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Trusty, (Sam) his visits to two old widows
Tulips, variety of names to

218 Weather-glass, state

Tunbridge Wells, adventures and diversions at 47 Wedlock, picture of

Tweezer-cases, incomparable, where sold
Tyranny, commands an army against the
region of Liberty

VAFER, (Will) his speech concerning sharpers 56 Whisperers, censured

Valentine, a soldier, story of
Valetudinarians, the order of

Vanity of birth, the greatest under the sun
Varillas, happy in the possession of modesty
Varnish, (Tom) his adventure with a merchant's
wife

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Violins, a species of men in conversation 153, 157
Virgil compared with Homer

Adulteration of

6

Brewers, the fraternity of tried

60

112

90

1

77

252

147, 191

131

131

152

244

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214

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Scheme to govern one

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136

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Contains in all 271 numbers, which were written and contributed to in the following proportion:STEELE-wrote 177, being Nos. 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7. 8, 10, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 19, 21, 22, 23, 25, 26,

27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 33, 34, 39, 40, 41, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 60, 61, 62, 65, 69, 72, 74, 77, 78, 79, 80, 82, 83, 84, 85, 87, 89, 91, 92, 94, 95, 98, 99, 104, 105, 106, 107, 109, 112, 115, 118, 124, 125, 126, 127, 128, 129, 130, 132, 134, 135, 136, 137, 138, 139, 140, 141, 142, 143, 144, 145, 147, 149, 150, 151, 159, 164, 166, 107, 168, 169, 170, 171, 172, 173, 174, 175, 176, 177, 178, 179, 180, 181, 182, 183, 184, 185, 186, 187, 188, 189, 190, 191, 197, 198, 199, 200, 201, 202, 203, 204, 206, 207, 208, 209, 210, 211, 212, 213, 214, 215, 217, 219, 222, 223, 225, 226, 227, 228, 231, 232, 233, 234, 235, 236, 241, 242, 244, 245, 246, 247, 248, 251, 252, 261, 263, 264, 266, 268, 209, 270, 271.

ADDISON-50, being Nos. 18, 37, 88, 93, 96, 97, 100, 102, 108, 116, 117, 119, 120, 121, 122, 123, 131, 133, 146, 148, 152, 153, 154, 155, 156, 157, 158, 161, 162, 163, 165, 192, 193, 194, 195, 196, 216, 218, 220, 221, 224, 229, 237, 239, 240, 243, 249, 250, 255, 267.

STEELE and ADDISON-23, being Nos. 20, 24, 36, 38, 43, 75, 81, 86, 90, 101, 133, 110, 111, 114,

160, 253, 254, 256, 257, 259, 260, 262, 265.

STEELE and SWIFT-12, being Nos. 9, 32, 35, 59, 63, 66, 67, 68, 70, 71, 238, 258.

STEELE and HUGHES-5, being Nos. 64, 73, 76, 113, 280.

STEELE and HARRISON-1, being No. 2.

STEELE and TWISDEN-1, being No. 11.

STEELE, ADDISON. and CONGREVE-1, being No. 42.

FULLER-1, being No. 205.

ASPLIN contributed to-3.

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TO MR. ARTHUR MAYNWARING.

SIR,

THE state of conversation and business in this town having been long perplexed with Pretenders in both kinds; in order to open men's eyes against such abuses, it appeared no unprofitable undertaking to publish a Paper, which should observe upon the manners of the pleasurable, as well as the busy part of mankind. To make this generally read, it seemed the most proper method to form it by way of a letter of intelligence, consisting of such parts as might gratify the curiosity of persons of all conditions, and of each sex. But a work of this nature requiring time to grow into the notice of the world, it happened very luckily, that, a little before I had resolved upon this design, a gentleman had written predictions, and two or three other pieces in my name, which rendered it famous through all parts of Europe; and, by an inimitable spirit and humour, raised it to as high a pitch of reputation as it could possibly arrive at.

By this good fortune, the name of Isaac Bickerstaff gained an audience of all who had any taste of wit; and the addition of the ordinary occurrences of common Journals of News brought in a multitude of other readers. I could not, I confess, long keep up the opinion of the town, that these Lucubrations were written by the same hand with the first works which were published under my name; but, before I lost the participation of that author's fame, I had already found the advantage of his authority, to which I owe the sudden acceptance which my labours met with in the world.

The general purpose of this Paper is to expose the false arts of life, to pull off the disguises of cunning, vanity, and affectation, and to recommend a general simplicity in our dress, our discourse, and our behaviour. No man has a better judgment for the discovery, or a nobler spirit for the contempt of all imposture, than yourself; which qualities render you the most proper patron for the author of these Essays. In the general, the design, however executed, has met with so great success, that there is TATLER. No. 1.

hardly a name now eminent among us for power, wit, beauty, valour, or wisdom, which is not subscribed for the encouragement of these volumes. This is, indeed, an honour, for which it is impossible to express a suitable gratitude; and there is nothing could be an addition to the pleasure I take in it but the reflection, that it gives me the most conspicuous occasion I can ever have, of subscribing myself, Sir, Your most obliged, most obedient,

and most humble servant, ISAAC BICKERSTAFF.

TO EDWARD WORTLEY MONTAGUE, ESQ. SIR,

WHEN I send you this volume, I am rather to make you a request than a Dedication. I must desire, that if you think fit to throw away any moments on it, you would not do it after reading those excellent pieces with which you are usually conversant. The images which you will meet with here, will be very faint after the perusal of the Greeks and Romans, who are your ordinary companions. I must confess I am obliged to you for the taste of many of their excellences, which I had not observed until you pointed them to me. I am very proud that there are some things in these papers which I know you pardon; and it is no small pleasure to have one's labours suffered by the judgment of a man, who so well understands the true charms of eloquence and poesy. But I direct this address to you; not that I think I can entertain you with my writings, but to thank you for the new delight I have from your conversation, in those of other

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TO THE RIGHT HON. WILLIAM LORD
COWPER BARON OF WINGHAM.

MY LORD,

TO THE RT. HON. CHAS. LORD HALIFAX.
From the Hovel at Hamptonwick,
April 7, 1711.

MY LORD,

WHEN I first resolved upon doing myself this honour, I could not but indulge a certain vanity, in dating from this little covert, where I have frequently had the honour of your lordship's company, and re

AFTER having long celebrated the superior graces and excellences, among men, in an imaginary character, I do myself the honour to show my veneration for transcendent merit under my own name, in this address to your lordship. The just application of those high accomplishments of which you are master, has been an advantage to all your fellow-ceived from you very many obligations. The elegant subjects; and it is from the common obligation you have laid upon all the world, that I, though a private man, can pretend to be affected with, or take the liberty to acknowledge, your great talents and public

virtues.

solitude of this place, and the greatest pleasures of it, I owe to its being so near those beautiful manors wherein you sometimes reside. It is not retiring from the world, but enjoying its most valuable blessings, when a man is permitted to share in your lordIt gives a pleasing prospect to your friends, that is ship's conversations in the country. All the bright to say, to the friends of your country, that you have images which the wits of past ages have left behind passed through the highest offices, at an age when them in their writings, the noble plans which the others usually do but form to themselves the hopes greatest statesmen have laid down for administration of them. They may expect to see you in the house of affairs, are equally the familiar objects of your of lords as many years as you were ascending to it. knowledge. But what is peculiar to your lordship It is our common good, that your admirable eloquence above all the illustrious personages that have apcan now no longer be employed, but in the expres-peared in any age, is, that wit and learning have from sion of your own sentiments and judgment. The skilful pleader is now for ever changed into the just judge; which latter character your lordship exerts with so prevailing an impartiality, that you win the approbation even of those who dissent from you, and you always obtain favour, because you are never moved by it.

This gives you a certain dignity peculiar to your present situation, and makes the equity, even of a lord high chancellor, appear but a degree towards the magnanimity of a peer of Great Britain.

Forgive me, my lord, when I cannot conceal from you, that I shall never hereafter behold you, but I shall behold you, as lately, defending the brave and

the unfortunate.

When we attend to your lordship engaged in a discourse, we cannot but reflect upon the many requisites which the vain-glorious speakers of antiquity have demanded in a man who is to excel in oratory; I say, my lord, when we reflect upon the precepts by viewing the example, though there is no excellence proposed by those rhetoricians wanting, the whole art seems to be resolved into that one motive of speaking, sincerity in the intention. The graceful manner, the apt gesture, and the assumed concern, are impotent helps to persuasion, in comparison of the honest countenance of him who utters really what he means. From whence it is, that all the beauties which others attain with labour, are in your lordship but the natural effects of the heart that dictates.

It is this noble simplicity, which makes you surpass mankind in the faculties wherein mankind are distinguished from other creatures, reason and speech.

If these gifts were communicated to all men in proportion to the truth and ardour of their hearts, I should speak of you with the same force as you express yourself on any other subject. But I resist my present impulse as agreeable as it is to me; though indeed, had I any pretensions to a fame of this kind, I should, above all other themes, attempt a panegyric upon my lord Cowper; for the only sure way to a reputation for eloquence, in an age wherein that perfect orator lives, is to choose an argument, upon which he himself must of necessity be silent. I am. my Lord,

Your Lordship's most devoted,

most obedient, and most humble servant,
RICHARD STEELE.

your example fallen into a new æra. Your patronage
has produced those arts, which before shunned the
commerce of the world, into the service of life; and it
is to you we owe, that the man of wit has turned
himself to be a man of business. The false delicacy
of men of genius, and the objections which others
were apt to insinuate against their abilities for enter.
ing into affairs have equally vanished. And expe
rience has shown, that men of letters are not only
qualified with a greater capacity, but also a greater
integrity in the despatch of business. Your own
studies have been diverted from being the highest
ornament, to the highest use to mankind; and the
capacities which would have rendered you the
greatest poet of your age, have, to the advantage of
Great Britain, been employed in pursuits which have
made you the most able and unbiassed patriot. A
vigorous imagination, an extensive apprehension, and
a ready judgment, have distinguished you in all the
illustrious parts of administration, in a reign attended
with such difficulties, that the same talents, without
the same quickness in the possession of them, would
have been incapable of conquering. The natural
success of your abilities, has advanced you to a seat
in that illustrious house, where you were received by
a crowd of your relations. Great as you are, in your
honours and personal qualities, I know you will for-
give an humble neighbour the vanity of pretending
to a place in your friendship, and subscribing him-
self, my Lord,

Your Lordship's most obliged,
and most devoted servant,
RICHARD STEELE.

PREFACE TO THE OCTAVO EDITION, 1710.

IN the last Tatler I promised some explanation of passages and persons mentioned in this work, as well as some account of the assistances I have had in the performance. I shall do this in very few words; for when a man has no design but to speak plain truth, he may say a great deal in a very narrow compass. I have, in the dedication of the first volume, made my acknowledgments to Dr. Swift, whose pleasant writings, in the name of Bickerstaff, created an inclination in the town towards any thing that could appear in the same disguise. I must acknowledge also, that, at my first entering upon this work, a certain uncommon way of thinking, and a turn in

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STEELE'S PREFACE TO THE TATLER.

conversation peculiar to that agreeable gentleman, rendered his company very advantageous to one whose imagination was to be continually employed upon obvious and common subjects, though, at the same time, obliged to treat of them in a new and unbeaten method. His verses on the Shower in Town,' and the Description of the Morning,' are instances of the happiness of that genius, which could raise such pleasing ideas upon occasions so barren to an ordinary invention.

When I am upon the house of Bickerstaff, I must not forget that genealogy of the family sent to me by the post, and written, as I since understand, by Mr. Twisden, who died at the battle of Mons, and has a monument in Westminster Abbey, suitable to the respect which is due to his wit and his valour. There are, through the course of the work, very many incidents which were written by unknown correspondents. Of this kind is the tale in the second Tatler, and the epistle from Mr. Downes the prompter, with others which were very well received by the public. But I have only one gentleman, who will be nameless, to thank for any frequent assistance to me, which indeed it would have been barbarous in

him to have denied to one with whom he has lived in an intimacy from childhood, considering the great ease with which he is able to despatch the most entertaining pieces of this nature. This good office he performed with such force of genius, humour, wit, and learning, that I fared like a distressed prince, who calls in a powerful neighbour to his aid; I was undone by my auxiliary; when I had once called him in, I could not subsist without dependence on him.

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The same hand writ the distinguishing characters of men and women under the names of Musical Instruments,' The Distress of the News-writers,' 'The Inventory of the Play-house,' and, The description of the Thermometer,' which I cannot but look upon as the greatest embellishments of this work.

Thus far I thought necessary to say relating to the great hands which have been concerned in these volumes, with relation to the spirit and genius of the work; and am far from pretending to modesty in making this acknowledgment. What a man obtains from the good opinion and friendship of worthy men, is a much greater honour than he can

3.

possibly reap from any accomplishments of his own. But all the credit of wit which was given me by the gentlemen above-mentioned, with whom I have now accounted, has not been able to atone for the exceptions made against me for some raillery in behalf of that learned advocate for the episcopacy of the church, and the liberty of the people, Mr. Hoadly. I mentioned this only to defend myself against the imputation of being moved rather by party than opinion; and, I think it is apparent. I have with the utmost frankness allowed merit wherever I found it, though joined in interests different from those for which I have declared myself. When my Favonius is acknowledged to be Dr. Smalridge, and the amiable character of the Dean in the sixty-sixth Tatler, drawn for Dr. Atterbury; I hope I need say no more as to my impartiality.

I really have acted in these cases with honesty, and am concerned it should be thought otherwise; for wit, if a man had it, unless it be directed to some useful end, is but a wanton frivolous quality; all that one should value himself upon in this kind is, that he had some honourable intention in it.

As for this point, never hero in romance was carried away with a more furious ambition to conquer giants and tyrants, than I have been in extirpating gamesters and duellists. And indeed, like one of those knights too, though I was calm before, I am apt to fly out again, when the thing that first disturbed me is presented to my imagination. I shall therefore leave off when I am well, and fight with windmills no more; only shall be so arrogant as to say of myself, that, in spite of all the force of fashion and prejudice, in the face of all the world, I alone bewailed the condition of an English gentleman, whose fortune and life are at this day precarious; while his estate is liable to the demands of gamesters, through a false sense of justice; and to the demands of duellists, through a false sense of honour. As to the first of these orders of men, I have not one word more to say of them; as to the latter, I shall conclude all I have more to offer against them, with respect to their being prompted by the fear of shame, by applying to the duellist what I think Dr. South says somewhere of the liar, 'He is a coward to man, and a bravo to God.'

RICHARD STEELE.

THE TATLER.

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of politic persons, who are so public-spirited as to neglect their own affairs to look into transactions of state. Now these gentlemen, for the most part, being persons of strong zeal and weak intellects, it is both a charitable and necessary work to offer something whereby such worthy and well-affected members of the commonwealth may be instructed, after their reading, what to think; which shall be at the end and purpose of this my paper, wherein I shall from time to time report and consider all matters of what kind soever that shall occur to me, and pub. lish such my advices and reflections every Tuesday, Thursday, and Saturday in the week, for the con

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