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Alabama, with a view to suppress the dis- kingdom of New Grenada, contains, in graceful and unchristian practice of duel- the opinion of De Humboldt, a line of ling. It enjoins, that an oath shall be country of about eighty leagues, through administered to, and subscribed by, the which a canal could be cut, but which members of the general assembly, coun- would not be applicable to vessels of bursellors, and attorneys at law, and all offi- den, as the mouth of the Arato, or river cers and public functionaries, either civil Darien, has only six feet water over it. or military, before they enter upon the This seems to be the only part of Ameduties of their stations, that they have rica in which the chain of the Andes is neither directly nor indirectly given, ac- entirely broken. It is stated, that in the cepted, or knowingly carried a challenge, interior of the province of Choco, where in writing or otherwise, to any person,

the small ravine of Ruebrada de la Rasbeing a citizen of that State, or aided or padura, unites the neighbouring sources abetted in the same, since January 1, of the Rio San Juan, and the small river 1826 ; and further, that they will neither Quito, which, with the Andageda and the directly nor indirectly give, accept, or Zitara, form the Rio d’Atrato, which disknowingly carry a challenge to any per- charges itself into the Atlantic Ocean ; son during their continuance in the dis- while the Rio San Juan flows into the charge of any public function.

South Sea, å monk of great activity, curé The remains of the ancient struc- of the village of Novita, employed his tures in the neighbourhood of the Ohio, parishioners in digging a small canal in continue to attract antiquarian research. the ravine De la Raspadura, by means of Some articles have recently been dis- which, when the rains are abundant, canoes covered; one was a vessel, apparently loaded with cocoa pass from sea to sea. composed of pounded shells and clay, This communication, it is said, has existed holding about two quarts, with four neat since 1783, unknown in Europe. The handles. Arrow-heads and spear-heads small canal of Raspadura unites, on the of flint, are found in ploughing the fields; coasts of the two oceans, two points stone hatchets, and stone pestles for seventy-five leagues distant from one anopounding corn, are also common. On ther. the beach near the mouth of the Muskin. Among the numerous proofs of the ragum, a curious ornament of white mar- pidity with which knowledge is advancing ble was discovered, which must have in South and Central America-where, at belonged to some distinguished personage the beginning of the present century, there among the ancient race of inhabitants. was scarcely any thing upon which the Ancient mounds are frequent all over the eye of the Christian or philanthropist, country of Washington; some construct- could rest with satisfaction-may be mened of stone, and some of earth.

tioned the frequent and heavy demands SOUTH AMERICA.

for printing apparatus, which have of late The idea, lately revived, of uniting the proceeded from that quarter. Atlantic and Pacific oceans was enter- is already becoming an engine of great tained as early as the year 1513; and five and increasing power throughout the new places have been mentioned as the most States. practicable for the purpose ; namely, the

PERU. isthmus of Darien, the isthmus of Pan Bolivar has directed public provision to nama, the province of Choco, the isth- be made for the education of the Indians mus of Tehuantepec, the isthmus of Ni. in Peru. Five hundred dollars per month caragua. The province of Choco, in the are to be appropriated to the object.

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PROGRESS OF EDUCATION IN that there are now in the school 201 boys

FOREIGN COUNTRIES. and 112 girls, that 73 destitute children We select from the last printed Report have been clothed, and that 67 have been of the British and Foreign School Society apprenticed to persons of different trades, the following interesting notices respect- who have given very favourable reports of ing the state of education in various parts their good conduct and industry. Count of the world.

Romanzoff mentions the establishment of “ Commencing with the North of Eu- schools in nine villages in the neighbourrope, Russia first claims attention. Very hood of Homel, and intimates his intenlittle direct intelligence from that empire tion of opening others in the course of the has reached the Committee during the present year. From the report of a recent

year. They are able, however, to in- traveller in Europe, the Committee learn form the Society that the central school that the system of Mutual Instruction is established at St. Petersburg, under the pretty generally diffused throughout the patronage of his Imperial Majesty, and empire. One effect of this has been a disuperintended by Mr. Heard, goes on well. minution of the number of private schools ; The Second Report of the School for but this is more than counterbalanced by the Children of poor Foreigners states, the fact, that in the Lancasterian institu.. that since the opening of that institution tions as many hundreds are educated as in 630 children have received instruction; in the private establishments there were



The British System has even reach- tion. The zeal of those worthy individuals ed the frigid clime of Siberia : the schools to whose care the concerns of the Society at Tobolsk, the capital of that country, for elementary education are entrusted, uncontain nearly 1000 children, whose pro- repressed by hostility, undiminished by ficiency is said to be very creditable. time, still produces good fruit : they are

“ Scriptural education meets with great not weary in well doing,' but persevere success in Sweden, and has been intro- in their useful labours," through evil reduced into almost every province of that port and through good report. Under kingdom. A royal edict has been recently their active superintendence, the schools issued, addressed to the Consistory Courts, in Paris enjoy a gratifying prosperity : requiring them to select for the offices of they are forty-five in number, and contain churchwarden and parish schoolmaster, upwards of 8000 children; there are, besuch persons only as shall be capable of sides, five evening schools for adults. Two teaching by the System of Mutual Instruc- of the schools have been visited by the tion. The fees of church-livings and some Archbishop of Paris, who expressed his funds now in the hands of the clergy are great satisfaction with the order and discito be so economized as that a portion of pline of the children, and the improvethem may be made available for the pur. ment they had made. The accounts from poses of public education. A very friend- the interior of the kingdom are not so enly letter from the Swedish Education So- couraging ; yet it is believed that the lower ciety, accompanied by a copy of their First classes are becoming increasingly sensible Report, was received by your Committee of the advantages of education, and delast year, and a large supply of slates and sirous of possessing them. The friendpencils for the use of the schools was ship of the Bible Society of Paris has transmitted to Stockbolm at their request. been again manifested during the last year,

“ The labours of Mr. Abrahamson, in by liberal grants of copies of the New Denmark, have been rendered very efficient Testament for the use of the schools. by the royal patronage with which he has Information has also reached your Combeen favoured. A commission appoint. mittee, that a Society will be shortly estaed by the king, to ascertain the nature blished, for the purpose of publishing books and merits of the British System, after suited to the lower classes, and at a cheap having closely examined the subject, and Such a measure will undoubtedly heard the objections of those who ima- command the cordial good wishes of all gined they saw many defects and evils the friends of knowledge. in the new plan, reported favourably. “ No intelligence having arrived from His majesty was then pleased to give his Spain since the last annual meeting, the sanction to the system ; a model school Committee are unable to report the state was opened at Copenhagen ; lessons in of the schools in that kingdom ; and can reading, writing, arithmetic,and geography, only express their fears, that political diswere ordered to be printed; and permis- sensions and animosities have tended masion was given for the establishment of terially to check the progress of Scriptural the system in the cities and villages gene- education. rally, and for its adoption in the primary

“ With more pleasure they speak of schools. In the beginning of the last Portugal. By means of M. Lecocq, a year 244 schools had been organized, corresponding member of the Paris Soand it was expected that the number ciety, the system of mutual instruction would be soon increased to 500. Your has been introduced into Lisbon, where a Committee trust that future Reports of model school has been opened immediatethis Society will shew the beneficial ope- ly under the patronage of the government, rations of these interesting proceedings. at whose expense also the requisite lessons

The progress of education in the have been printed. The royal decree, of Netherlands is on the whole encouraging. September 1824, recognizes the establishThe new buildings for the model schools ment of this school, exempts it from the at Brussels have been completed. These existing laws affecting education, and proschools will furnish the advantage of

mises that those lads who make most protraining establishments to such persons ficiency shall be selected for public teachers. as may be desirous of introducing the The Scriptural lessons were printed in the system into other parts of the country.

Portuguese language by this Society some “ In France, notwithstanding the con- time ago: and the youth of Portugal will tinuance of the discouragements mention- now derive from the purest sources those ed in our last Report, much good has been truths which are so well adapted to proeffected by the schools for mutual instruc- mote 'peace on earth and good will CHRIST. OBSERV. No. 293.

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amongst men;' and which are alike taken under the patronage of the Comconducive to the happiness of individuals, mittee. Cacuratto, .it is hoped, will societies, and nations; and are equally prove an active and useful teacher. unfavourable to anarchy and to misrule. Shortly afterwards, nine Greek lads, re

“ Interesting information has been re- cently arrived in this country, were placed ceived relative to the progress of education in the central school by the Greek Comin Tuscany, where there are thirty schools, mittee, who have liberally contributed toall supported by subscription, and gene- wards their maintenance. Nicholas Blarally prosperous. Three similar institu- cas, a young man who accompanied them, tions exist in Naples, one of which affords will be trained for a schoolmaster. The instruction to 500 children. The British proficiency these lads have made has been System has even reached the dominions of noticed in a former part of this Report: the head of the Roman Catholic-Church, their education in England will probably four schools being established in the papal prove highly advantageous to the interests territories.

of their native country. Demetrius Pie“ In Malta, the Schools at Casel Zeitun ridi, the other Cypriot youth, (who was faare represented to be in flourishing state. vourably mentioned in last year's Report,) The Normal School Society at Valetta is also still in the Society's house: his good has experienced much discouragement, conduct and his progress in learning are arising from the deficiency of pecuniary highly commendable. Perceiving that supplies: in fact, its labours could scarcely great expenses would be necessarily incurhave been continued, but for the kind and red in carrying forward their projected effective patronage of the Marquis and measures, and that the resources of the Marchioness of Hastings, who have sus. Society were altogether inadequate to the tained the drooping cause, advanced the burden, the Commitee resolved that a senecessary funds, and manifested in vari- parate fund should be opened for this obous ways an ardent solicitude for the dif- ject, and trusted that the liberality of the fusion of Scriptural knowledge by early British public would meet the exigency education.

of the case. Very ample funds will be re“ The Committee consider themselves quisite, in order to defray the charges of also under great obligations to his excel- training masters and mistresses, paying lency Lord Guildford, whose liberality has their passages to and from England, and powerfully influenced the higher classes providing the necessary elementary lessons general, and rendered very efficient aid to and other school apparatus.-Donations Bible education in the Ionian Islands.- for this object will be most thankfully reSince the last annual meeting of this Socie. ceived. The Committee have been greatly ty, a girls' school has been opened in Ce- encouraged in this attempt by the friendphalonia, in a house granted for that pur- ly concurrence of the Greek Government, pose by Government. In all the islands and the favourable opinion expressed by the schools prosper, and are liberally sup- gentlemen who have visited Greece. They ported.

have heard with much pleasure, that a “ The Committee have devoted much school of mutual instruction has been attention to the subject of education in opened at Athens, and that a worthy ecGreece. Their first care was to print the clesiastic at Salamina has given a piece of third part of the Scripture lessons in Mo- ground for the same purpose. A fourishdern Greek. It was then determined that ing school has been some time established Georgius Constantine, one of the Cypriot at Argos: it contains 150 children, and is youths who have been some time at the reported to succeed admirably. DemeSociety's central school, after having been trius Platanitos, the master, has instructqualified for the office of schoolmaster, ed several young men in the system, who should be sent to Greece in that capacity, are now engaged in disseminating the with a view to commence the establish- knowledge they have acquired. - The ment of schools. He took with him Committee report, with much satisfaction, school apparatus sufficient for 200 chile the formation of a Ladies' Society at Edindren, and was accompanied by a gentle- burgh for the promotion of female educaman whose sole object in visiting Greece tion in Greece. is to promote its moral welfare. Nicholas “ Your Committee have been informed Cacuratto, a native of Cephalonia, and that an account of the British system, preStephen Casanova, a native of Scio (who pared in Arabic by Professor Macbride of had been rescued from the Turks just as Oxford, has been printed at Cairo, under they were about to kill him), by the libe- the direction of the Pacha of Egypt, and rality of a French gentleman, were next circulated by hina among his friends. It would much gratify them to be instrumen- tuities are awarded, both to the masters tal in conveying the blessings of education and the scholars, in proportion to their to that ancient and once renowned coun- respective merits. By this means great try. They trust the time will yet come, emulation is excited, and the zeal of the when both Egypt and Syria, where so supporters of these institutions is at once much has been seen of the works and stimulated and encouraged. wonders of the Almighty, will be blessed “Of the East-India islands, Ceylon and with the knowledge of the holy Scriptures. Sumatra appear to be best furnished with

“ Communications received from the the means of early religious instruction. Rev. Dr. Thom, and Mr. Robertson of Almost every missionary station has conGraaf Reinet, contain pleasing intelligence nected with it from six to twelve schools ; respecting the progress of education at the and many of the children have obtained a Cape of Good Hope. The schools in that good knowledge of the facts and truths of colony, established and supported by Go. Scripture. The Baptist Missionaries in vernment, are in a thriving state; and the Sumatra have opened schools in that isBritish system succeeds remarkably well. land, under the patronage of Government. Several public examinations of the chil- The system of mutual instruction is adoptdren have been held, and gave very gene- ed, as far as practicable, in both these ral satisfaction.

islands. “ Noinformation has been received from “ With a view to the introduction of the Isle of France: the Committee, how the system into the Chinese empire, the ever, have reason to believe, that in that Committee of the London Missionary Soisland Scriptural education prospers. A ciety have signified their intention to send similar statement may be made in refer- a master to Malacca as soon as a suitable ence to Madeira : a new school-room has person can be obtained. In the mean time been erected, in which 130 boys were re- a commencement may be made, as Mr. ceiving instruction at the date of the last Moore, (who has recently left England for communication. The chief-justice of the Malacca, under the direction of the Rev. island was present at the opening of the Dr. Morrison,) acquired a good knowledge school, and became a subscriber.

of the system at the Society's central “ The praiseworthy efforts of mission- school. aries, of various denominations, in British “ Many schools have been opened by India, ought not to be mentioned without the missionaries stationed in the islands high commendation. They have rightly of the Pacific Ocean, particularly the regarded the instruction of the young as Georgian and Society Islands. Nearly a most important department of their la- 3000 children are under instruction. bours, and have so far succeeded, that “ Several letters have been received probably upwards of 40,000 children are from missionaries in the West-India Isnow receiving a useful education. The lands, testifying the great advantages deeffects of such measures on the state of rived from Scriptural education, and the society in India must be in the issue bene- superiority of the British system wherever ficial : indeed, this begins to be evident it has been brought into practice.” already, and is admitted by many of the natives themselves, as appears from the NAVAL AND MILITARY BIBLE numerous applications, received by the

SOCIETY. missionaries, for the establishment of From a circular lately issued by the schools in towns and villages contiguous Society, we extract the following sketch to their several stations.' Your Commit- of the Society's history and proceedings. tee notice this fact with great satisfaction, “ It will be in the recollection of some because they are persuaded that, when the of the generation now passing away, that public mind in India becomes generally a considerable body of troops was assemfavourable to education, complete and ex- bled in Hyde Park, in the year 1779, to tensive success must follow.

preserve the peace of the metropolis, at “ The indigenous schools, so well suited that time disturbed by faction. An humto the native population of Bengal, con- ble individual, who witnessed with pious tinue to be conducted with energy and concern the depraved habits of the soldiery, effect. They are much encouraged by was led to hope, that advantage might be many wealthy Hindoos, who frequently in- taken of that eventful period, to attempt vite to their houses all the schoolmasters a reform amongst the troops by distributof their several districts, directing them to ing the Bible to them. This suggestion bring with them some of their best scholars: was communicated to that eminent philanan examination then takes places, and gra- thropist Mr. Thornton, who gave life and

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