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passing in rapid succession-rising from and vanishing into the all-embracing darkness.- LESLIE STEPHEN: Carlyle's Ethics. Hours in a Library.
REFERENCES ON CARLYLE
[Note: The asterisk denotes those which are recommended to be read first.]
FROUDE, J. A. Thomas Carlyle. A History of the First Forty Years of his Life. 2 vols. London, 1882. Also, Thomas Carlyle. A History of his Life in London. 2 vols. London, 1885. (Froude was appointed by Carlyle to be his biographer and literary executor.)
*GARNETT, RICHARD. Life of Thomas Carlyle. Great Writers Series. Bibliography by John P. Anderson.
MACPHERSON, H. C. Thomas Carlyle. Famous Scots Series. NICHOL, JOHN. Thomas Carlyle. English Men of Letters
Thomas Carlyle. Edinburgh, 1881.
Series. *NICHOLL, H. J.
Criticism and Personal Recollections
*ARNOLD, MATTHEW. Discourses in America. London, 1885. Emerson [and Carlyle], pp. 138-207. (Should be read in connection with the Correspondence of Emerson and Carlyle.) Cf. BURROUGHS (op. cit.).
BAYNE, PETER. Lessons from My Masters, Carlyle, Tennyson, and Ruskin. London, 1879.
*BIRRELL, A. Obiter Dicta, First Series. London, 1884. pp. 1-54.
BLUNT, REGINALD. The Carlyles' Chelsea Home. London,
BROWNING, ELIZABETH BARRETT.
On Carlyle. Poet Lore,
Vol. X., pp. 612-618. (1898.) *BURROUGHS, JOHN. Fresh Fields. Boston, 1885. A Sunday in Cheyne Row. (Describes a meeting with Carlyle in 1871.) In Carlyle's Country. Indoor Studies. Boston, 1889. Arnold's View of Carlyle and Emerson. (Cf. ARNOLD (op. cit.). For the same articles, see Century, Vol. 26, pp. 530-543, and Vol. 27, pp. 925–932, and Atlantic Monthly, Vol. 51, pp. 320-330. All of the articles are illuminating.) CAIRD, EDWARD. Essays on Literature and Philosophy. New
York, 1892. The Genius of Carlyle. *CONWAY, M. D.
Thomas Carlyle. New York, 1881. (Rich in reminiscences of the personality of Carlyle. Contains an interesting autobiography of Carlyle, reported from a conversation).
DAWSON, G. Biographical Lectures. London, 1886. The Genius and Works of Thomas Carlyle. pp. 358-437. DOWDEN, EDWARD. Studies in Literature. London, 1878. The Transcendental Movement. (Develops the idea that what Coleridge was to the intellect of his time; Wordsworth, to the imagination and to the contemplative habit of mind; Shelley, to the imagination and passions; Carlyle was to the will.)
DUFFY, CHARLES G. Conversations with Carlyle. London, 1892
*EMERSON, RALPH WALDO. Impressions of Carlyle. Scribner's, May, 1881. English Traits. (Chapter I. contains an interesting account of his visit to Carlyle at Craigenputtock.) ESPINASSE, FRANCIS.
Literary Recollections and Sketches. New York, 1893. (A considerable portion of the book is devoted to an interesting account of "The Carlyles and a Segment of Their Circle.") For a characterization of Espinasse by Carlyle, see DUFFY (op. cit.), p. 131. GILCHRIST, H. H. Annie Gilchrist: Her Life and Writings. Edited by H. H. C. London, 1887. (Contains reminiscences of Carlyle at Chelsea.)
HARRISON, FREDERIC. Studies in Early Victorian Literature. London, 1895. Thomas Carlyle. Same essay in Forum, Vol. 17, pp. 537-550. (In this will be found a clearly stated adverse criticism of Carlyle.) *HIGGINSON, T. W. The Laugh of Carlyle. Atlantic Monthly,
Vol. 48, pp. 463–466.
HOWE, JULIA WARD. A Meeting with Carlyle. Critic, Vol. I., p. 89. Reprinted in Reminiscences, 1819-1899. Boston,
HUNT, LEIGH. Autobiography. 3 vols. New York, 1850. Vol. II., chap. xxiv., pp. 266–269. (Reminiscences concerning Carlyle's hatred of shams, habit of fault-finding, and paramount humanity.)
HUTTON, LAURENCE. Literary Landmarks of London. Boston, 1885. Thomas Carlyle. pp. 38-40. (Chiefly quotations from Froude's biography.)
HUTTON, R. H. Criticisms on Contemporary Thought and Thinkers. London, 1894. By the same author, Essays on Some of the Modern Guides to Thought in Matters of Faith. London, 1887. (Both works contain interesting
though somewhat contradictory estimates of Carlyle's work.)
*JAMES, HENRY, SR. The Literary Remains of the Late Henry James. Some personal recollections of Carlyle. pp. 421468. Reprinted from Atlantic Monthly, Vol. 47, pp. 593609. (An exceedingly interesting article.)
LARKIN, HENRY. Carlyle and the Open Secret of His Life. London, 1886. (Asserts that Carlyle entertained hopes of being actively employed in public life, of leading great social and political reforms, - hopes that were thwarted by the death of Sir Robert Peel.) *LORD, JOHN. Beacon Lights of History. New York, 1896. Thomas Carlyle. Criticisms and Biography. (Contains a brief review of Carlyle's principal writings.) *LOWELL, J. R. Literary Essays, Vol. II. Carlyle. (1866.) See also Fable for Critics.
MARTINEAU, JAMES. Essays Philosophical and Theological. 2 vols. New York, 1879. Vol. I., pp. 329-405.
philosophical discussion of the personal influences on our present theology of Newman, Coleridge, and Carlyle.) *MASSON, DAVID. Carlyle Personally and in His Writings. Two Edinburgh Lectures. London, 1885. (An important criticism of Froude's biography.) By the same author, Edinburgh Sketches and Memories. London, 1892. Carlyle's Edinburgh Life.
*MAZZINI, JOSEPH. Essays. London, 1887. On the Genius and Tendency of the Writings of Thomas Carlyle. (First published in the British and Foreign Review, October, 1843. It still remains one of the best statements and criticisms of Carlyle's ethics.)
MEAD, EDWIN D. The Philosophy of Carlyle. Boston, 1881. *MINTO, WILLIAM. A Manual of English Prose Literature.
Edinburgh, 1886. Thomas Carlyle. pp. 131-180. (Contains a valuable analysis of Carlyle's style.) *MORLEY, JOHN. lyle. OLIPHANT, MRS. M. W.
Critical Miscellanies. London, 1871. Car
Macmillan's Magazine, Vol. 43, pp.
482-496. (Personal recollections of Carlyle in his old age.) PARTON, JAMES (ED.) Some Noted Princes, Authors, and Statesmen of Our Time. New York, 1885. Tea with Carlyle. Anon. Thomas Carlyle, by the editor. Carlyle: His Work and His Wife, by Louise Chandler Moulton. (Written in a popular, entertaining style.)
RUSKIN, JOHN. Fors Clavigera. London, 1871-1884. (Passim.) *SAINTSBURY, GEORGE. Literary Work of Carlyle. Century, Vol. 22, pp. 92–106. *SCHERER, EDMOND.
Essays on English Literature. Translated by George Saintsbury. New York, 1891. Thomas Carlyle.
SEELEY, J. R. Lectures and Essays. London, 1870.
essay on Milton's Political Opinions, Milton as prophet of national health" is contrasted with Carlyle as "the prophet of national decay.")
*SHAIRP, J. C. Aspects of Poetry. Boston, 1882. Prose Poets: Thomas Carlyle. (See also the essay on Cardinal Newman for a significant contrast between the style and thought of Carlyle and that of Newman.)
*STEPHEN, LESLIE. Hours in a Library. 3 vols.
London, 1892. Carlyle's Ethics. (Same essay in the Cornhill Magazine, Vol. 44, pp. 664-683.)
THAYER, W. R. Throne Makers. Boston, 1899. Carlyle. (First printed in the Forum, Vol. 20, pp. 465-479. eulogy of Carlyle as a moralist and historian.) *THOREAU, H. D. A Yankee in Canada. Boston, 1878.