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649. circumtextum acantho: ‘bordered with the yellow acanthus.' Perhaps the leaves of the acanthus were imitated in embroidery with golden threads; hence, ‘yellow.'
650. Ornatus : namely, the palla and velamen. Mycenis : put for Greece, as in II, 577
651. peteret: has the last syllable long under the ictus. See note on l. 308. 652. donum: also refers to the 'robe' and `veil.'
653. sceptrum : supply ferre iubel. The scepter was borne not only by sovereigns, but by other persons of rank.
654. Maxima: 'eldest.' See note on l. 521. collo: dative of purpose with monile.
Cf. scaenis, l. 429. 655. duplicem : 'double,' i.e. twofold with the two materials of which it was composed —'gems' and 'gold.' Cf. II. 648, 728; III, 467.
656. celerans: for ul celerarel. Cl. orantes, l. 519. 658. faciem et ora: 'in form and features.'
659. donis : join with incendat ; 'that he may with (aided by) the gifts inflame the queen to madness.' Furentem is proleptic. Scc note on 1. 637. Cupid is conceived as exercising his own power, while aided also by the princely gifts of Acncas; for these awaken kind seelings in Dido. Cf. l. 714.
660. ossibus: cs. VII, 355.
661. domum : 'house'; i.e. 'race' or 'nation,' as in l. 284. ambiguam, bilingues: these words express the natural prejudice of Virgil and the Romans, who employed the term Punica fides as a synonyin för bad faith.
662. Urit: ‘burns,' 'disturbs (her).' Supply eam. She is troubled with the fear of Juno's enmity and her skill in mischief. cura recursat: the anxiety of Venus about Aeneas had been relieved by the promises of Jupiter (see II. 257 sqq.); but now, as the banquet hour approaches at nightfall (sub noctem), she thinks of the new perils of the Trojans, and her fear returns. There may be an allusion to the fact that night is apt to bring back and magnify the anxieties of the mind.
664. meae — temnis : ‘my strength, who alone art my great power, niy child, who dost set at naught the Typhoian missiles of the supreme father.' solus: is to be joined with the preceding words. The thunderbolts of Jupiter slew the giant Typhoeus, hence Typhoia. Ancient artists represented Cupid as breaking in mockery the thunderbolts of Jupiter.
666. tua numina : 'thy divine power.'
668. iactetur: the last syllable is lengthened by the ictus. odiis : cf. ll. 4 and 251, ob iram.
669. Nota: for notum. This accords with the Greek idiom. See Had. ley's Greek Gr. 635; Goodwin's, 899, 2.
671. Iunonia : hospitalities which are extended by the people of Juno, and which are subject to her insluences, can not be safe for the Trojans. quo se vertant: 'what direction they may take.'
672. cardine : ablative of attendant circuinstance denoting time. 673. ilamma: 'with burning love.'
674, 675. ne quo – teneatur : 'that she may not be changed by any divine influence, but may be held,' etc. Cl supplied before teneatur is suggested by the foregoing nie.
675. mecum: 'in common with me'; i.e. as well as I. 676. Qua: 'in what manner?' The question depends on accipe mentem. 677. cari: as in l. 646.
679. pelago, flammis : ablative with restantia. The preposition de, which would regularly be used, is omitted.
680. sopitum: see note on summersas, l. 69.
682. qua: as in l. 18. dolos: 'wiles.' medius occurrere : = intervenire, 'intersere.
683. Tu: is emphatic, as opposed to llunc (1. 680). faciem Falle : 'coun. terseit his form.' noctem : see H. 471, 4; LM. 618; A. 247, 6; B. 217, 3; G. 296, R. 4; (H. 417, 1, X. 2).
684. pueri puer: the association of ideas is aided by the juxtaposition of the words. Cf. V, 569: X, 734. See H. 667; LU. 1146; A. 344, 8; B. 350, 10; G. 681; (H. 563).
686. Regales - Lyaeum : ‘Amidst the royal banquet and the low of wine.' 688. Cf. VII, 350.
690. gressu gaudens incedit: equivalent to gressu grudci incedcre. The god takes delight in assuming the form and gait of lulus, partly on account of his sportive nature, and partly, perhaps, in the anticipation of mischief. The former seems to be the predominant, il nu! the whole, idea.
691. Ascanio: dative of reference, equivalent to a possessive genitive. H. 425, 4, N.; LM. 538; A. 235, a; B. 1SS, 1. N.; G. 350, 1: (H. 384, 4,
692. Inrigat: 'she diffuses.'
694. Floribus et umbra: join with complectitur. adspirans: 'breathing (odors) upon (him).'
695-756. Cupid, having thus entered the palace, disguised as the child Ascanius, exercises his power over the mind of the queen, to make her forget Sychaeus and love Aeneas. She protracts the banquet by making many inquiries of Aeneas about the Trojan war, and finally begs him to give an account of ihe sack of Troy, and of his own subsequent adventures.
696. duce laetus Achate : see note on l. 275.
697. venit: the present. H. 532, 3; LM. 733; A. 276, d; B. 259, 3; G, 229; (H. 467, III). aulaeis superbis : ‘amid splendid hangings'; ablative of attendant circumstance. H. 473, 3; B. 221; (H. 419, III, footnote 3). Tapestries richly wrought with woven and embroidered figures were used variously as curtains, canopies, draperies, and coverings for thrones and couches.
698. Aurea: here a dissyllable. composuit, locavit: the perfect definite, translated with the auxiliary ‘has.' See H. 537, 1; LM. 742; A. 279; B. 262, A; G. 235, 236; (H.471,1). Observe the relation of the tense here to the historical present, venit, 'when he arrives the queen has already assumed her position and taken her place in the midst. mediam: for in medio. Cf. 1. 348. The queen disposes her person with dignity (composuit) on a separate couch in the midst — i.e. in the place of honor, having the Carthaginian princes, such as Bitias (1. 738), on one side, and her Trojan guests on the other. Virgil supposes the guests to recline at the banquet, though this practice does not seem to have been introduced until long after the heroic age.
699. lam Conveniunt: 'are already assembling'; i.e. when the supposed Ascanius arrives,
700. strato ostro: 'on couches draped with purple' (lit. 'on the purple spread over (the couches)'; super is an adverb). Cf. 1. 697.
701. manibus : dative with dant.
701, 702. canistris Expediunt: 'they present in baskets,' or, as others translate, 'serve from baskets.' tonsis villis : with soft nap.'
703. The inner apartments (intus), where the servants are preparing the food, are separated from the courts or banqueting rooms by narrow passages, called fauces. An ordinary dining room, or triclinium, would not, of course, be used on the present occasion. With famulae, supply sunt. H. 388, 4; LM.461; A. 206; B. 166, 3; G. 209; (H. 368, 3). quibus : sc. est, of which struere and adolere are the subjects: “Whose care it is,' etc. ordine longo: 'in a long row,' or 'in long rows’; referring, not to
the order in which the servants stood, but to the arrangement of dishes of food or provisions (penum). To prevent confusion at such an entertainment, all the courses must be properly set out in the inner room by the servants (famulae), so that the waiters (ministri) might promptly perform their duty of carrying the dishes into the banqueting hall and changing the
704. struere : 'to arrange'; i.e. before they are carried to the guests. Nammis adolere Penates: 'to keep the hearth aglow with fire.' The Penates are the gods of the larder (penis) and its contents, and their images were naturally kept near the hearth fire, so that to keep it up is 'to magnify the Penates with fire' (Page).
706. Qui: H. 398, 1; LM. 485; A. 198, a ; B. 250, 2; G. 614, 5; (H. 439, 2). onerent, ponant: see note on l. 287.
707. Nec non et: 'and also. The usage of nec non in juxtaposition to connect two single ideas is peculiar to poets and later prose writers. per limina laeta: 'through the festive halls.'
708. toris pictis: the embroidered coverings (aulacis) mentioned above, 1. 697. iussi: “invited.'
711. Cf. 648, 649.
713. mentem: with expleri, which has a middle force. Cf. l. 481. nequit: H. 298; LM. 334; A. 144, 8; B. 137, 1; G. 170; (H. 296).
714. puero donisque : cf. 11. 659, 660.
715. complexu colloque : “in the embrace and upon the neck.' Pendeo is followed by ab, ex, or in, with the ablative, or by the ablative alone. Cf. II, 546; VII, 184; XI, 577.
716. magnum amorem: i.e. all the endearments that his supposed father wished to bestow.
718. inscia Dido, etc.: «Unhappy Dido, not knowing what a powerful divinity she holds in her embrace.'
720. Sychaeum: see l. 343.
721. praevertere : 'to prepossess.' The god causes her to forget her first love, and reawakens her dormant passions (resides animos), which he occupies with a living object (vivo amore), before her mind falls back into habitual thoughts of Sychaeus.
723. quies : sc. fuit; 'when the feasting was first suspended'; referring to the change of courses (mensae). For the tense to be supplied, see note on I. 216.
724. vina coronant: 'they wreathe the wine cups. CF. III, 525. The Romans, in Virgil's time, were accustomed to put a wreath round the drinking cup as well as round the mixing bowl or crater.
725. Fit strepitus tectis : 'the noise (of festivity) arises in the halls.'
726. laquearibus aureis: the concave spaces or panels formed in the ceil. ings by the beams intersecting each other were called laqucaria or lacunaria,
and were decorated with gold. aureis : a dissyl.
728. Hic: here, as frequently, an adverb of
quam : is the object of implere understood, dependent upon soliti.
730. A Belo: sc. orti.
731. nam: elliptical as in l. 65. hospitibus Fig. 11. - Bronze Hanging dare iura : 'that thou dost appoint the laws of Lamp from Pompeii (1.726) hospitality.' Jupiter is gevios, the patron of
(Taken from Mau's Pompeii: guests. All strangers are from Jove,' Odyssey, les Life and Art. By permis. sion of the publishers.)
733. velis: H. 559; LM. 714; A. 266; B. 275; G. 263; (H. 484, 1). huius (diei): H. 454; LM. 588; A. 219; B. 206; G. 376; (H. 406, II).
736. laticum libavit honorem: 'poured a libation of wine'; a small por. tion of the wine was poured upon the table as a drink offering to the gods.
737. libato: for the participle alone in the ablative absolute, see H. 489, 7; LM. 642; A. 255, c; G.410, N. 4; (H. 431, 4, N. 2). It is not necessary to supply any noun. summo ore : 'with her lips'; lit. 'the tip of the lips.'
738. increpitans : challenging '; calling upon him to drink the pledge. impiger: 'not backward.' hausit: 'drained.'
739. se proluit : ‘drank deeply,' lit. 'drenched himself.' auro: meton. for 'the golden goblet.' H. 752, 3; A. 386, metonymy; (H. 637, III).
740. proceres: sc. bibunt. Cithara : ablative of means. He sings, accompanying himself with the harp. Cithara is often used for any stringed instrument. See Fig. 60. crinitus : Apollo, the god of the lyre, wore long, flowing hair, and hence his votaries are so represented. See Fig. 26.
741. docuit: refers not to the music, but to the natural science taught him by Atlas. Atlas : Virgil adopts here the idea that Atlas was a real personage, and an astronomer, and in IV, 247, that he was symbolized in Mount Atlas.
742. Hic: refers to lopas.