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instead of referring their calculations of great western and northern lakes and the longitude to the meridian of their principal Atlantic Ocean. In October 1825, the observatory, should have some common western canal was in a navigable state, meridian; which would introduce into and vessels passed from Lake Erie to the the geography of the world the same uni- Atlantic Ocean. In about eight years, artiformity that exists in its almanacks and ficial communications, nearly 428 miles in in its arithmetic. M. de la Place recom- length, have been opened ; to the Hudson mended the Peak of Teneriffe, or Mont river, from LakeChamplain by the northern Blanc, as a suitable meridian.

canal; to Lake Ontario, by the Oswego POLAND.

river and the western canal; and to Lake Professor Munnich, of Cracow, has Erie, and the other western lakes, by the collected some curious literary details re- latter canal-thus affording an extent of specting Cicero's treatise de Republicâ. inland navigation unparalleled in the In the tenth century, this treatise was in history of mankind. existence, and, in the twelfth century, A Philadelphia paper, in describing a John of Salisbury made several extracts meeting recently held in that city, for the from it ; but, from this period to the revival purpose of hearing a lecture from Mr. of letters, little is known of it. Petrarca, Owen, on his new views of society, states, and Poggius, by whom Quintilian was that, previously to his commencing his recovered, made various endeavours, but discourse, the following questions were without effect, to regain this treasure.

put to him :

:-“Would it be practicable In 1557 a manuscript of it was seen in a to establish your system upon the admisconvent in Poland, but suddenly disap- sion, that the Scriptures of the Old and peared. Petrus Blesensis and Petrus New Testament contain a Revelation of Pictaviensis had read, one the fourth, the the mind and will of God to man; and other the fifth book. This or some other that our first parents were created perfect manuscript of the work is traced, by allu- creatures, but that they fell from their sions in different authors, to various places; original condition, and that mankind are but it has never been recovered.

now in consequence of this disobedience ITALY.

in a lapsed and fallen state ?"' In reply, Mr. A fresco painting has been discovered Owen maintained the reverse of these at Pompeii, representing an eruption of propositions. “ He did not believe the Old Vesuvius, and several processions at the and New Testament to be the word of foot of the mountain. If this picture be God: and with respect to children, he correctly drawn, the site of Naples was did not believe that they were naturally formerly much more elevated than at pre- depraved. Their depravity was produced sent, and the Somma did not exist, or by circumstances.” rather formed a part of Vesuvius.

The Legislature of New-Jersey have UNITED STATES.

incorporated the New-Jersey Institution The Governor of New York, in his last for the Deaf and Dumb, and made a liberal message to the Legislature of that State, provision for the education of children of strongly urges upon them the formation this description residing within the limits at the public expense of a seminary for of that State. the education of teachers in the monito- It is greatly lamented by many of the rial system of instruction, and in those friends of religion in the Union, that the useful branches of knowledge which are military of that country are destitute of proper to engraft on elementary attain- any religious instruction, provided by the ments. He also recommends a gratuitous Government; and that their discipline provision for the college education of in- contains no rules for the uniform assemdigent, talented, and meritorious youth. bling of the troops on the Sabbath for “I consider,” he adds, “the system of our public worship. Their being called out common schools as the palladium of our at any time, or being permitted, by request, freedom ; for no reasonable apprehension to attend it, is by special order from the can be entertained of its subversion, as commanding officer, and is esteemed an long as the great body of the people are act of favour. It is feared that many perenlightened by education. To increase sons, being taken out of the class of citizens the funds, to extend the benefits, and to and placed in that of soldiers, are thus remedy the defects of this excellent sys- gradually formed to an utter indifference iem, is worthy of your most deliberate to all religion. attention.”

About a year ago, the Society of Friends In 1818 was commenced the contem- in North Carolina came to the determinaplated water communications between the tion of sending a large number of Coloured Christ. OBSERv. No. 292.

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Persons under its care to the Republic of admission to the Christian church, and Hayti and elsewhere, so soon as funds are placed in special probation for that could be procured, and the consent of purpose, and would probably, in the course those persons be obtained. The whole of three or four months, be admitted by number of Blacks under the care of the baptism. The prospects of the mission were Society, it is believed, amounts to nearly never more favourable than at present. one thousand.

NEW SOUTH WALES. Miss Frances Wright, a lady who has There are now no fewer than three zealously devoted herself to a plan for the

newspapers published in the capital of colonization of emancipated slaves in New South Wales. The files of these West Tennessee, has just received her journals contain reports of meetings of first company of slaves from the heart of agricultural societies, of proceedings of South Carolina. The following is an ex- courts of law, pastoral charges to the tract from the letter of an American clergy; discussions, political and literary; Clergyman on the subject :-" The friends long columns of advertisements; in short, of humanity are increasing. On the 2d all the characteristics of an English newsJanuary, Robert Wilson left York Dis- paper, in a spotin the Antipodes,a few years trict, S. C., with his entire family of ago tenanted only by a few naked savages. Negroes, for the farm of Frances Wright, The Archdeacon's charge to the clergy of on the Mississippi River in West Ten- New South Wales states, that “ the off

The family consists of seven in spring of this colony has not its equal number-a mother and six children. This either for morals or uickness of apprefamily was bequeathed to Mr. Wilson by hension.” He states further, that they a deceased relative, for the purpose of have the royal commands for the estabbeing brought up and emancipated as they lishment of parochial lending libraries, and became of age. This duty Mr. Wilson that “ three distinct libraries have been soon found to be impracticable, from the sent out by his Majesty, together with a state of public sentiment and change of donation of one hundred pounds, indestate law. Being himself opposed to pendent of the church plate to each of slavery in principle and practice, under all the churches." circumstances, he regarded his own situa


INDIA. tion and that of the Negroes as equally In consequence of a considerable defihopeless. The expense of their passage ciency of writers for the civil service in to Liberia or Hayti, he was unable to India, the clause of the act of parliament meet; and he was too far removed from which excludes from that office all persons the operation of benevolent societies, for who have not regularly studied in Haileythe hand of charity to be extended for his bury college, is to be suspended for three assistance. While thus apparently shut years. Mr. Wynn, who introduced the up, he met with the proposals of Frances measure to parliament, stated that he did Wright. Without delay he commenced not make this motion from any distrust preparations for the removal of his Ne- of the East- India college, which he thought groes, and within three weeks from the had been productive of essential benefit. time of his first knowledge of her estab- By another important legislative measure, lishment he was prepared for undertaking persons of mixed European and native a journey of from five to seven hundred blood are made eligible to act jurors. miles."

Indeed, the bill points out all “good and SANDWICH ISLANDS. sufficient men” as eligible to fill that situaThe Blonde, commanded by Lord tion. Byron, lately returned from the Sandwich The Bishop of Calcutta has returned Islands, whither she conveyed the bodies from his extensive episcopal visitation. of the King and Queen of those islands, During his short stay in Ceylon, he viwith the Chiefs who had accompanied them sited Galle, Colombo, Kandy, and Badto England. At a national council, the dagama, held an ordination at St. Peter's young brother of the late King was ac- Church, attended divine service in the knowledged as the rightful successor; and Malabar and Cingalese languages at the a very decided stand was taken by the churches of St. Thomas and Wolvendal, higher chiefs, unitedly, in favour of the examined the seminary at Colombo, and cause of Christianity. They desired to administered the right of confirmation five secure to the young king a Christian edu- times. cation, and to all his chiefs and people At the recent cession of Malacca to the benefit of instruction. Several of them this country, among the ceremonies which luve offered themselves as candidates for took place on the occasion, was the admi


nistration of the oaths of allegiance which tion, furnished a remarkable contrastto the
displayed a singular diversity of sects and rites of paganism.
nations. The chief of the Chinese settlers The advantages anticipated from de.
approached an altar with a living cock in claring Singapore a free port, have been
his arms, and, having gone through a' more than realised. In a country so remote
series of prayers, proceeded to cut its and barbarous, inhabited by nations so dif-
throat, and to make a libation with its ferent in language and manners, by tribes
blood, hoping that his own might, in like under the intluence of ignorance and all
manner, be poured out should he ever be sorts of vicious propensities, there has
wanting in fidelity to his new sovereign. been so quick an apprehension of the
The leader of some Hindoos, who had benefits of free trade, under the protection
been naturalized for many generations in of British law, that an unexampled increase
Malacca, reverentially approaching the has taken place in the exports and imports
commissioner, swore by the veracity of of that port, in the short period during
the priest—by the horse, the clephant, the which the new system has been in opera-
arms, the accoutrements of the soldier, tion. In 1822 the commerce of the port
and by the merchandize of the trader, that had doubled, and amounted to 8,568,000
he and his followers would be faithful; dollars. In 1823 it had increased to
and imprecated the direst curses on the 13,268,000; and in 1824 to
head of the mechanic and servile man who than 15,772,000 dollars. So great and
should break the compact. The superior salutary has been the stimulus which the
Malayan, being a Mohammedan, swore institution of this free port has caused in
by“ one God, and Mahomet his prophet,” the neighbouring states and islands that
sealing his oath on his Koran. Next caine of 2,899 vessels which have entered the
various Christian denominations, who, by port, only 333 were British property, or
the simplicity of their modes of adjura- commanded by British officers.

no less




The Philosophy of Religion; or, an
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God; a Discourse on the Prophecies and Universe. By Thomas Dick. 12mo. 9s.
the Apocalypse. By the Rev. E. Irving.
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An Address to the Legislature on the
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Clergyman. 8vo. ls.
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second missionary station. Having fixed CIETY.

on Severndroog, Mr. Cooper and Mr. The intelligence contained in the last Re- Stevenson proceeded to that place, and port of this Society relates principally began to establish schools, and, by the last to three particulars; namely, the recent accounts, they had no fewer than twelve establishments of missions in the East under their care, containing nearly 600 and West Indies, and the unfavourable children. The children in these schools circumstances which have caused the So- are chiefly Hindoos; the number of Mociety greatly to abridge the sphere of its hammedans is very small. operations in Russia. The following are Though the instruction of the rising the chief notices under each of these heads. generation has constituted the principal

India.-The late Mr. Mitchell had branch of the labours of the missionaries established ten schools in the town and in India, yet when visiting the schools, neighbourhood of Bancoot; but in con- they had many opportunities for giving sequence of the violence of the monsoon

away portions of the sacred volume to and the weakly state of his own health, such persons as were able to read. Mr. followed by his death, the other mis- Cooper had begun to preach in the Mahsionaries, on their arrival, found them in ratta language. From the Bombay Bible a state little different from that of the ge- Society, and the Bombay District Comnerality of native schools, except that mittee of the Society for promoting Chrisbooks of a Christian instead of a heathen

tian Knowledge, the missionaries have retendency, had been introduced into them. ceived valuable donations of books in the The teachers themselves, as well as the Mahratta language, which have been of children, required the strictest superinten- essential assistance to them in carrying on dance; and as it was very difficult to convey the schools. to them any thing like an accurate idea of West Indies.— The Society's mission to the mutual system of instruction, the mis- Jamaica was undertaken in consequence sionaries resolved to establish at Bancoot of the proposal of some proprietors to bear a central school, in which the whole plan a considerable part of the expense. A might be exhibited, and in which teachers missionary, Mr. Blyth, has been appointed might be initiated in the principles and to three estates, Hampden, Dundee, and practice of the system. The missionaries Content, containing nearly one thousand have not yet been able to establish a slaves. On Hampden the slaves had, for separate school for females. Their chief a number of years past, met for prayer difficulty has arisen from the want of a and religious conversation ; but they said, suitable teacher ; for there is not a single they did not know whether they were in female, in that part of the country, equal in the right way or not. The Directors to the task of teaching her own child to have been informed that many of the read its vernacular language. They also slaves in that quarter of the island had anticipate no small difficulty in obtaining received some imperfect instruction in the scholars; but, as similar difficulties have principles of Christianity from a preacher been overcome in other parts of India, the who lived in that neighbourhood, a Man missionaries have resolved to make the of Colour; others may have heard the attempt, and had already procured a piece Gospel from the lips of a missionary, or of ground in a retired situation for a of some other friendly instructor; and school-house. The number of schools these might communicate what little they connected with the station of Bancoot, knew to others of their countrymen ; and was eleven, and contained 434 children. that in this manner they account for that Two of the Society's missionaries had partial knowledge, and those impressions made a tour through the southern Concan, of religion, which were to be found among with the view of fixing on a place for a them. They hailed with delight the

arrival of Mr. Blyth among them, and had ceased to attend. The pleasing listened to his instructions with the deep- anticipations which the missionaries had est attention. Many of those who ap- formed respecting some of the Persians, peared to be previously impressed with have been disappointed; in the room religion, had their impressions greatly in- of whom no others have made their apcreased through means of his instructions ; pearance. while others, who had formerly been igno- Amidst the declension of his countryrant and careless, were now brought men, Mohammed Ali, a young man who under serious concern about their souls. was baptized by the missionaries, has He has already baptized some, and mar- maintained his stedfasthess; but he ried others. One woman had given proof was informed by the governor of Astraof her sincerity, by separating from a man chan, agreeably to instructions received with whom she had lived many years, from General Yarmeloff, the commander because he would not agree to be married in chief of the province, that, in conseto her. “One evening,” says the mis- quence of his having become a Christian, sionary, “two couples came to ask for mar- he was expected to enter the Russian serriage. They are decent people, and have vice. A short time after, the governor lately had their minds occupied about sent orders that Ali Beg should not be religion ; for it is religion only that leads employed in discharging any duties laid the Negroes to think of marriage." Be- upon him by the Scotch colony. On the sides preaching to the slaves, Mr. Blyth same day, Mohammed Ali had to sign an catechises both them and their children, obligation, that he would not go out of and the progress which they make is stated the city without the knowledge of the poto be very pleasing. The Report does not lice; and he was kept in custody by mention what opportunities are allowed the police until he found security for the by the managers of the estates for these

due performance of it. In consequence most necessary instructions.

of these proceedings, Mohammed Ali, by Encouraged by the prospects of this the advice of his friends, drew up a petimission, the Directors are anxious to ex- tion to the emperor, soliciting permission tend their operations; and they state that to remain at Astrachan, and to engage in it will afford them much pleasure to re- making known the Gospel to his countryceive applications from gentlemen con- men. This petition the missionaries transnected with the West Indies, for mis- mitted to Prince Galitzin, with a request sionaries to undertake the instruction of that he would present it to his imperial their slaves.

majesty ; but this the prince juuged it pruRussia. - In the last year's Report, the dent to decline. These measures have Committee presented a more favourable a most important bearing on the interests view of the state and prospects of the of the mission; for what prospect is there mission at Astrachan than they had been of a Christian church being collected, or able to give for many years before. Pre- what hope is there of the spiritual imviously to this, many of the Directors had provement or safety of individual conbegun to entertain strong doubts, as to verts, if they no sooner become Christhe propriety of persevering in cultivating tians than they may be required to leave a field wbich appeared so barren and un- the missionaries, and enter into the serpromising ; but a temporary light, they vice of the empire? Combined with these state, burst across the darkness in which unpropitious circumstances, an unfavourthe followers of the false prophet had for able change had taken place in Russia in so many ages been enveloped, and gave regard to the Bible Society. Amongst birth to the pleasing hope that “ the Sun the effects of this change, the Report before of Righteousness was about to arise upon us states, that though it was intended them with healing in his wings.” Bright, that the missionaries at Astrachan should however, as the light appeared, it has be employed in printing a new and corproved only a transient gleam.

rected edition of Martyn's Persian New Last year the missionaries at Astra- Testament; and though the types had chan began to have public worship on the been ordered, and had arrived in PetersSabbath, both in the Turkish and in the burg; it has been since resolved not to Persian languages, in the mission-house. At proceed with the printing of it. It was first several Mohammedans were present not even deemed safe to print tracts withat all the services, exclusive of Armenians out first submitting them to the censorship. and individuals connected with the mis- Under all these circumstances, the Direcsionary establishment; but the novelty tors conceived it to be no longer their duty being over, both Turks and Persians to maintain the mission at Astrachan, sup

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