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on a Journey in America, from the Coast of Virginia to the

Territory of Illinois, London, 1818.

Page 9, line 1. Titan. The Titans were twelve children of Uranus and Goa (Heaven and Earth), and typified the lawless, brute forces of nature. In their wars with Zeus they piled mountains upon mountains in attempting to scale heaven.

1. 11. Fergus[s]on (Robert, 1750-1774). One of his best poems was The Farmer's Ingle, from which Burns is said to have derived the idea of his Cotter's Saturday Night. Ramsay (Allan, 1686-1758). "In some respects the best pastoral writer in the world.”—LEIGH HUNT. For an interesting discussion of Burns's style, cf. R. L. Stevenson: Some Aspects of Robert Burns in Familiar Studies of Men and Books. The following sentences are quoted from the same: "To Ramsay and to Fergusson, then, he was indebted in a very uncommon degree, not only following their tradition and using their measures, but directly and avowedly imitating their pieces. When we remember Burns's obligations to his predecessors, we must never forget his immense advances on them. They had already discovered' nature; but Burns discovered poetry a higher and more intense way of thinking of the things that go to make up nature, a higher and more ideal key of words in which to speak of them." Cf. also p. 70, line 6.

Page 10, line 25. Sir Hudson Lowe (1769-1844). A British general who was governor of St. Helena during Napoleon's captivity there (1815-1821).

Page 11, line 1.

amid the melancholy main. Quoted from stanza xxx. of the Castle of Indolence, by James Thomson (1700-1748).

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Page 12, line 12. The Daisy. Cf. To a Mountain Daisy. 1. 14. wee, cowering, etc. Cf. To a Mouse.

1. 15. thole. To endure. dribble. Drizzle. Hoar frost.

1. 16. Winter. Cf. Winter: a Dirge.

Burns in a

1. 20. it raises his thoughts, etc. Psalms civ. 3. note to the poem, Winter: a Dirge, says: “It [winter] is my best season for devotion; my mind is rapt up in a kind of enthusiasm to Him who, in the pompous language of Scripture, 'walks on the wings of the wind.' In one of these seasons, just after a tract of misfortunes, I composed the following song." Commonplace Book, April, 1784.

Page 13, line 6. Arcadian illusion. Arcadia was a district in the heart of the Peloponnesus, shut in on all sides by mountains, where dwelt a simple, pastoral people, fond of music and dancing; hence it has become a synonym for ideal rustic simplicity. Page 17, line 6. "Si vis me flere, dolendum est primum ipsi tibi; tum tua me infortunia laedent." - HORACE: De Arte Poetica. Liber II, 102, 103. If you wish me to weep, you must first feel grief yourself; then your sorrows will touch me. Page 21, line 20. Letters to Mrs. Dunlop. Cf. "Robert Burns and Mrs. Dunlop. Correspondence now published in full for the first time with elucidations by William Wallace." 2 vols. New York, 1898. Cf. also extract from letter on pp. 34-35.




Page 22, line 12. Virgins of the Sun. Knights. . . . SaraChiefs, etc. Probably allusions to Moore's Lalla Rookh, Scott's Talisman and Ivanhoe, and Cooper's LeatherStocking Tales.

Page 24, line 13. vates. Soothsayer, prophet.

1. 20. Minerva Press. A printing house in London, noted for the publication of trashy, sentimental novels.

Page 25, line 25. Mossgiel. A farm near Mauchline, about 118 acres in extent, on which Burns and his brother worked (1784-1786), and where he wrote many of his finest poems. Tarbolton. A parish in which William Burness, father of the poet, rented a farm during the last six years of his life (1777– 1784).

Page 26, line 2. Crockford's. A fashionable gambling resort in London. Tuileries. A famous palace in Paris, begun by Catherine de Medici in 1564, burned by the Commune in 1871.

1. 5. it is hinted that he should have been born two centuries ago, etc. A probable allusion to the idea developed by Macaulay in his Essay on Milton (Edinburgh Review, August, 1825), that "as civilization advances, poetry almost necessarily declines."

Page 27, line 1. Theocritus (3d century B.C.). A Greek poet; a writer of pastoral poetry, of idyls- "little pictures of life." 1. 3. Council of Trent. A council held at Trent (1545-1563), which condemned the leading doctrines of the Reformation concerning the Bible, original sin, and justification by faith.

1. 4. Roman Jubilee. A solemn festival of the Catholic Church, usually held once in twenty-five years. The year 1900 is a Jubilee Year.

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Page 28, line 22. Retzsch (Moritz, 1779-1857). A German etcher and painter, who illustrated the works of Goethe, Schiller, and Shakespeare.

Page 29, line 4. Boreas. The north wind. fell. Keen, doure. Sullen, stubborn.

Phoebus. The sun.
The sky.


burns. Brooks. wreeths. Drifts.

1. 6.

1. 7.

1. 12.

1. 14. bock'd. Gushed.

Page 30, line 7. thowes. Thaws.

1. 8.

snaw-broo. Snow-broth.

glowr. Stare.

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1. 9.

spate. A sweeping torrent after a rain or thaw.
gumlie jaups. Muddy jets.

1. 14.

1. 15. Poussin (Nicholas, 1594-1665). A noted French historical and landscape painter. He painted a picture called "The Deluge," to which Carlyle may refer, but which Ruskin in Modern Painters dismisses with a brief criticism as

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1. 22. Smithy of the Cyclops. Cf. Odyssey, IX. yoking of Priam's Chariot. Cf. Iliad, XXIV.

Burn-the-wind. Blacksmith.

1. 23. Note.

Fabulosus Hydaspes! From the familiar Ode of Horace beginning "Integer vitæ " (Lib. I., Car. XXII.). The Hydaspes is a tributary of the Indus; on its banks Alexander defeated Porus (B. c. 327). It was called fabulosus, because it was in the far East, about which unexplored region numberless stories were afloat in Rome.

Page 31, line 23. Defoe (Daniel, 1661-1731). Best known to-day as the author of Robinson Crusoe. Richardson (Samuel, 1689-1761). Called the founder of the English domestic novel.


Page 32, line 10. red-wat-shod. Wat means wet. whole expression - wading in blood.

1. 17. Professor Stewart (Dugald, 1753-1828). A famous Scottish philosopher who held the chair of moral philosophy in

the University of Edinburgh. During the early years of his professorship he spent his summers at Catrine, on the water of Ayr, not far from Mossgiel; and there formed a friendship with the poet. Cf. note on p. 25, line 25. The passage quoted by Carlyle is to be found in Stewart's Works, edited by Sir William Hamilton. Edinburgh: 1858, Vol. X., p. cxl.

Page 33, line 2. Keats (John, 1796-1821). An English poet whose Ode to a Nightingale, Ode on a Grecian Urn, and Eve of St. Agnes one should read before assenting to Carlyle's harsh criticism. For a fairer criticism see Matthew Arnold's Essay on John Keats.

1. 18. Novum Organum. The title of Lord Bacon's greatest philosophical work, which was completed in 1620. The words mean new instrument."


Page 34, line 19.

1. 22. We know nothing, etc. From a letter addressed to Mrs. Dunlop, dated Ellisland, New-year-day Morning, 1789. Cf. note on p. 21, line 20.

Page 37, line 6. ourie. Shivering, drooping.

1. 7. brattle.


1. 9. deep-lairing. Deep-wading. sprattle. Scramble. scar. Cliff. A steep, bare, rocky place on the side

1. 10. of a hill.

doctrine of association — of ideas.

1. 11. Ilk. Every.

1. 15. chittering. Trembling with cold.

Page 38, line 1. aiblins. Perhaps.

1. 5. Dr. Slop and uncle Toby. Characters in Laurence Sterne's Tristram Shandy, -a favorite book of Carlyle's. Indignation makes verses. Cf. "Si natura negat,

1. 11.

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