« PredošláPokračovať »
a group of islánds to the south-east of this practice; and the parents natuHawaii
, we are told that children are rally became exceedingly attached sometimes, during seasons of extreme scarcity, killed and eaten by their parents, to their children, as was the case, to satisfy hunger. With the Society Is- under similar circumstances, in Inlanders
, the rules of the Areoi institution, dia. As parental affection increased, and family pride, were the principal mo- they began to view with abhorrence tives to its practice. If the rank or family of the mother was inferior to that of the
a crime, their former familiarity father, his relations or friends usually de- with which is now surprising even stroyed the child. More frequently, how- to themselves; and, in order to mark ever, the mother's rank was superior to their sense of its enormity, the very that of the father. In this case, her relations, in order to avoid the degradation first article in the code of laws prowhich they supposed it would entail on posed by the chiefs, and adopted by their family or class in society, almost in the people in most of the Society variably murdered the child. "The regula- Islands, shortly after their reception tions of the Areoi society were not only of Christianity, is a prohibition of cruel, and, excepting the chiefs, no mem- infanticide, annexing the punishber was allowed to be a parent. Any ment of death to its perpetration, woman belonging to them, who should under any circumstances whatever. suffer one of her offspring to live, would be immediately expelled. The reason
In the Sandwich Islands, although generally assigned for this was, that nurs- not abolished, the missionaries have ing children quickly diminished the per- reason to believe it prevails less exsonal charms of the mother. Excepting tensively now than it did four or the latter, which operates in a small degree, none of these motives actuate the five years ago. The king, and some Sandwich Islanders: those, however, by of the chiefs, especially Karaimoku, which they are influenced are equally since they have attended to the precriminal . Some of the
natives have told cepts of Christianity, have exerted us that children were formerly saerificed to the sharks infesting their shores, and
themselves to suppress it: but the which through fear they had deified; but people do not very well brook their as we have never met with persons who interference; so that, notwithstandhave ever offered any, or seen others do it, ing their efforts, it is still practised, cipal motive, with the greater part of those particularly in remote districts, but who practise it, is idleness; and the rea- in general privately, for fear of deson most frequently assigned, even by the tection and punishment. parents themselves, for the murder of their children, is, the trouble of bringing these painful scenes, by a description
We shall relieve our readers, after them up." pp. 300, 301.
“ Many of the infants in the Sandwich of the almost amphibious habits of Islands are buried in the houses in which the islanders. both parents and child had resided together. In the floors, which are frequently
“ There are perhaps no people more acof earth or pebbles, a hole is dug, two or
customed to the water than the islanders three feet deep, into which they put the
of the Pacific; familiar with the sea from little infant, placed in a broken calabash,
their birth, they lose all dread of it, and and having a piece of native cloth laid up
seem nearly as much at home in the water on its mouth to stop its cries. The hole
as on dry land. There are few children is then filled up with earth, and the in
who are not taken into the sea by their human parents themselves have sometimes
mothers the second or third day after joined in treading down the earth upon
their birth, and many who can swim as their own innocent but murdered child.
soon as they can walk. The heat of the
climate is, no doubt, one source of the This practice, dreadful as it is, for it is scarcely possible to pass along the
gratification they find in this amusement; is scarcely, if at all, more atrocious shore where there are any inhabitants than some of the customs which still near, and not see a number of children continue to prevail among the na
playing in the sea. Here they remain for tives in our own eastern territories, but one child being drowned during the
hours together; and yet I never knew of and happily it seems to be much number of years I have resided in the more speedily about to cease. When islands. They have a variety of games, the natives of the Society Islands
and gambol as fearlessly in the water as embraced the Christian religion, ground. Sometimes they erect a stage
the children of a school do in their playthey immediately refrained from eight or ten feet high on the edge of some
deep place, and lay a pole in an oblique volcanic formation of the island of direction over the edge of it, perhaps Owhyhee. The missionaries visited twenty feet above the water; along this they pursue each other to the outermost the great volcano of Kirauea, and end, when they jump into the sex. Throw- have given a most interesting acing themselves from the lower yards, or bowsprit , of a ship, is also a favourite sublime phenomena which they
count of their journey, and of the sport; but the most general and frequent game is swimming in the surf. The higher
witnessed. The narrative of this the sea and the larger the waves, in their journey will be found very attractive opmion the better the sport. On these to the scientific as well as the general occasions they use a board, which they reader, for the sake of its geological, call papa hé náru (wave sliding board,) generally five or six feet long, and rather mineralogical, and botanical details. more than a foot wide. Each individual The table of contents announces, takes his board, and, pushing it before the burning chasm at Ponahohoahim, swims perhaps a quarter of a mile or journey from Kapapala – lodging more out to sea. They do not attempt to go over the billows which roll towards the
a cavern-reflection from the shore, but watch their approach, and dive volcano by night-departure for under water, and allow the billow to pass the volcano-volcanic sand --superover their heads. When they reach the stitions of the natives respecting outside of rocks, where the waves first the Ohelo—description of the great break, they adjust themselves on one end of the board, lying flat on their faces, and volcano -- pools of water -- banks of watch the approach of the largest billow, sulphur-appearance of the volcano they then poise themselves on its highest at midnight-traditions and superhands and feet, ride on the wave, in the stitions of the natives connected midst of the spray and foam, till within a
with it - names of the gods by yard or two of the rocks or the shore; whom they suppose it inhabited and when the observers would expect to the little Kirauea-Ancient Heiau see them dashed to pieces, they steer with
on the summit of a precipicegreat address between the rocks, or slide off their board in a moment, grasp it by Mouna Roa—probable structure of the middle, and dive under water, while the island. From these copious the wave rolls on, and breaks among the memoranda we extract the following rocks with a roaring noise, the effect of which is greatly heightened by the shouts
notices. and laughter of the natives in the water.
“About two P. M. the crater of Kirauea Those who are expert frequently change suddenly burst upon our view. We extheir position on the board, sometimes pected to have seen a mountain with a sitting and sometimes standing erect in broad base and rough indented sides, comthe midst of the foam. The greatest ad- posed of loose slags or bardened streams of dress is necessary in order to keep on the lava, and whose summit would have preedge of the wave: for if they get too for- sented a rugged wall of scoria, forming ward, they are sure to be overturned; and the rim of a mighty caldron. But instead if they fall back, they are buried beneath of this, we found ourselves on the edge of the succeeding billow." pp. 344-346. a steep precipice, with a vast plain before
“ We have seen Karaimoku and Kai- us, fifteen or sixteen miles in circumkioeva, some of the highest chiefs in the ference, and sunk from 200 to 400 feet island, both between fifty and sixty years
below its original level. The surface of of age, and large corpulent men, balancing this plain was uneven, and strewed over themselves on their narrow board, or
with huge stones and volcanic rocks, and splashing about in the foam, with as much in the centre of it was the great crater, at satisfaction as youths of sixteen. They the distance of a mile and a half from the frequently play at the mouth of a large river, precipice on which we were standing. Our where the strong current into the sea,
guides led us round towards the north end and the rolling of the waves towards the of the ridge, in order to find a place by shore, produce a degree of agitation be- which we might descend to the plain between the water of the river and the sea, low. As we passed along, we observed that would be fatal to an European, how- the patives, who had hitherto refused to ever expert he might be ; yet in this they touch any of the ohelo berries, now gather delight: and when the king or queen, or
several branches, and, after offering a part any high chiefs, are playing, none of the
to Pélé (the goddess of the volcano), eat common people are allowed to approach them very freely.” these places, lest they should spoil their
“ Several of them told us, as they turned sport.” p. 347.
round from the crater, that after such ac
knowledgments they might eat the fruit We have already noticed the with security.
"We walked on to the north end of the of the great gulf, and apparently quite ridge, where, the precipice being less steep, detached from it. The streams of lava a descent to the plain below seemed prac- which they emitted rolled down into the ticable. It required, however, the greatest lake, and mingled with the melted mass caution, as the stones and fragments of there, which, though thrown up by differrock frequently gave way under our feet, ent apertures, had perhaps been originally and rolled down from above; but, with fused in one vast furnace. all our care, we did not reach the bottom
“ The sides of the gulph before us, alwithout several falls and slight bruises. though composed of different strata of
“ The steep which we had descended ancient lava, were perpendicular for about was formed of volcanic matter, apparently 400 feet, and rose from a wide horizontal a light red and grey kind of lava, vesicular, ledge of solid black lava of irregular breadth, and lying in horizontal strata, varying in but extending completely round. Beneath thickness from one to forty feet. In a this ledge the sides sloped gradually tosmall number of places the different strata wards the burning lake, which was, as of lava were also rent in perpendicular or nearly as we could judge, 300 or 400 feet oblique directions, from the top to the lower. It was evident, that the large bottom, either by earthquakes, or other crater had been recently filled with liquid violent convulsions of the ground con- lava up to this black ledge, and had, by nected with the action of the adjacent some subterranean canal, emptied itself volcano. After walking some distance into the sea, or upon the low land on the over the sunken plain, which in several shore. The grey, and in some places applaces sounded hollow under our feet, we parently calcined, sides of the great crater at length came to the edge of the great before us; the fissures which intersected crater, where a spectacle, sublime and even the surface of the plain on which we were appalling, presented itself before us.
As- standing; the long banks of sulphur on the tonishment and awe for some moments opposite side of the abyss; the vigorous rendered us mute, and, like statues, we action of the numerous small craters on its stood fixed to the spot, with our eyes borders; the dense columns of vapour riveted on the abyss below. Immediately and smoke, that rose at the north and before us yawned an immense gulf, in the south end of the plain; together with the form of a crescent, about two miles in ridge of steep rocks by which it was surlength, from north-east to south-west, rounded, rising probably in some places nearly a mile in iridth, and apparently 400 300 or 400 feet in perpendicular height, feet deep. The bottom was covered with presented an immense volcanic panorama, lava ; and the south-west and northern the effect of which was greatly augmented parts of it were one vast flood of burning by the constant roaring of the vast furnaces matter, in a state of terrific ebullition, below." pp. 205–208. rolling to and fro its · fiery surge' and “ We partook with cheerfulness of flaming billows. Fifty-one conical islands, our evening repast, and afterwards, of varied form and size, containing so amidst the whistling of the winds around, many craters, rose either round the edge and the roaring of the furnace beneath, or from the surface of the burning lake. rendered our evening sacrifice of praise, Twenty-two constantly emitted columns and committed ourselves to the secure of grey smoke, or pyramids of brilliant protection of our God. We then spread flame; and several of these at the same our mats on the ground; but as we were time vomited from their ignited mouths all wet through with the rain, against streams of lava, which rolled in blazing which our hut was but an indifferent sheltorrents down their black indented sides
ter, we preferred to sit or stand round the into the boiling mass below.
fire, rather than lie down on the ground. “ The existence of these conical craters Between nine and ten, the dark clouds led us to conclude, that the boiling caldron and heavy fog, that, since the setting of of lava before us did not form the focus of the sun had hung over the volcano, graduthe volcano; that this mass of melted lava ally cleared away, and the fires of Kirauea, was comparatively shallow; and that the darting their fierce light athwart the midbasin in which it was contained was sepa- night gloom, unfolded a sight terrible and rated, by a stratum of solid matter, from sublime beyond all we had yet seen. the great volcanic abyss, which constantly “ The agitated mass of liquid lava, like poured out its melted contents through a flood of melted metal, raged with tumulthese numerous craters into this upper re- tuous whirl. The lively flame that danced servoir. We were further inclined to this
over its undulating surface, tinged with opinion, from the vast columns of vapour sulphureous blue, or glowing with minecontinually ascending from the chasms in ral red, cast a broad glare of dazzling light the vicinity of the sulphur banks and on the indented sides of the insulated pools of water, for they must have been craters, whose roaring mouths, amidst produced by other fire than that which rising flames and eddying streams of fire, caused the 'ebullition in the lava at the shot up, at frequent intervals, with loudest bottom of the great crater; and also by detonations, spherical masses of fusing noticing a number of small craters, in lava, or bright ignited stones. vigorous action, situated high up the sides “ The dark bold outline of the perpen
dicular and jutting rocks around, formed a surf wherein they played, sportively swimstriking contrast with the luminous lake ming on the rolling wave.
pp. 214_216. below, whose vivid rays, thrown on the “ But the magnificent fires of Kirauea, rugged promontories, and reflected by the appeared to dwindle into insignificance, over-hanging clouds, combined to com- when we thought of the probable subterplete the awful grandeur of the imposing ranean fires immediately beneath us. The
We sat gazing at the magnificent whole island of Hawaii, covering a space phenomena for several hours, when we of 4000 square miles, from the summits of laid ourselves down on our mats, in order its lofty mountains, perhaps 15,000 or to observe more leisurely their varying 16,000 feet above the level of the sea, aspect; for, although we had travelled down to the beach, is, according to every upwards of twenty miles since the morn- observation we could make, one complete ing, and were both weary and cold, we mass of lava, or other volcanic matter, in felt but little disposition to sleep. This different stages of decomposition. Perfodisinclination was probably increased by rated with innumerable apertures in the our proximity to the yawning gulf, and shape of craters, the island forms a hollow our conviction, that the detachment of a cone over one vast furnace, situated in the fragment from beneath the overhanging heart of a stupendous submarine mountain pile on which we were reclining, or the rising from the bottom of the sea ; or slightest concussion of the earth, which possibly the fires may rage with augmentevery thing around indicated to be no un- ed force beneath the bed of the ocean, frequent occurrence, would perhaps pre- learing through the superincumbent cipitate us, amidst the horrid crash of fall- weight of water the base of Hawaii, and, ing rocks, into the burning lake immedi- at the same time, forming a pyramidal ately before us.
funnel from the furnace to the atmosphere." “ The natives, who probably viewed
Pp. 229, 230. the scene with thoughts and feelings some- But we must stop short. Our what different from ours, seemed, however, equally interested. They sat most of the
opinion of the volume has been alnight talking of the achievements of Pélé, ready expressed; and we shall be and regarding with a superstitious fear, at rejoiced at an extensive sale of it, which we were not'surprised, the brilliant which we trust will greatly promote exhibition. They considered it the primeval abode of their volcanic deities.
the momentous object which the The conical craters, they said, were their
missionaries, both American and houses, where they frequently amused British, bave so warmly at heart. themselves by playing at Konane, (a game May the blessing of God continue resembling drafts ;) the roaring of the furnaces and the crackling of the flames were
to prosper, as it has already so rethe kani of their hura, (music of their markably done, their truly benevodance,) and the red flaming surge was the
lent and Christian labours.
LITERARY AND PHILOSOPHICAL INTELLIGENCE,
cipally among the Islands of the ArchiPREPARING for publication :--Part I. in pelago, and in Asia Minor; by the Rev. 3 vols. containing the Four Gospels (to Charles Swan. be succeeded in the course of the year by In the press :--A Volume of Sermons Part II. in 2 vols., containing the Acts on the Ten Commandments ; by the and the Epistles), of “ Recensio Synoptica Rev. John Graham, of York ;-A TranAnnotationis Sacræ;" being a Critical Di. slation of Llorente's History of the Ingest and Synoptical Arrangement of the quisition ;--A Mission to the East Coast most important Annotations, Exegetical, of Sumatra, with a Visit to the Batta Philological, and Theological, on the New Cannibal States ; by J. Anderson. Testament; by the Rev. S. T. Bloomfield, M. A. ;-A History of the Mah- Thecenotaph to the memory of the Prinrattas, By Capt. J. G. Duff;-Illustra- cess Charlotte by Mr. Wyatt, for which tions of Anglo-Saxon Poetry; by the about fifteen thousand pounds were sublate Rev. I. I. Conybeare ;-Journal of scribed, at a guinea each person, bas rea Voyage up the Mediterranean, prin- cently been erected in St. George's Chapel,
Windsor. The design is to represent the examination of the mummy just alluded moment of death. Floating above the bier to is stated to prove, that there existed, is a full-length figure of the Princess and still exists, on the banks of the Nile, ascending to the skies.
two species of crocodiles; one of which, The difficulties of the times are par- gentler than the other, the suchus, was ticularly seen, as might justly be expect- the ancient object of worship. ed, in a great depreciation in the price of
SWITZERLAND. works of mere taste and art.
At the re
A Society has been established at Berne, cent sale of Lord Berwick's celebrated with the approbation of the government, collection of pictures, a fine painting by for effecting insurances against losses proMurillo was sold for little more than one
duced by hail; which are frequently very fifth of what Lord Berwick gave for it; serious in that country. and another by Guido for three hundred
RUSSIA, and seventy guineas, although Lord Ber- It is in contemplation to build an iron wick gave for it one thousand and fifty. sūspension bridge across the Neva at St. His lordship did not obtain these works Petersburgh, with an arch of 1022 feet span. of art by private purchase, but in the
EGYPT. same way that they were disposed of, by The population of Egypt is estimated public auction.
at 2,514,400 persons of whom about FRANCE.
200,000 are Copts, or descendants of the The minister of marine has requested ancient Egyptians : 2,300,000 are Tellahs, the Academy to draw up a statement of a mixed race of Arabs, Persians, Syrians, the various subjects to which the atten- and Egyptians, and 14,000 are foreigners. tion of the expedition of discovery under The number of villages in the country is Captain Durville, in preparation at Toulon, 3,475, about one half of which are in should be directed. The vessels are Lower Egypt. nearly equipped.
UNITED STATES. The Academy of Sciences and Letters The Committee on public lands have at Dijon has proposed, as the subject of submitted, for the consideration of Contheir prize of eloquence for the present gress, a bill, creating a fund for the supyear, a comparison between Saint Ber- port of common schools in the several nard and Bossuet, in respect to their States. The bill provides, that after the writings, their character, and the in- first of January next, fifty per cent. of the fluence which they respectively exercised nett proceeds of the nioneys accruing over their contemporaries."
from the sales of the public lands shall The French Academy have elected the be appropriated to the support of comduke de Montmorency as a member of mon schools; the money to be annually their learned body. The inaugural ora- invested, by the United States, in some tion of the duke was an eulogium upon productive fund, and the interest apporSt. Vincent de Paul and works of Chris. tioned among the several States, accordtian charity. M. de Chateaubriand fol- ing to the ratio of the representation of lowed in nearly the same strain. The each state in the house of representatives. French literati complain that the literary The income from the sales of the public institutions of France is being perverted lands is estimated at more than 2,000,000 from the purpose for which they were dollars annually. Very large sums are designed, to the dissemination of the already appropriated in the various opinions of the Jesuitical party.
States to this object. In that of New At a recent sitting of the Academy of York, for instance, the State School-fund Sciences, M. Saint-Hilaire presented a yields at present 30,000 dollars annually; mummy of an Egyptian crocodile, seven and an equal sum is raised for the same feet and a half long, and in perfect pre- oliject, by taxation, in the several school servation. This mummy clears up a districts. scientific question which has long been
In pursuance of the President's reagitated, whether in the Nile there commendation, an observatory is to be are more than one species of crocodile. erected at Washington, at an estimated M. Cuvier would admit but of one cost for the buildings of about 14,750 species of these animals. M. Geoffroy dollars, and an annual expenditure of St. Hilaire, on the contrary, maintained 4,000 dollars for the salaries of the offithat, the word suchus meant a distinct cers and other expenses. species, whose disposition was milder
A most praise-worthy act has been than that of the common crocodile. The passed by the Legislature of the State of