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made are applicable to them all, and at time of Chrysostom, he mentions the Sabthe same time completely rebut the force bath and the Lord's day, as the two weekly of the objection.

festivals, on which they always held re. “In speaking of the hebdomadal fes. ligious assemblies. Sozomen, about the tival under the Christian law, it is not the same time, says, " The Christians as. usual language of the fathers to call it the sembled on the Sabbath, in like manner Sabbath, but the Lord's day, or the first, as on the first day of the week, in Conand sometimes the eighth day of the week. stantinople, and almost every where, They seem desirous, by the distinction of except in Rome and Alexandria.' The the names, to preserve the distinction be- Council of Laodicea certainly acknow. tween the two festivals. In numbering the ledges both days as festivals; and Balsadays of the septenary cycle, they call Sa- mon, as quoted' by Curce Hæus, says, that turday the Sabbath, and Sunday, gene. "by the holy fathers the Sabbaths are als rally, the Lord's day, by which they de- most equalled with the Lord's days.' signated the day which was consecrated “ Some other testimonies have been to his service from the apostolic age. By brought forward, but these are the prin. the Sabbath they signified the Mosaic cipal; and it is obvious to remark that the institution, which, it is acknowledged, is authors, in speaking of the consecration of abolished by Christ. Sometimes, indeed, the seventh day, refer solely to the practhey used the appellation .Sabbath,' to de- tice of their own times, when, it is connote the spiritual and mystical Sabbath, fessed, it was in some places kept as 8 typified by the Levitical Sabbath, and religious festival by the Christians. But which was most commonly regarded by this practice was confined within narrow them as a representation of the heavenly limits, as appears from the citations in the rest of the redeemed; though occasione preceding paragraph.” pp. 339–341. ally they treat it as adumbrative of the It is also observable, that none of the spiritual blessings under the reign of the writers who have adverted to this custom, Messiah. But they were careful not to give us any reason for believing that it had confound the different appellations, which existed for any great length of time. They is another strong argument, that, when- say not a word as to its antiquity, and the ever they speak disparagingly of the Sab- way in which they mention it leads us to bath, they did it in reference to the Jewish suppose that it grew up by degrees. It ordinance of keeping the seventh day probably was adopted in the very earliest holy." pp. 332-337.

ages of Christianity, by certain churches " It may be objected to the testimony in accommodation to the prejudices of the derived from the concurrence of antiquity, Jews; and the truth seems to be, as stated that, in the early ages of Christianity, the by Mosheim, that the seventh day of the last day of the week, or Saturday, was

week was observed as a festival, not by observed as a Sabbath, together with the the Christians in general, but by such first day of the week, or Sunday; and hy churches only as were principally comconsequence the authority of the primi. posed of Jewish converts, nor did the tive church cannot be pleaded in favour

other Christians censure this conduct as of the one more than of the other.” pp. criminal and unlawful.'” pp. 341, 342. 334, 335.

“ In the second place, those churches But in answer to this inference which adopted the practice of keeping the author pleads, that, in the first

both dnys, manifested, by the rites and

ceremonies used, a preference of the Lord's place,

day above the Sabbath. For, as the inde“ The religious observance of the fatigable Bingham states, 'first, we find seventh day does not appear to have ob- no ecclesiastical laws obliging men to pray tained in the earliest and purest ages of standing on the Sabbath. For that was a the Christian church. No countenance is ceremony peculiar to the Lord's day, in given to it by Justin Martyr, Irenæus, memory of our Saviour's resurrection. Tertullian, Origen, Cyprian, or in the Nor, secondly, are there any imperial laws writings of any of the ante-Nicene fa- forbidding law-suits and pleadings on this thers; nor do I find any satisfactory evi- day. Nor, thirdly, any laws prohibiting dence of its having prevailed in the second the public shows and games, as on the century, or, to any considerable extent, in Lord's day. Nor, fourthly, any laws obthe third." p. 337.

liging men to abstain wholly from bodily “ The ecclesiastical historians, Socrates labour." p. 314. and Sozomen, supply more important “ Lastly, The believers who kept the testimonies. The former says,

Th seventh day of the week as a festival, churches throughout the world celebrated while they did it partly in deference to the the mysteries (i. e. the communion) every Jewish converts, nevertheless observed it, week, on the Sabbath-day, except those in not in a Jewish, but a Christian way. Alexandria and Rome, which, following The author of the interpolated Epistles of their ancient traditions, did not adopt that Ignatius says, that the Sabbath was not to custom;' and in another place, speaking be kept after a Jewish manner : Athanaof the churches of Constantinople in the sins declares, that they met on the Sabbath,

p. 345.

not with a view to Judaize, but to worship mand was given before the fall. Jesus, the Lord of the Sabbath.” “ From these remarks it is clear, that

Even in paradise, when Adam's the custom of keeping the seventh day of only earthly task was to dress and the week as a festival, though it probably keep the garden which was given took its rise in the earliest ages of to him, he was yet required to reChristianity, was but partially received till

frain even from that simple and some centuries afterwards ; that, so far from being universal, it prevailed chiefly innocent employment one day in in the eastern empire; and that where it seven; of which direction the prowas adopted, it was from such motives, bable end was, that he might hold and was attended with such rites and direct and intimate communion ceremonies, as designated it to be, in their estimation, of subordinate authority to the

with God. He was formed of the sacredness of the Lord's day.” pp. 346, dust of the ground, and was so far 347.

connected with earth ; but the Lord We have been the more particular God had made him after his own and profuse in citations on this head image, and breathed into his nostrils of inquiry, because we consider it the breath of life; and he was thus the point on which the public mind related to his Maker.

Six days most requires to be informed; and

were given him to perform the tasks we think, that few persons can de which belonged to the lower part liberately read the extracts we have of his nature. But on the seventh, made, and weigh them with atten- with the exception of the necessary tion, without being convinced by supply of his animal wants, he was them, that the Lord's day was in- to attend exclusively to the higher. deed substituted for the Sabbath, Since the Fall other uses of the Sab. and consequently, that it must have bath have developed themselves, been identified with it in principle, such as the opportunity it gives though altered in time, from the for awakening the torpid, alarming remotest antiquity.

the profligate, reclaiming the back. The remaining topic of Mr. slider. But still, when all other Holden's book is devoted to the ends are answered, the true Chrispolitical as well as religious advan- tian will find his highest enjoyment tages of the Sabbatical institution; of the Sabbath in the opportunity and he gives his own opinion with which it gives him of drawing near much minuteness on the way in to God, with the delightful conwhich the Sabbath may most pro- sciousness, that in so doing he is not fitably be observed. In many of neglecting, but performing, his duty; his sentiments on these heads we in short, that his privilege and his concur ; in some we differ ; but

duty are one. On the best way of we have only space left to close our enjoying this privilege and of dispresent strictures with a few words

charging this duty, good men in this on the uses for which we may con- imperfect state may partially differ. ceive this Divine appointment to But it is important to know, that it have been originally designed. is a duty, and to form a right esti

The object of the Sabbath may mate of the end for the attainment best be collected from the circum- of which that duty was commanded. stances of its institution. On the And, if any thing we have now said, seventh day the Lord rested from the

or quoted, shall help to establish work of creation. He allowed the

our readers in the right view and world then to take the course which conception of these truths, we have he had prescribed for it; and he re- only further to add our fervent quired man, after his example, and prayer, that they may be led so to by his command, to do no earthly avail themselves of their high privi. works on the seventh day. He was leges below, that they may hereafter to rest from these, that he might attain that eternal rest which relive more immediately to God. For maineth for the people of God. it is to be observed, that this com


&c. &c.


A society has been formed under PREPARING for publication : -A trans- highly respectable patronage for the adlation of the “Mosaic Precepts elucidated vancement of zoology. The immediate and defended ” of Maimonides; by the object of the Society will be the introRev. J. Townly, D.D.

duction and exhibition of such subjects of In the press :-Hug's Introduction to the animal kingdom as may be of utility, the New Testament; from the German, or a source of interest and gratification. with Notes ; by the Rev. Dr. Wait; With this view, a collection of living The History of the Crusades against the animals will be formed ; to which will be Albigenses in the Thirteenth Century; attached a museum and library connected from the French of J. C. Simonde de Sis- with the subject. A site has been obmondi ;-A Geneological Chart, adapted tained for the purpose, in the Regent's equally to all Modern History for the Park. space of the last eight Centuries.


A machine for digging canals has recentOrford.—The chancellor's gold medal ly been introduced at Paris, to be worked for the best English poem by a resident either by horse, manual, or other motive undergraduate, is adjudged to Mr. Brock- power. It requires a power of eight hurst, of St. John's College. Subject, horses to work it; with which it will Venice.

extract and carry out of the canal ninetyCambridge.--Captain Coe has presented six cubic feet per minute. to the university of Cambridge an alabas- M. Bory de Saint Vincent has pubter statue of a Burmese idol, taken from lished a new nomenclature of the species the sacred grove, near Ava; and two re- of the human race, under fifteen beads, ligious books, beautifully executed on the namely, Japetic ; Arabic; Hindoo; Scy. Palmyra leaf, to which none but the Bur- thian; Chinese ; Hyperborean; Neptunian; mese priests are permitted to have access. Australasian ; Columbian; American;

At a late meeting of the Society of Patagonian ; Ethiopian; Caffre ; Black; Antiquaries, Mr. Ellis exhibited a gold Hottentot. medal which the son or grandson of Herne,

GERMANY. one of the counsel for Archbishop Laud M. Olbers, of Bremen, who has been at his trial, caused to be struck from some particularly occupied with the theory of gold coin which the Archbishop gave him, comets, and has been endeavouring to with his blessing, just before his decapi.. subject to calculation the possibility of the tation. Mr. Herne had the medal struck, interference of one of these bodies with in order that the remembrance of the way the destiny of the earth, gives posterity in which the gold came into his family warning that in 83,000 years a comet will might not be lost, or the money expended. approach to within the same distance from

The first stone of a new church at the earth as the moon is at present; that Upper Holloway (near the foot of High- in four millions of years it will come gate-hill) was lately laid, with the usual within 7,700 geographical miles, and then, solemnities, by the Archbishop of Can- if its attraction equal that of the earth, terbury. This church is one of three the waters of the Ocean will rise 13,000 intended to be erected in the parish of feet, that is above the summit of every Islington; chiefly through the zealous European mountain, with the exception and judicious exertions of the present of Mont Blanc. The inhabitants of the vicar, the Rev. D. Wilson.

Andes and those of the Himalayah chain A rain guage has been invented by alone can escape this deluge; but their Mr. Donovan, which registers the number safety, it seems, will last only for 216 mil. of inches of rain during a given period; lions of years more. the day and hour when they fell; the

ITALY. commencement and cessation of showers, M. Champollion, jun. edited a catalogue and various other particulars. While it of the Egyptian manuscripts in the Varains, a bell rings, the intervals between tican. His work, translated into Italian the strokes of which are shorter in pro. by M. Angelo Maï, has been printed by portion as the rain is quicker.

order of the pope.



children were examined in suitable schoolThe Russian government has ordered books, which give an account of the fall that navigable canals shall be commenced, of man and his redemption, with the Comto unite, Ist, the Moskwa and the mandments, and the Lord's Prayer. Se. Volga ; 20, the Scheksma and the Nor- veral of them repeated Bengalee hymns; thern Dwina, by which there will be a others read part of the New Testament, direct communication between the port and gave the meaning of the passages : of Archangel and that of Petersburg, and afterwards they read and repeated a a road will be opened to the Baltic for portion of geography, with which they native merchandize; 3, the Niemen and appeared familiar.

The Bishop questhe Weichsel across the kingdom of tioned them in Hindoostanee respecting Poland.

the different parts of the world, several The number of children who die an- of which places they could point out to nually in Russia, amounts to about one his lordship on the Bengalee map. Affourth of the whole number of deaths in terwards, specimens of their needle-work the empire. The ceremonies which take were exhibited. During the examination, place at their baptism are stated to be one Rajah Bidenauth gave a donation of chief cause of this mortality. The naked twenty thousand sicca rupees, to forward infant is three times plunged into a basin the cause of native female education by of cold water, from which it emerges

the erection of a central school. shivering, and convulsed with the cold. The Governor in Council at Bombay Among the more enlightened classes, has notified, that whenever European

water is now introduced; but troops are employed where there is neither physicians nor philosophers can no chaplain, the officers of each brigade persuade the lower classes thus to depart or station, are to perform clerical duties from the usage of their ancestors.

when requisite, without any distinct apPERSIA.

pointment being made for that purpose. An earthquake was felt at Shirauz last

THIBET. November, by which a great number of An intrepid Hungarian traveller, of the buildings were thrown down, and much name of De Koros, who has been passing property was destroyed, though but few some time in Thibet, has discovered a lives were lost. The tombs of Hafiz and collection of writings in the language of Saadi, the boast of Shirauz, are beaps of that country, filling 320 volumes. AU ruins.

these works, he was informed, were trans INDIA.

lated from the Sanscrit; the titles of the A work is passing through the press of originals, and the names of the authors and Bishop's College, entitled, The Banquet, of the translators, are carefully marked in or the History of Armenia, by Father them. M. de Koros has copied the tables Chamich; translated from the original of contents of all these works; and transArmenian, by Jobannes Avdull. This cribed the most ample of them, which work is an abridgment of the History of occupies 154 pages. Armenia, from the year of the world

JAVA. 1757, according to the Jewish chronology

As an illustration of the natural prone. or 2663 by the computation of the Sep- ness of the human mind, when unenlighttuagint; to the year of Christ 1780; or to ened by revelation, to idolatry the most the year 1229 of the Armenian era. absurd, a missionary in Java states, that

The Calcutta Apprenticing Society has in the village of Buitenzorg, in the vicinity proposed to establish a marine school, on of Batavia, where there is a colony of the model of the Marine Society of London, 2000 Chinese, he found in one of the for the reception of India-born youth, in houses an European picture of Bonaparte, order that they may be educated as seamen. in a gilt frame, to which the people offer

The fourth public examination of the incense, and pay their morning and evengirls educated by the Ladies' Society for ing vows. Female Education, was lately held in Cal- VAN DIEMAN'S LAND. cutta, in the presence of Lady Amherst, the Letters from Van Dieman's Land state, Hon. Miss Amherst, the Bishop of Calcut- that the resources of the colony are in a ta. Mrs. Heber, Mrs. Harington, the Arch- course of hopeful development. The deacons of Calcutta and Bombay, several of wool is improving; the bark of the mithe clergy, and various other European mosa tree, and an extract made from it ladies and gentlemen, together with the for tanning, yield large profits, and the Rajahs Bidenauth Roy and Shibkishen, bays and adjacent islands furnish supplies and a large body of native gentlemen. The of oil and seal-skins. CHRIST. OBSERV. No. 294.

3 B


themselves to the episcopal communion. The following is a list of anniversary A congregation has already been organized meetings of charitable societies, held by the Rev. W. Levington (a Coloured in New York, during the second week man),who was ordained by Bishop White. in May.The New-York Sunday-School As an illustration of the rapid progress Union Society ;- The American Home of the new States of the American Union, Missionary Society ; – The American it may be mentioned, that at Cincinnati, Tract Society;— The United Foreign Mis- in Ohio, a steam boat, the Philadelphia, sionary Society ;- The American Bible has recently been built, which measures Society ;- ;- The Presbyterian Education nearly 400 tons. She has seven boilers, Society; – The United Domestic Mission is 150 feet long, and forty feet wide, and ary Society ;- The American Jews' So has a cabin sixty feet long and thirty ciety ;—The Examination of the Theolo- wide. Under the large cabin, is a superb gical Seminary ;—The General Assembly ladies' cabin, richly furnished, and the of the Presbyterian Church; and the whole equipment of the vessel, the AmeAmerican Sunday-School Union.

rican journals state, is “ far more elegant A plan is in progress for building a and convenient than that of any other church at Baltimore, for those of the steam boat in the world.” Coloured population who may attach



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