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snows of the high Alps, where many of them perished from sometimes quarreling in the nursery, on whose troubled exposure and cold. The news of this persecution, so brutal life the strong mother looks without dread, knowing that in its method, aroused deep feeling throughout Europe, out of even the apparent evil there will issue, if the children and stirred the heart of England profoundly. As the be but rightly guided, a better, braver, clearer-thoughted, leader of Protestant Europe, the English felt a deep stronger-willed manhood, so we in this little nursery of and sacred sense of responsibility. One of the great- ours play our child games, and fight our child battles, and est of Englishmen was then at the head of the State, suffer our child sorrows, while the strong God looks down and the appeal of the suffering Vaudois found no un- on us with infinite tenderness, but with infinite peace. It certain response in the heart of Oliver Cromwell. An is well sometimes for us to flee from the nursery strife, Ambassador was sent to the country to ascertain the facts, stand for a moment at the divine Mother's side, look up a fast-day was appointed to be observed throughout Eng- into Her calm face, and receive the quiet benediction of land, a subscription of more than forty thousand pounds, Her presence. This it is to "acquaint thyself with God, equal to at least a million of dollars in our day, was raised and be at peace." for the sufferers, and letters of protest were sent to Charles Calvinism has its beatific side. The sovereignty of force Emanuel and to the chief princes and powers of Europe. is terrible ; the sovereignty of law may be dreadful; but Behind the evident indignation and determination of these who can be in terror of the sovereignty of love? "I am the letters of protest, signed by a man who not only ruled but Lord, and there is none else; I form the light and create governed, was the best army in Europe. The edict of per- the darkness; I make peace and create calamity; I the securion was withdrawn, and the Vaudois were not only Lord do all these things." Substitute love for I, and refreed from the outrages to which they had been subjected, read this declaration, and life becomes luminous. Lcvebut were allowed to worship according to their own con- sent calamity becomes a blessing. As when the green science. The spirit of England found expression not only sod sees the plow coming straight toward it, and knows in this energetic and effective action, but also in one of the that in

a few

moments it will be torn up by the noblest of Milton's sonnets—a sonnet which has to-day a roots, and all its glorious verdure will be bruised, and yet new meaning :

can rejoice if it can foresee that this burial of spring pre“Avenge, O Lord, thy slaughtered saints, whose bones pares for the resurrection of a harvest, so the soul that Lie scattered on the Alpine mountains cold :

knows the good God and what glory he brings out of desoEven them who kept thy truth so pure of old,

lations and devastations, fears not the destruction that When all our fathers worshiped stocks and stones, Forget not: in thy book record their groans

wastes at noonday. Love holds the plow-handles and Who were thy sheep, and in their ancient fold

makes the furrows; Slain by the bloody Piemontese, that rolled

“And all is right that seems most wrong,
Mother with infant down the rocks. Their moans

If it be His dear will."
The vales redoubled to the kills, and they
To heaven. Their martyred blood and ashes sow

When in the apocalyptic vision the book of human des-
O'er all the Italian fields, where still doth sway

tiny was brought out, John wept much because no one was The triple Tyrant; that from these may grow

found able to open it. Then the Lamb slain from the founA hundredfold, who, having learnt thy way,

dation of the world, the strong Son of God, the lover of manEarly may fly the Babylonian woe.”

kind, strong in his love and strong in his hope, because he A statesman at the head of the English Government,

could see the end from the beginning, and could in his a statesman even in our own Senate, might learn a lesson

strong love share the sufferings which were to redeem the concerning the power of public opinion from this chapter

race, came forward and took the book and broke its seals. of English history, and a hint as to one method of reliev

And when He did so, forth from the book came war and ing the martyred Armenians.

famine and pestilence and persecution. It is self-sacrificing love alone which dares open the book of human destiny

and let free the awful woes that are hidden in it. For tears The Peace of God

are seeds of joy, and sorrow is the travail-pain of a new life. In troublous times we find refuge in the truth that And all the tumults and strifes are but the dust and conGod dwells in perpetual peace.

Peace is the eternal fact. fusion of the factory whose finished product is man, made Wars and rumors of wars are temporary facts breaking in in God's image, and satisfied only when after life's troubled upon that eternal peace. When the black clouds gather dreams he awakes in God's likeness. in the west, and the thunder seems to fill the heavens with What a tumultuous rapid is that which flows from the reverberation, and the lightning illumines the whole angry foot of Niagara Falls to its peaceful resting place in Lake horizon as with fire gleams of wrath, and the winds, Ontario ! Two drops take this tempestuous and seemingly broken loose, swoop down upon the plain and cut a broad perilous journey together, both tossed hither and yon in swath through the forest, cutting the trees as the scythe the foaming current, both flung now into the air by intercuts the grass-blades in its path, it seems as though all posing rocks, now forced backwards by recalcitrant eddies, nature were in wild chaos. But, in fact, the path of the but both making their way steadily to the lake below. storm is but a few miles in width, and on either side the One, perplexed, distraught, terrified, despairing, cries out sun is shining and the birds are singirg. All the storms to itself, What is all this for? Why was I taken from my of earth are of earth's own making, and rise but a few quiet repose in Lake Erie? The other knows that God thousand feet above its scarred surface. The world itself, has cleft this passage for the river through the rocks, and with all its storms, moves in its appointed orbit through not in vain, and that all thwarting obstacles and jutting unbroken and eternal peace. So our world-storms travel stones cannot hinder his purpose nor block the pathway of in narrow paths through environing peace. So humanity the tiny drop whose roadway has been hewn out for it, moves forward in the orbit God has appointed, through a whose peaceful harbor is waiting for it. So in the midst peace which is never broken. He in whom we live and of the swirls and eddies and currents of this tumultuous move is never tempest-tossed, never bewildered, never life, the soul that knows God moves on serenely to the issue hurried, never perplexed, never bowed beneath burdens too his Maker has prepared and predetermined; kept in perheavy for his carrying. As children playing, worrying, fect peace because his mind is stayed on God.

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perfectly feasible, that the worst is now already behind us, by private enterprise, but have set a high standard, and, by and that the agencies, public and private, already at work virtue of example and by force of competition, have driven along the lines of improvement will ultimately stamp out the meaner and smaller establishments out of business,. all the worst plague-spots.

compelling private lodging-house keepers to provide large, Towards this great end of the cleansing of the slums, well-appointed establisbments which can readily be in-one of the most imperative needs is the creation of a con- spected by the health authorities and the police. For sevsiderable series of small parks and plavgrounds scattered eral reasons needless to discuss (the “floating vote" being through the very heart of the congested tenement districts. one of them), municipal lodging houses in New York could A beginning is ihe difficult step in measures of this kind; not secure public indorsement. The feasibility, however, and, fortunately, the first victories for small parks in New of the provision of model lodging-bouses through private York have been won. The Legislature and the municipal enterprise—under motives of public spirit and pbilantbropy, authorities are definitely committed to the policy. Moder- yet with the assurance of a moderate return vpon capital. ate appropriations have been made. A block of the worst invested-has become clearly evident to those best intenement-houses in New York, known as Mulberry Bend, formed. No fact has more strongly impressed itself upon

the minds of Mr. Milbury and his associates in the work. of the Industrial Christian Alliance (this work dealing with the most unfortunate element of the floating population). than the great need of a series of model lodging houses in New York. One of the social experiments of Calvary Church is a lodging-house in East Twenty-third Street (next to its admirable workir gmen's club, known as the Tee totum, on Mr. Buchanan's Lordon pattern); and this hostelry is highly successíul. It is now well understood that a prominent capitalist and man of public spirit is preparing, out of his own means, to provide for New York a notable series of model lodging. houses. Mr. D. O. Mills, who is engaged in this project, has thoroughly acquainted himself with the British models, and has enlisted the co-operation of Mr. Ernest Flagg, a very brilliaot New York architect.. The undertaking is destined to form one of the most notable forward steps which New York will have taken in this decade in the direction of a betterment of social conditions and facilities.

The field for educational improvement is everywhere an. unlimited one ; but New York's educational deficiencies are by comparison painfully conspicuous. Nevertheless, thevery fact that this necessity for educational reform is now so. appallingly evident is perhaps the most hopeful element in

the situation. A few years ago the condition of things had was demolished last year to make way for one of these

not been laid bare. Few people appreciated the inadequacy much-needed little parks. The policy moves, with a some

of New York's educational methods and opportunisies. what discouraging tardipess, but public opinion will in the To day the work of reform is based upon a better knoolend sustain the small-parks movement and make it effect- edge than ever existed before. ive. Its great champion is Mr. Jacob A. Riis, a journal

The public schools of New York are sadly inferior. The ist whose daily work has given him an unequaled knowledge school system is badly organized, and has hitherto been of social conditions in the tenement districts of New York, fatally involved in Tammany politics. Sume of the teachers and whose books, articles, and personal efforts have availed, are faithful and enlightened, while many of them are of more than the work of any other one man, to acquaint the

poor qualifications, and others are lacking both in characprosperous half of New York with the rights, needs, and ter and in zeal. The school accommodations are so inpossibilities of the working masses.

sufficient that many thousands of children are unable to One of the great needs of New York has been pub- find places. A majority of the buildings are of ill design, lic baths and wash-houses, lavatories, and similar con- and playgrounds and modern appliances are totally lackveniences. Here again the great difficulty was in getting ing. The movement for public school reform is, however, a tangible start. That start has been made. To one of the sub-committees of the Chamber of Commerce's famous “Committee of Seventy" on municipal reform was assigned the subject of pulic baths. Mr. W. H. Tolman, Ph.D., formerly Secretary of Dr. Parkhurst's City Vigilance League, and now Superintendent of the work of the Society for Improving the Condition of the Poor, acted as secretary of this sub-committee; and Mayor Strong, when bis administration began, retained the committee as a Mayor's advisory group for the initiation of the policy. A practical result is the appropriation of $150,000 for the construction, in a crowded tenement district, of a well-appointed model public bath on the best European lines. The establishment will be erected in the present year, and its success is a foregone conclusion. It will be followed by others in a series which will gradually supply the entire population. This is no slight mark of municipal progress, but rather a most hopeful and far-reaching line of new public policy.

One of the most difficult problems in a great town is the proper shelter of the floating population. The old-fash! ioned common lodging-house is an exceedingly hard thing to regulate. In the English cities the only effectual means of lodging-house reform thus far discovered has been municipal construction and operation. The municipal model lodging-houses have not wholly superseded those conducted






Setb Low

fairly begun. The disagreeable facts have been unsparingly exposed.
The necessity for manual training in the schools has been recog-
nized, and some progress has been made in introducing practical
lines of instruction. That famous and noble charity, the Children's
Aid Society, has for a great many years maintained a series of so-
called industrial schools, and given instruction to thousands of poor
children, receiving some support out of public funds for its educa-
tional work. The same thing is true of one or two other benevolent
organiz itions. It is now proposed that these schools should be
amalgamated with the public school system. The result will be a
greater watchfulness on the part of the workers in such organiz 1-
tions as the Children's Aid Society, to the end that the public
schools may more completely fill the requirements of the present

One of the most hopeful innovations-even though its statistical
exhibit thus far is very modest—is the free kindergarten. In order
to show what free kindergartens might accomplish, and what place
they were destined to fill in the life of the tenement-house population,
it was necessary that a private society should make the beginning.
A devoted band of men and women have exerted themselves to make
this demonstration a success. Prominently identified with the work
have been Mr. Gilder, Mr. Hamilton W. Mabie, and Mrs. Kate Doug-
las Wiggin, now Mrs. Riggs. It was never expected by them that
New York could be fully supplied with the free kindergartens of a
charitable society. What they aimed at was the ultimate acceptance
of the kindergarten as an essential part of the work of the public
schools of the city. The school board has at length been converted,
and a considerable number of free kindergartens are now maintained
as a part of the school system. The number will doubtless steadily
increase. New York supports seven or eight thousand drinking-
saloons, and not less than ten thousand places where intoxicants are
sold. There ought to be ten thousand free kindergarten classes in
New York. There will at least be somhundreds of them within a


Bishop Potter

Mrs. Rylance (Ellen Coe)


Rev. C. H. Parkhurst, D.D.

Theodore Roosevelt

Rev. A. R. Doyle

Another imperative educational need of the city is a series of popular manual training and practical trade schools and of technical high schools. Thus far the development of facilities for technical instruction and for training in practical trades has been very limited. But some right beginnings have been made, and the city will eventually become aroused to the possibilities of popular instruction in applied art, designing, and all kinds of practical callings. The old Cooper Union, given to the people of New York by Peter Cooper, has served a magnificent end as a people's university and social center. Its art, science, and general classes and its various educational opportunities have made it the central influence in the lives of thousands of young apprentices, clerks, and working people. The Hebrew Institute, far over in the lower East Side of New York, is another social and educational center which is accomplishing a vast work for the young members of that great Jewish population element which is becoming so important a factor in the industrial life of New York. The Hebrew Institute is a powerful agency for the making of good citizens. A long article could be written upon its varied activities and its patriotic and wholesome influences. The Hebrew Technical Institute, the Biron de Hirsch trade-schools, and the manual-training schools which are under the auspices of Dr. Felix Adler and his associates, are helping to supply the need for practical education, and, above all, are serving as object-lessons. The New York Trade-Schools founded by Colonel Auchmuty on the upper Est Side also deserve honorable mention; but their fees place their desirable facilities beyond the reach of the poorest lads. Few persons are aware that the best technical school available for New York's young men, and the one most largely patronized, is supported by the State and is a free boarding-school, with a beautiful country location. The terms of admission, however, are a serious drawback. Lot us hope that the day will come when it will not be necessary for a sixteen-year-old youth in this great city to be guilty of a crime in order to avail himself of such magnificent facilities for trade instruction and for general education and discipline as are freely supplied by the State to the inmates of the Reformatory Prison at Elmira

Among the best and most promising agencies in the general educational field are to be included the so-called “Settlements" and the parish work of the "institutional" churches. The University Settlement, maintained by a large number of gentlemen and conducted by Mr. James B. Reynolds as head worker, forms a most excellent center for the practical investigation of social conditions, and at the same time affords opportunity for the carrying on of a series of clubs and classes which enlist the interest of many hundreds of East Side boys and girls, and which, chiefly through the young people, appeal also

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J. B. Reynolds

William Howe Tolman

Rev. W T. Elsing

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