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Enced by the synods of the Greek Church, ecclesiastical or controversial. The catathey have not all rejected the authority logue also contains history, poetry, traof 'the Latin. Very early missionaries gedy, and other subjects. 'A few are from the college de Propaganda Fide,' philological, and contain an account of the at Rome, found their way among them; Chaldæan language, particularly a disserand at present they are divided into two tation on · Alphabetical Appositions.' This hostile parties primitive Nestorians, who states, that some languages, such as the hold themselves independent of any other Hebrew, Persian, Syriac, Cufite, Elamite, church ; and converted Catholics, who ac- Midianite, Phænician, Arabic, and Chalknowledge a dependence on the see of dee, not having a sufficient number of Rome. Their church is governed by three , letters in their alphabet, were obliged to patriarchs : Simon of Jolemark, a Nesto- use points or appositions to explain the rian, and Joseph of Diarbkir and Mar Elias sense, which without them would be of Monsoul, Catholics. The two latter, only a subject of conjecture or tradition. though acknowledged by the Chaldæans. These points in Chaldee are two, placed are not properly of that nation, but reside sometimes above and sometimes below in Turkish provinces ; but the former is the word, and hence called siome, or opstrictly so: and in fact the Chaldæans of positions, serving the use of vowels. It the mountains, who are the vast majority, should appear from this passage, that the have hitherto rejected all submission to Phænician, and other Oriental languages, the Church of Rome, which denominates so entirely lost to us, were known to them heretics, as they still retain the dis- Hebed-Iesu. cipline and doctrine of their church in “ Chaldee is read from right to left, their primitive independence. Among like Hebrew, and has a greater affinity, the remarkable events of their history, with Syriac than any other Oriental is one which they speak of at this day tongue ; while the Armenian is read from with considerable interest. At a very left to right, like the European languages, early period, a part of their tribe emigrated though the letters have not the remotest from their mountains, and proceeded to affinity, with any European character. India, where they settled upon the sea The following are the sacred books enu. coast of the hither peninsula. They merated by Hebed-Iesu as the canonical brought with them the original purity Scriptures of the Chaldæans, and transof the Christian doctrine and discipline, lated into their language : Genesis, Exobefore it had been corrupted by heresy; dus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy, and this purity, they assert, they still re- Joshua, Judges, Ruth, Samuel, Kings, tain in their remote situation.

Paraleipomena, Job, Psalms, Proverbs, “ Though the state of literature is very Ecclesiastes, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Baruch, low at present among the Chaldæans, they Ezekiel, Daniel, Hosea, Joel, Amos, have produced many authors, who have Abdeas. Jonas, Micheas, Nahum, Hawritten works on various subjects in their bakuk, Sephonias, Aggæus, Zecharias, language. Among these, the most cele- Malachias, Ezra, Tobias and Tobit, Jubrated is HEBED-Iesu, Nestorian Bishop dith, Esther, Daniel Milnor, that is Suof Soba About the year 1550, he was sanna, Maccabees; Matthew from the induced when far advanced in years, to Hebrew, Mark from the Latin, Luke and visit Rome under the pontificate of Julius John from the Greek, Acts, Epistles III. Here he abjured the errors of the general of James, Peter, John, and Jude, Nestorians, acknowledged the supremacy fourteen Epistles of St. Paul, and Apocaof the see of Rome, and was appointed lypse. There is also extant among them patriarch of the Eastern Assyrians, in the a Gospel, compiled by Ammonius or Titiroom of Simon Salachi, who had been anus, and called 'Diatesseram. put to death by the Turks. Among other “ The account which the Chaldæans works, Hebed-Iesu wrote an account of give of themselves is curiously confirmed all the books in the Chaldæan language in some particulars by other testimonies, down to his time, a copy of which is in “ The ten thousand Greeks, in their my possession. He commences with retreat from Persia, passed through the these words : * By the aid of your me- greater part of their country, and Xenomory, O God! and by the prayers of phon particularly describes it. Xenophon's every illustrious just man, and by the details accord precisely with the state of mother of exalted power, I will attempt the country at the present day, after the to write an admirable tract containing interval of 2000 years. divine books; and I will propound to the “ There is every reason to hope that readers all ecclesiastical and profane com- the circumstances of this remote sect positions of all former and later writers : of Christians, now so imperfectly known, trusting therefore in God, I will begin will soon be better understood, and with Moses.' The catalogue contains the their spiritual condition improved. The titles of two hundred and twenty books, Bible - Society of Constantinople has with some account of their contents and opened an intercourse with them, and authors, either originals or translations ; they have expressed great willingness to among the latter are the sacred writings receive the Scriptures." and Josephus ; the former are generally

GAELIC SCHOOL SOCIETY. among

the Protestants much ignorance ex

ists, and that religious spirit is, in maný, The following particulars, extracted from the Fourteenth Report of this highly use- places, wanting, which would excite gra

tuitous teachers to consecrate their ef. ful Society, will remind our readers of the

forts to this labour of love. The Commit.. nature of its plans, and present to them à brief view of the progress made towards

tee have in their former Reports adverted their accomplishment.

to several scattered Sunday schools in The fundamental principle of the Gaelic France, and their number appears to ba School Society is, that it is essential for increasing. An esteemed French pastor

says, “The progress of some of the chilevery man to read the word of God in his

dren is very encouraging. I have every own tongue-in that language in which he thinks, and which alone he can thoroughly them have been touched by the instructions

reason to think that the hearts of many of understand; and although the acquisition the advantage of the Highlands and Islands, I have been instructing for these two of the English language would be much for they have received. I have now placed,

as teachers, twenty young people whom yet, till the English shall cease to be a

years past, and who give me great satisforeign language, the obligation to com

faction. I have had reason to rejoice in municate religious instruction to the inhabitants in the language of their fathers, dren towards their parents, who wholly

witnessing the conduct of many poor chilremains imperative; and “how can a

neglected the means of grace. Christian,"asks the Report, "for one moment reconcile his mind, on any pretext school at Hamburgh contains about 30

Germany.-" The English Sundaywhatever, to the thought of leaving from

children. A German Sunday-school has 200,000 to 300,000 of them destitute of the

been commenced in Hamburgh: it has knowledge of the holy Scriptures ?”

The necessity for this institution clear- prospered, and contains 119 scholars, who ly appears from the answers given in by and pious teachers.”

are taught every Sabbath by 20 gratuitous the clergy relative to the state of their parishes. The Rev. Donald Martin of contains 103 children, and 12 teachers.

Gibraltar.-—“The Sunday school here Abernethy, for example, writes" The

The children, generally, have made conpopulation of the parish consists of 2000:

siderable advances in learning, and some they have only about 500 Bibles or separate Testaments. The young people cellent memory and diligent application.

of them have given striking proofs of exread English, as an operation to be learned Their behaviour in school has much immechanically, and scarcely understand aný proved of late, and the teachers begin to thing at all of what they read; and unhap- discover some marks of serious reflection pily by much the greater_number of the Seriptures aforesaid is in English, and of instructed."

on the great subjects in which they are course not useful. It is a fact that they cannot purchase Gaelic Bibles, though established at Malta contains both Greek and

Mediterranean.-" The Sunday school they have an ardent desire for them; as I English children, who have committed to have set on foot seven Sabbath-evening memory about 40.000 verses of Scripture schools, where they learn to read the Gae- and hymns.

The Greek scholars have learnlic Scriptures, and are delighted with the ed Watts’s Catechism, which has been transexercise because they understand what lated into their language ; some of them they read. But, alas! we have very few

have returned to Greece, and it is hoped books in that language ! and you cannot extend charity more usefully to poor souls ligious knowledge as will proye an abund

that they have carried with them such relacking knowledge than by sending us as

ant blessing to them and their country. many of the Gaelic Scriptures as you can Mrs. Lowndes has established a Sunday spare."-Under these circumstances, we

school, which contains about 25 children." rejoice to learn that the number of schools

Ceylon.The Rev. Mr Knight, a maintained through the year by this Society has been 83, the number of scholars been a regular increase of girls at our

Church missionary, reports, “ There has 4674, and the number of stations occupied since the commencement of the morning service, from about the time

when Mrs. Knight began her instruction Society's labours 243. The aggregate result exhibits a number of scholars equal present at our last service was 53, a greater

on the Sunday afternoon: the number to one-tenth of the population.

number than we ever had before, for this PROGRESS OF SUNDAY SCHOOLS. cites the attention of the mothers, one

Sunday school is a new thing: it much ex. The last Report of “the Sunday-school and another of whom often come to see Union ” contains the following miscella- us, though we have not yet been able to neous notices respecting the progress of get them to assemble with the other sex Sunday schools in various parts of the to hear the word of God." world.

New South Wales. —" In Sydney a dépoFrance.- Numerous are the obstacles sitory is opened for Sunday-school books. which prevail in the promotion of educa- About 100 boys and girls attended the tion and religious instruction. Even Sunday school. The Wesleyan Sundayschools are producing very useful effects. pleasing spectacle. Here all is activity: The school at Botany Bay has lately been the wives of the missionaries, and the revived. In the Paramatta Sunday-school daughters of others, belonging to the inthe children have made great proficiency stitution, with the Messrs. Kemp, the in useful and religious knowledge. Sunday merchants, are all engaged ; and it is a schools have been formed at Castlereagh delightful sight to see all ages, from childand Portland Head. The Wesleyan Sun- hood to grey hairs, under such superinday-schools contain 217 scholars. The tendance, learning their lessons, from the following fact mentioned by Mr. Lawry, alphabet to the most advanced classes, will shew the impression which British reading the most difficult parts of the saChristian institutions produce on the minds cred Scriptures. Mr. Barker says, ' The of savages: A young man from Tonga, Sunday scholars are taught in Dutch; the one of the Friendly Islands, after visit. whole place, old and young, assemble on ing New South Wales, on his rewm, de- the Lord's day for instruction: it is a scribed what he had seen to his relatives : pleasing sight to see a whole village ashe told them especially of the Sunday semble to learn to read.'' schools, and the sacred attention which - The Albany Sunday-school Union the people at Port Jackson pay to the Sab- contains 300 children, of whom 130 are bath-day, and then added, "The people of Hottentots and Slaves, 'who,' says Mr. Tonga will never be wise till they adopt Shaw, though the children of a people the same measures.' The chiefs unani- proverbially filthy, appear at school, every mously replied, “We think so too."" Sunday, as clean in their person, and as

Van Dieman's Land.--"A Wesleyan decent in their attire, as the poor children Sunday-school Union has been establish- of any village in England.'” ed. The following is an extract of a let- African Islands.-“ Mr. Le Brun's Sunter from the Secretary: In a commu day school at the Mauritius, or Isle of nity so peculiarly characterised by habits France, is generally attended by from 60 to of irreligion, and of vice, as that of Van Die- 70 boys and girls, who have made great man's Land, Sunday schools are of tran- progress in their

Bible and Catechism, and scendent importance. Over the fargreater in learning the Psalms. The progress of part of our adult population, we mourn education in Madagascar, in the schools almost as those without hope ; but the ri- of the London Missionary Society, is very sing generation excites our liveliest hopes. pleasing. The children under tuition are The youth of this colony are in general of about 1,200. The King takes a lively a docile and virtuous race; and if religious interest in the schools. On the Sabbathinstruction only be extensively and zea- day the children are catechized from six lously imparted to their flexible minds, a to eight in the morning, both in English reformation will be gradually effected in and Malagash ; at half past one, they are the tone of public morals. Our Union questioned on general subjects, and the consists at present of three schools ; one Scriptures are read by them and translated in Hobart's Town, one at Kangaroo into their own language : at half past four, Point, and an adult school at the Peni- they meet again to sing a few hymns in tentiary. The number of scholars is 79.'' English and Malagash. Several cate

South Seas.--" In the Georgian and So- chisms and elementary books, and a small ciety Islands there are 2,500 adults, and collection of hymus, have been prepared." 2,300 children receiving school instruction America.—' A Sunday-school Institufrom the London Missionary Society. It tion has been established for the whole is pleasing to observe that the Christian of the United States. The society has Sabbath is commonly recognized, and commenced with 723 schools, 7,337 that many native teachers are coming Teachers, and 48,681 scholars. There forward. 'At Huahine the Sunday school are many other societies, and Sundayis very prosperous."

schools are become general through the West Africa.-" The numerous schools United States.” of the Church Missionary Society have British America.--" In Canada Sundaycontinued to diffuse their benefits among schools are so highly esteemed that the the liberated Africans. The Wesleyan legislature of Upper Canada appropriated Mission has a school at Bathurst, and the last year 1501. to promote these instituSociety of Friends a “ First-day' school tions generally, without any distinction of at Birkow."

name or party. The Committee report South Africa" The Sabbath school at the formation of the Niagara Sundaythe Rev. Dr. Philip's has an average at- school Union. A Sunday-school has tendance of 70 children, who are taught been established among the Mohawk Inby 12 teachers. At Stellenbosch, a Sun- dians, at the Grand River. In Halifax, day school has been established for the in Pictou, and in the interior, there are benefit of the slaves. At Pacaltsdorp the several Sunday-schools. Sunday-schools school contains from 50 to 60 boys. "Re- have been established in various parts of specting the Sabbath school at Bethels. Prince Edward's Island. In Newfounddorp, Dr. Philip writes, • The people land there are Sunday-schools in various meet at eight o'clock in the morning, and scattered situations." in the afternoon. This school exhibits a West Indies.--" The Sunday-schools,

generally speaking, continue to prosper: dium of the English. Aware of this failure, part of them are only catechetical schools, and desirous of conveying moral and relibut in others the children are taught also gious knowledge to the people, the Society to read. In Antigua, Sunday-schools have made use of the Gaelic language as the prospered greatly: the Church Missionary medium ; but at the same time, to meet schools contain 1836 children, and 133 the wishes of many, and to accomplish adults; the Wesleyan about 1200 scho- what might be done by schools to extend lars; and the Moravian a considerable the knowledge of the English, they pronumber.”

vided that the children should be taught South America.--" Throughout this im- to read that language also. mense region general education is rapidly “ The destitution of education in the spreading. The first Sunday school has Highlands falls to be noticed. To this been established at Buenos Ayres.” subject much of the attention of the So

ciety has been directed; and they have now HIGHLAND EDUCATION

in course of publication the results of a SOCIETY.

minute investigation into the state of every We have given, at a former page of this Highland parish. We do not here mean Number, from the Report of the Gaelic to anticipate the information which that School Society, some particulars respecting document will exhibit, but will shew by a the state of education in the Highlands and numerical statement how inadequate the Islands of Scotland. To these we add the means presently employed are to the wants following, from the Report of the Society of the existing population. for the Éducation of the Poor in the High- The population of the Highlands is lands.

400,000; allowing one in ten of this ag“ It must be obvious to every one,” re- gregate for a school-going population, we marks the Report, “ that the more a people have 40,000 to be educated. The schools are enlightened, the more access is there at present in operation over all the Highto influence them through their under- lands and Islands may be enumerated as standing and conscience; and if the edu- follows:cation proposed for them is calculated to “ Parochial Schools, 130; those of the bring moral principles to bear upon them, Scottish Society for propagating Christian to teach them their responsibility to God Knowledge, and also those stationed in the their duties to one another, and to enforcé Orkneys and elsewhere without the Highthese by the high sanction of religion, land boundary, may be reckoned at 126; there is not only power communicated, those of the Gaelic School Society, 81; but to that power is given a safe and salu- of the Inverness Society, 75; the Glastary direction. We hold, therefore, that gow Society, 48; endowed schools, and the education of the lower orders should private seminaries, within the Highlands, be mainly religious and moral, and that taking a high estimate, 40;-in all, 500. the Bible should be employed to impress Five hundred schools, at the common with all the sacredness of its authority the average of 40 to a school, should provide minds of our useful population. But to education for 20,000 children. We have convey moral lessons, from whatever seen that the number actually requiring source, we must employ an intelligent education is 40,000.; so that schools promedium. Our instructions must be clothed vide, by all the existing societies and pain the vernacular language of the people. rochial institutions, for no more than one This seem so obvious, that, were it not for half of the youthful population of the our knowledge of the contrary, we could Highlands. not suppose that ever it would have en- “But were the schools doubled, so as tered into the minds of men to propose to apparently to meet the wants of the pomake a people wise and virtuous, by con- pulation, the actual wants would be found veying instruction in a language one word to exceed the provision, because of the of which they did not understand. population being scattered over an exten“Or if it should seem that, however un- sive surface and

separated by natural barwarrantable is its immediate use, yet in riers, which would in many cases preclude a short time this foreign language might the possibility of assembling the estimated become domesticated, and generally un

number at the schools. The same geoderstood, by being made the vehicle of graphical obstacle precludes the hope of early instruction, we appeal to the fact, being able to meet the exigency by enthat for nearly 100 years the experiment larging the school accommodation and of introducing English, through the schools increasing the number of pupils in each in the Highlands, has been making; and seminary.". so little has the progress been, that the The Society state, that their expenditure line of demarcation which separated the for the year, including the expense of the Gaelic and the English territory in Scot- central school, was 6571. and the num. land, at the commencement of that period, ber of their schools was at that period remains the same to this day, and that at 66, which is at the rate of 101. sterling present not one-hundredth part of the per annum for each school of 40 scholars, people of any Highland Parish are capable or 5s. annually for each pupil. of receiving instruction through the me

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STATE OF RELIGION IN MIS- in St. Louis, for the Blacks, in 1818.

SOURI AND ILLINOIS. There are now ten Sunday-school SocieA very defective apprehension seems to ties, and about forty-five schools, that inexist in this country, with regard to the clude not less than 100 teachers and 1250 rapid progress of civilization, education, scholars. and charitable and religious establishments In Illinois there are one presiding elder, in the newly formed States of the North- twelve circuit preachers, and fifty-two American Union. As a characteristic ex- located preachers and exhorters of the ample of the celerity with which such in. Methodist Society; regular and united stitutions find their way to the remotest Baptists, fifty-eight do.: Emancipating tracts, under the influence of our western Baptists, thirteen; (these refuse corresbrethren, we copy the following brief pondence with all slave-holders :) Chrissketch of the state of religion in Missouri tian body, or Arian Baptists, thirteen ; and Illinois.

Presbyterians, two; Cumberland PresbyIn the state of Ilinois there are 22 auxi- terians, fourteen ; Covenanters, one; liary and branch Bible Societies; the first Dunkers, one; Independents (English) was formed in Greene county, in 1823. one: in all, 155. In Missouri are 21 auxiliaries and In Missouri, there are of the Methodist branches, the principal of which is the Society, two presiding elders, seventeen Missouri Auxiliary Bible Society, formed circuit preachers, and exhorters; fiftyin St. Louis in 1818. It has ten branches, three do. of the Baptists; two Emancipatin as many counties. This society has sent ing Baptists; six Christian body; six copies of the Spanish Testament to the Presbyterians ; twelve (probably more) Upper Provinces of the Mexican Re Cumberland Presbyterians; and one Epispublic.

copalian : in all, 115. The first Sunday school in Illinois was Most of the preachers in these States opened in Alton, in 1819. There are now are men of limited education, who devote fifteen county Sunday-school Societies, most of their time during the week to see and eighty Sunday-schools, including about cular concerns, and on the Sabbath and at 240 teachers, and 2400 scholars. The other times of public meetings, preach or first Sunday school in Missouri was opened exhort according to their abilities.

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VIEW OF PUBLIC AFFAIRS.

FOREIGN

or rather, we should say, when most of PORTUGAL.-Intelligence has arrived of those measures were so warmly espoused the death of the king of Portugal. By even by the chief members of the Oppothe treaty formed a few months since be- sition itself. We feel humbly thankful tween Portugal and the Brazils, the suc- to the great Disposer of all hearts and all cession to the crown, so far as is known events for this auspicious unanimity, and to the public, was left undecided. The especially when we consider how many Emperor Pedro will probably have to questions have arisen which might, with make his election between the throne of great plausibility, have been made the Brazil, which he now occupies, and that pretext for most animated and injurious of the once parent state.

We should be contests. truly rejoiced if the arrangements which The plans of Government alluded to in may take place shall be found to open our last Number, for introducing a gethe way for a more liberal basis of go- neral metallic currency throughout the vernment than that which at present ex- country, have been acceded to by large ists in Portugal.

majorities in both houses. The most

material point of debate has been the DOMESTIC.

propriety of extending the extinction of The king has been seriously indisposed banker's notes under 5l. to Scotland, during the month; but, we are happy to where, from the absence of those restricstate, has nearly recovered from his indis- tions on private banks, which, in compliposition.

ment to the Bank of England, have made The proceedings in parliament have our southern banks

our southern banks so insecure, the same continued to be, generally speaking, of inconveniences have not been felt as in a most interesting and gratifying charac- England. Ministers have, however, exter. Never, perhaps, was there a period pressed their strong wish, and we think in our annals, when so little of party most justly, to introduce one regular spirit was evinced in the discussions of system throughout the empire ; but, in that august body: when opposition to deference to the opinions of others, they the leading measures of the executive have advised a committee for considerbranch of ihe constitution was so feeble, ing the subject. They have resisted with

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