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derstand, and must highly respect, flocks to seek for the amelioration this conscientious feeling; and far and final abolition of slavery, they should we be from wishing to see are co-operating with both, and asthe Christian temple desecrated by sisting them to triumph in their unhallowed topics.
Bat if our humane intentions over the intrigues readers will take the trouble to and opposition of interested disconsider the arguments in the first sentients to their measures. paper of our
last Number, we But we forbear to enter further think they will be of opinion that into this question, trusting that it the abolition of slavery is not a is not necessary, at least for those theme abhorrent to the Christian who are accustomed to honour our pulpit ; that, on the contrary, it is pages with their perusal. How connected with subjects of exhor- keenly some of our most venerated tation and duty, which imperatively divines felt on the subject of slademand the serious consideration very, even before the abolition of and sympathy of every humane and the Negro slave-trade was proposed religious member of the community. in Parliament, may be seen in many To the arguments of that paper passages, incidental or direct, in we refer our readers; and we shall their writings. Thus, Bishop Wilnot therefore feel it necessary on son, in his deeply devotional and the present occasion to repeat them. affecting Sacra Privata, has a prayer We see not with what consistency for “the Lord's day,” in which he any clergyman who disceros no im- supplicates Him who hath made propriety in preaching for a school, all men of one blood, that he would a hospital, a benefit-club, or a “relieve and comfort all that are humane society ; or who scruples in prison, in slavery, or under pernot to address his congregation on secution for a righteous cause." the usual topics of a national fast Bishop Andrews, in his Devotions, or thanksgiving; cau evince any prays every day for these our desohesitation as to the propriety of late and oppressed fellow-creatures: touching upon a theme, to say the thus, on Sunday, he has “ an act least, far less removed from the of intercession for captives and most appropriate subjects of pulpit slaves;" on Friday, for those who instruction than the sounds of Tra- “ in hard slavery ;” and on falgar or Waterloo, or the death of Wednesday, for "all our poor brewarriors or statesmen. Indeed it thren (and Africans, as well as is somewhat remarkable, that, while others, we 'conclude are, in the the national guilt of the slave-trade language of Scripture and humaconstituted, and justly, for many nity, our brethren,] in captivity, in years a regular theme of pulpit chains, in bitter and barbarvus lamentation, any doubt should be slavery." If it be not a mockery felt as to whether the extinction of to offer such prayers to God, it slavery is a legitimate subject for surely is not unbecoming the Chrissimilar addresses. If it be said, tian minister to exhort his bearers that the ministers of Christ ought to use such lawful means as lie in to leave the question of ameliorating their power towards effecting the and ultimately abolishing slavery to object for which they pray. The the legislature, it may be fairly friends of Bible and Missionary inasked, And why not the slave-trade stitutions justly remark upon the also ? to which it may be added, inconsistency of their forefathers that, in declaring the judgments of in praying in the desk for the conGod for the national guilt of the version of Jews, Turks, infidels, traffic in slaves, the clergy were and heretics, while they did not actually in opposition to the go- follow up their prayers with suitable vernment and legislature of the exhortations from the pulpit; and country; while, in exhorting their may not our children allege a simi
lar inconsistency against the pre- affections. Like beasts they are made to sent generation of our clergy if work under the lash without wages, by they act in the same manner as re
night and by day; and under the lash they
may expire, with scarcely the remotest spects the unhappy slaves in our probability that the arm of justice will colonies; pitying them indeed, and ever, in this world, overtake their murpraying for them, but shrinking from derers. The value set upon their lives, stirring up their flocks to a zealous struction of them, are estimated, not on
and the guilt incurred by the wilful deco-operation for their benefit?
the principle which would recognize their Mr. Townsend, at least, will not participation in one common nature with iucur this censure.
He has both the rest of mankind, viz. “Whoso shedpreached on the subject, and pub- be shed," (Gen. ix. 6,) but on a principle
deth man's blood, by man shall his blood lished his discourse; and has thus which regards them as an inferior order enabled us to state, that it is not in the creation, raised but little, if at all, only a well-meant and zealous, but
above the brutes, and but little more en
titled than the brutes to the benefit of a well-argued and convincing ad- legal protection. In one of the islands, dress, and that it constitutes allo- (Bermuda), if a master stand fully congether such an appeal as could not victed of the crime of wilfully killing or be uttered in vain before a Christian destroying his own slave, his guilt is to auditory. We trust the writer may
be expiated by the payment of a small find bis best reward in the success
pecuniary fine. And, lest even this pu
nishment should be too heavy for the of his benevolent exertions.
venial offence he has committed, he is The object of this discourse is screened effectually against the infliction twofold; first, to shew that there
of it by the inadmissibility, of slave-evi
dence against the privileged class he beexists, under the sufferance and di
longs to." pp. 5, 6. rect encouragement of the people The anthor gives several notes of this country, a case of most fa- and references illustrative of these grant oppression; and, secondly, statements, with more of detail what line of conduct, under such and specification than could be adcircumstances, it is the duty of the mitted into the body of a sermon. British public to pursue.
Many of his notes are very valuable, To prove the first of these points as they throw much light upon the Mr. Townsend refers to a few of actual condition of colonial slavery. the more prominent features of op- In reference, for example, to the pression which characterise West- atrocious law of Bermuda yoticed Indian slavery. These have been in the last extract, he gives the folso often detailed in our pages,
lowing parallel from the slave code we shall spare our readers the re- of Barbadoes. cital, extracting ouly one passage Bishop Porteus, in a note to his as a specimen.
xvii th sermon, page 399, speaks of
a law then in existence in Barbadoes, "From the concurrent testimony, then, of punishing the wilful murder of a Negro the friends and advocates of colonial sla- from wantonness (as the law expresses it) very themselves, and from the daily prac, and bloody mindedness, only by a small tices which they undertake to defend and pecuniary fine. This law has been justify, we find that the slaves are held to repealed: but by the recently amended be the absolute property of their owners; slave code of the colony, if any slave that they are considered in the light of shall be killed while committing, or atmere instruments of profit, liable to be tempting to commit, any robbery, or theft, disposed of, and dealt' by, in almost all or in the attempt to injure any White perrespects, as the beasts of the field, for the
son, the person killing any such slave shall benefit of their possessors. Like beasts not be punished for the same, either they are, many of them, branded in dif- criminally or otherwise."" p. 48. ferent parts of their body with whatever
But rigorous as is the system of marks the caprice or cruelty of their masters may direct. Like beasts they are oppression under which the Westexposed, either in lots or separately, to Indian Slave labours, in every aspect public sale, without regard to the rending under which his condition can be asunder any ties of consanguinity; or to the anguish of soul which the unoffending
contemplated, there is one which, victims may endure, in being torn away
to a Christian mind, is especially for ever from the objects of their dearest appalling, and on which, as might
be anticipated, our author has felt “ With what reasonable hope of sucit important to dwell with great is a Christian teacher to inculcate on the
cess, under the present order of things, emphasis in a discourse from the minds of the slaves the practice of the pulpit: we allude to the effects of several religious and social duties enjoined the system upon its helpless victims in the holy Seriptures? If he begin by considered as reasonable, account- teaching them, that their first duty is to able, and immortal beings.
if worship their Creator in public
and in pri
vate, and to honour his word by yielding slaves were destitute of souls, or obedience to its commands, may not most Christianity were a fable, their con- of them reply,—But how is it possible for dition would be a matter of less us to join in public worship, as long as importance; though even then, on
the Sabbath, instead of being to us a day
of religious rest from labour, is a day of the mere footing of their being ceaseless toil and traffic; and as long as sensitive animals, the pulpit might the labour exacted from us by our taskwell advocate their cause, and masters, by night as well as by day, during the legislature interfere in their be- five or six months in the year, is such as half, as has been often done in be. fresh our wearied limbs with needful rest
not to leave us time enough even to rehalf of the brute creation ; but how and sleep? much more important is this hu- “ If, next, it be attempted to teach them, mane care, this truly Christian that it is the duty of every Christian “to sympathy, when we reflect, that, be true and just in all his dealings,-to
keep his hands from picking and stealing, like ourselves, they are heirs of an and his tongue from lying,' &c. is it to be eternal world, like ourselves partak- supposed they will easily be convinced, ers of a falten and corrupt nature, that it is a crime in them to commit petty needing the same pardon, interested depredations on those by whom they them
selves have been robbed of their dearest in the infinite atonement of the same rights and privileges ;-on those who purcommon Saviour, and requiring to chased them of men-stealers, knowing be prepared for an existence beyond
them to be stolen ; and who, when they the grave, by the same spiritual
had so purchased them, stripped them, as
far as was possible to do so, of every atprocess of regeneration and new
tribute of man which could distinguish ness of life. That our colonial them from the beasts of the stall ? And slaves are, as a body, utterly des- then, with respect to the sacred obligatitute of those religious instructions
tions of truth, can it be expected that a
slave should shew an inviolable respect which these considerations impera
for them, at times when his only hope of tively demand, is so notorious, that escaping the dreaded tortures of the lash we need not at present wade through, is, that he may be able to deceive his opthe melancholy items of proof. In pressor by a lie? deed, to make the slaves a body of If again they are addressed on the subintelligent Christians would be, ac
ject of moral purity and virtue, and the cording to the statements
of some of sanctity of the marriage vow, how can it
ever be imagined, that such admonitions the colonists themselves, to sap the as these would be listened to and obeyed, very foundations of slavery. It is while the
It is while the marriages of the slaves are protrue that a Christianised slave is tected by no legal sanction; while the wife found to be more diligent, docile, may be torn from her husband, and the
daughter from her parents by a dissolute and trustworthy than before his con- and licentious overseer? Besides, to version; for the missionary has in- think of inspiring the mind of a female, culcated these duties upon him;
doomed for every trifling fault, or without but at the best, it is but a mutilat- grading punishment in the open face of
any fault at all, to receive the most deed Christianity that can safely be day, and in the sight of the other sex, with preached before slaves : nor can all the sentiments and feelings which might the obligations of Christianity be be expected to inhabit her bosom, if prourged with effect upon them. The the laws and usages of civilized society;
tected from outrage, and from insult, by following passage from Mr. Town. what were this, even supposing it a pracsend's discourse exhibits some of ticable achievement, but to add tenfold the difficulties under which a con.
bitterness to the dregs of her cup of miscientious Christian teacher labours gination, we may conceive to be bitter
sery, which, without any stretch of imain addressing a slave population. enough already?
" But if, in the last place, the Christian on equal terms with the rest of mankind, teacher or catechist should proceed, ac- to the knowledge of that Divine revelacording to the excellent formulary of in- tion which was designed by its blessed struction provided by our church, to im- Author to be free as the light of heaven press on the minds of his charge their in- unto all who should be willing to poscumbent obligation to learn, and labour, sess it: if he can do this, and can also truly to get their own living, and to do bring himself to believe, that it is intheir duty in that state of life unto which cumbent on him to satisfy the minds of it has pleased God to call them, in what the enslaved Negroes that they ought to a labyrinth of inextricable confusion would rest contented in the wretched and abhe immediately find himself involved ! ject condition they are held in, as being The duty of a subject to his sovereign, or that which it is God's pleasure to allot of a hireling to his employer, is intelligible to them; the arduous task to which he and definable. But, who shall undertake must address himself, in gaining their to define the duty of a Negro slave to his assent to this doctrine, will have this master? On what principles would you peculiarly adverse circumstance attending endeavour to convince him, that the man it, that the clearer the perception, the who bought him of the man who stole him stronger the intellect, the more improved has a good and valid title to his dutiful the faculties, of those whom he is laobedience? In what way it is to be shown, bouring to convince of the justice of his that such a right as this should bind the position, the more difficult will he always conscience to obedience, and make the find it to make them understand, or reperformance of the exacted task a moral ceive, his sayings." pp. 32–39. and religious duty, is a problem which I Such the convincing manner in must leave to be solved by those who are which our author proves the first able to persuade themselves that colonial
This slavery is not repugnant to the principles, position of his discourse. and the precepts, of the religion of Jesus grievous case of oppression being Christ. "He is next to be told, that the thus established, and the evils of services he is to perform for those who slavery shewn to be most appalling, claim him as their property are to be per- he proceeds to point out the duties formed without any feeling of dissatisfaction or reluctance, as necessarily apper
which devolve upon the British pubtaining to that state of life unto which it lic, in reference to this iniquitous hath pleased God to call him ;' and in system. These duties he comprises which, therefore, he should be perfectly under four heads ;-namely, to pecontented to remain ! But can the Christian instructor of slaves conscientiously be. tition the legislature for its abolition; lieve, and teach, that it is the duty of any to diffuse information respecting it; man living to rest contented in a state to assist in the mean time in relievwhich deprives him of his free agency; ing the wants of discarded Negroes and in which, moreover, he is almost irresistibly impelled, in certain instances,
who are among its victims; and to yield obedience to the commands of a lastly, to refrain from the consumpfellow-creature in opposition to the com- tion of slave-grown produce. mands of his Creator? Can any one The first of these duties, namely, passage of Scripture be produced, from Genesis to Revelation, which, without petitioning the legislature, is one "handling the word of God deceitfully, which the public are at this mocan be construed into the inculcating, or ment performing in a manner worthe sanctioning, of such an opinion-I thy of the importance of the cause; had almost said, such an impious opinion, and we trust that their wishes so as this? And then, as to its being the pleasure of the common Father of man- generally and warmly expressed will kind, that hundreds of thousands of his animate both the government and creatures should be fixed in this dread- the legislature to proceed unshrinkdation, to say nothing at this time of ingly in the good work which they the physical evils inseparably attending have commenced, in spite of all the on it ; this surely were an idea too mon- clamour or opposition that may atstrous to find admission for an instant tend their exertions. The second into the mind of any one who knows duty may be best performed by how impossible it is for the God of righteousness and mercy to be pleased with in- joining an Anti-slavery Society, or justice, inhumanity, and crime. While endeavouring to establish one where truth impels him one way, expediency it is needed. The third respects a drags him another. And if, at last, he fund for the relief of slaves in can reconcile it to his conscience not to impart to his sable hearers the whole Antigua, turned adrift by their counsel of God, not to introduce them, masters to provide for themselves, when age or infirmity bas rendered claims its enormities, and enforces them burdensome to their owners, on the consciences of man the newho have enjoyed the fruits of their cessity of its abolition. The only former vigour; a measure, however, argument in its favour, and even we must take leave to say, which is that a most false argument, is “ filhighly questionable, being in fact a thy lucre ;" and well on this subpremium on the violation of laws ject does our laureate bard exclaim, which expressly require, under in his last and highly interesting heavy penalties, that slaves should and affecting poem; in alluding to not be abandoned. The fourth the comparatively mild slavery to relates to a question often referred which the Indians in Paraguay to in our pages, and which we shall were reduced by the Spaniards ; rejoice to see becoming more and
“ For gold, in fact though not in name, more a question of conscience with
a slave, individuals, who feel the moral tur.
The Indian from his family was torn; pitude of slavery. What we would And droves on droves were sent to find now particularly urge upon the a grave whole question of slavery is, that
In woods and swamps, by toil severe
outworn, each of our readers should inquire, No friend at hand to succour or to “ Have we done what we could ?"
mourn, Grief and indignation, be it remem. In death unpitied as in life anblest. bered, are not sufficient; we must
Oh miserable race to slavery born!
Yet when we look beyond this world's exert a warning voice, and stretch
unrest, out a helping hand: and when once More miserable then the oppressors than the this is done universally and zealous- opprest! ly throughout the country, slavery “ Oh foul reproach, but not for Spain will not exist one moment beyond alone, the shortest period that may suffice
But for all lands that bear the Christian
name! for the protection both of the slave
Where'er commercial slavery is known, and his master from the evil effects Oh shall not justice trumpet-tongued proof precipitancy. It is a state ab. claim borrent to our natural feelings, to
The foul reproach, the black offence the
same ? our laws, to our usages, to our re
Hear, guilty France ! and thou, O Engligion. Our judges refuse to recog
land, hear! nize it; our legislators denounce it; Thou who hast half redeemed thyself from the public at large detest it; and shame, the Christian pulpit solemnly pro
When slavery from thy realms shall disap
Then from this guilt, and not till then, wilt * The money would be better employed
thou be clear.' in prosecuting those masters who do
(Southey's Tale of Paraguay, abandon their slaves to starvation.
Cant. III. 9.)
LITERARY AND PHILOSOPHICAL INTELLIGENCE,
Church of England; by the Rev. J. PREPARING for publication :-A Volume Roquet. of Sermons; by the Hon. and Rev. Gerard In the press : - The Civil and EccleNoel ;-Historical Discourses, illustrating siastical History of Ireland ;— The Book the Book of Genesis; by the Rev. F. Close; of Nature ; by Dr. J. Mason Goode; -Life and Reign of the Emperor Alex- The Tourist's Grammar; by the Rev. T. ander; by Dr. Lyall ;-Critical Examina- D. Fosbroke. tion of the Seventeenth Article of the