of American Methodism. By J. B.

WAKELEY, D.D., with a Memoir of the Author by Rev. WILLIAM E. KETCHAM.

8vo, pp. 635. New York: Wilbur B. Ketcham. Price, cloth, $2. The re-issue of this valuable work will lead many Methodists to re-examine the early history of Methodism, and to study its career from the inauspicious beginning of one hundred and twenty-three years ago in this city to its present marvelous proportions as an evangelizing agency in the world. Dr. Wakeley wrote none too soon, and recovered vanishing material just in time to prevent its extinction. What with attempts made by many Conferences to put into shape the unwritten history of the Church in great centers, on the frontiers, and, in fact, every-where in the land, we fear that much of the early period will never be known, because accounts have not been preserved. If the historical spirit should come to any man in Meth sm, saying, “Write," let him obey, and the generations to come will be grateful to him. Without this book Methodism cannot be adequately portrayed or understood; it goes back to the beginning, and is authentic, because based upon documents about which there can be no dispute. It is history in fact, but it is romance in style, more charming than fiction, and wholesome in impression. The facts he narrates stand out like the events of yesterday, and the history is transformed into current life. We commend the book for what it is, and esteem it all the more because of the excellent appreciative memoir at the close.

Papers of the American Society of Church History. Vol. I. Report and Papers

of the First Annual Meeting, held in the city of Washington, December 28, 1888. Edited by Rev. SAMUEL MACAULEY JACKSON, M.A., Secretary. 8vo, pp. 271.

New York and London: G. P. Putnam's Sons. Paper cover. Price, $3. The “ American Society of Church History” was organized for the “ promotion of studies in the department of Church history.” It proposes to meet in annual session for the discussion of papers on specific topics and the consideration of such business as may properly come before the body. On its roll of members are the names of the most distinguished scholars in the country, besides a list of honorary members resident in foreign countries. At its first meeting eight valuable papers, covering as many topics, were presented and ordered to be published. They appear in the volume before us. Dr. Schaff discusses “ The Progress of Religious Freedom as Shown in the History of Toleration Acts,” in which he distinguishes between toleration and liberty. Professor H. C. Sea familiarizes us with “Indulgences in Spain;" Dr. Foster, of Oberlin, explains Melanchthon's “Synergism;" and Dr. McGiffert, of Cincinnati, adds some “ Notes on the New Testament Canon of Eusebius." The range of subjects is as wide as history; the participants are chosen without regard to denominational affiliation; and, as the purpose is to organize the results of study along a particular line, we may expect a fruitful return from the labor expended by this society. The present volume is of surpassing interest and permanent value.

Turgot. By Léon Say, of the French Academy. Translated by MELVILLE P.

ANDERSON, Translator of Hugo's Shakespeare. 12mo, pp. 231. Chicago: A. C.

McClurg & Co. Price, cloth, $1. Turgot deserves an introduction to American readers. As the first financial minister of Louis XV., and the great political reformer of the eighteenth century, working at those financial and economic problems that now concern all nations, he should be studied with enthusiasm, anıl if found a right interpreter of social conditions, troubles, and their remedy, he should be followed as a benefactor in these times of social discontent and confusion. Few French statesmen have surpassed him in breadth of view, the acuteness of political sense, or the strength of a patriotic and philanthropic purpose. M. Say regards him as the philosopher of the niueteenth, rather than the eighteenth century. In private character Turgot was without reproach, furnishing an example of manly excellence, moral dignity, and honest sobriety that others in public position would do weli to imitate. No better volume has been issued from the French press for many a month. It is instructive in contents, fascinating in style, and statesmanlike in its discussions and conclusions,

Wellington. By GEORGE HOOPER. 12mo, pp. 254. New York: Macmillan & Co.

Price, cloth, 60 cents. Lord Laurence. By Sir RICHARD TEMPLE. 12mo, pp. 203. New York: Mac

millau & Co. Price, cloth, 60 cents. William Dampier. By W. CLARK-Russell. 12mo, pp. 192. New York: Mac

millan & Co. Price, clotlı, 60 cents. The biographies of eminent men of action reveal not only personal character with private traits and dispositions, but also the larger fact of their vital connection with historic movements and the permanency of human influence when once associated with a living idea, or a providential purpose. Interesting as are the details of the individuai life of the actor, it grows in absolute proportions as ii is considered in the light of its achievements. In these books the reader will find both phases of biography: the smaller or individual side of the actor, and the larger and richer consequence of the act that elevated him above the surface of ordinary existence. Wellington's climax was at Waterloo; Lord Laurence exhibited the greatest elements of strength in his administration in Indi:1; and William Dampier, less known than either, surpassed as a navigator on the high seas; but these great lives are of interest all along from infancy to the grave. The books are written in a readable style, and presented in a neat mechanical form. At little cost one may possess himself of the entire series.

The Confessions of J. J. Rousseau. 12mo, pp. 721. New York: Belford, Clarke

& Co. Price, cloth, $2. Jean Jacques Rousseau influenced the eighteenth century in the wrong way, and repressed its moral tendencies so far as the play of one individuality could affect the life of a nation or period. In executing his autobiographical purpose, in this volume, he threw off all reserve and exposed every feature of his career, the ridiculous as well as the sober, the criminal as well as the innocent; and has left the impression that he was, on the whole, unbelieving, treacherous, and reprobatė in impulses and deeds. We read with mingled shame and pity that a human being with ample endowments for life should prostitute it to ignoble ends, and work the ruin rather than the elevation of society.

Brief Annals. By Rev. W. LEE SPOTTSWOOD, D.D., Central Pennsylvania Confer.

ence, Methodist Episcopal Church. 12mo, pp. 351. Harrisburg, Pa. Thomas S.

Wilcox. Price, cloth, $1 50. A budget of refreshing reminiscences is this volume of Dr. Spottswood. The historian chiefly notes the ruling facts, the prominent personages, and the decisive events of history; but the autobiographer may descend to details that, seemingly unimportant in themselves, are seen to be linked with great movements, and often initiated or directed them. Dr. Spottswood was intimately related with our eastern Methodism, and in a modest and pleasant style he narrates his life and its connections with the Church in its unfoldings both in its educational and pastoral history. He writes in a conversational way, and never tires the reader. He is both grave and anecdotal, practical and dogmatic, evincing a calm judgmeat and an emotional nature, and quickens one's respect for Methodism and for the heroes who have built it into its present magnitude and efficiency. Such books supply and preserve valuable material for the future historian.

The Government of the United States. By W. J. COCKER, A.M. 12mo, pp. 274.

New York: Harper & Brothers. Price, cloth, 72 cents. As the book is chiefly an exposition of the constitution of the United States, the title is misleading, for it might mean a history of our republican government, or a discussion of certain administrative functions and acts under them, or the wars conducted by the government, or the history of the people under the government acting in harmony with it. The title is too broad, and certainly is ambiguous. The book is another consideration. Pointing out the defects of the Confederation and the origin of constitutional authority and limitation, the author proceeds in a straightforward and legal manner to expound the principles of the constitution under which the Republic lives and in which it has its very being. The arrangement of the work is admirable; the knowledge displayed of constitutional principles is adequate for the author's purpose; and as a handy volume of reference it will be useful. Designed particularly for schools, it will meet a want and take the place of other and more elaborate studies of the palladium of our liberties.


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