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legal than a collection of hymns in- great point of Christian edification, troduced by any private individual which is closely involved in the disThis opinion is strongly maintained cussion. by one of your correspondents, Mr. Should any of your correspondGray, in his admirable paper in- ents, who have weighed Mr. Todd's serted in your volume for 1818, arguments, see reason still to disp. 152, and afterwards reprinted by sent from his conclusion on the parhim, with his name and additional ticular point under examination, I matter, in the form of a pamphlet, should feel much obliged if they which was reviewed, and the argu. would favour your readers with the ment maintained, in your volume for result of their investigation. 1822, p. 420.

PASTOR. This statement is in conformity with the opinions of Heylin, Collier, Warton, Mason, Tattersal, Dr. Tothe Editorofthe Christian Observer. Maltby, Mr. Vernon, Dr. Southey, and many other writers ; but the In your volume for 1815, p. 726, more recent researches of Mr. Todd occurs a paper, entitled “ Disastrous have, I think, completely establish- Fruits of the prevailing Rage for ed a contrary view of the case. The Craniology,” in which a sort of documents which he has brought moon-struck Craniologist is brought forward on the question comprise a

forward, who endeavours, by means licence for printing this version at of sundry mechanical contrivances, the commencement of the reign of to repress the evil organs, and to Elizabeth ; a royal privilege even favour the growth of the good ones, for a part of it only, which almost in the sculls of his children. When immediately followed the publica. I read that paper, I viewed it as tion of the whole; and an entry in merely a playful exaggeration of the earliest register of the Stationers' the absurdity of the science, so Company in 1561 or 1562 of four- called, of Craniology, or, as it is pence,“ received of John Daye, for now denominated by its admirers, his licence for printing the residue Phrenology. I certainly did not for of the Psalms not heretofore print- a moment imagine that the idea of ed;" which seems to refer to a for- applying Craniology to the practical mer privileged portion of the Psalms purposes of education was ever likewhich Mr. Todd considers can be ly to be gravely proposed: but I no other than Sternhold's collection was mistaken.

Craniology has, it in 155), which was printed by Ed seems, of late, made such vast adward the Sixth's printer, cum privi- vances, that not only are the sculls legio. Mr. Todd also adduces se- of our malefactors duly callipered, veral other facts, which illustrate and the results given at large in all the public reception and usage of the journals in the kingdom ; not the Old Version. These documents only at the very moment in which and facts appear to have such weight I am writing, are we seriously inthat, till their relevancy to the sub- formed in those ephemeral oracles, ject has been disproved, which I be- by an accurate survey of a Burmese lieve has not yet been attempted, scull, what are the qualities which the advocates for the introduction rendered our late adversaries in the of private collections of hymns or East so formidable ; but even adpsalms must, I think, consent to re- vertisements are issued (I speak in linquish that portion of their argu- sober sadness), for schools conment which rests on the alleged ducted upon the principles of the non-authorization of Sternhold's above system. I inclose a printed version; though, after all, this is circular, announcing the establishbut a corner of the general ques- ment of an “ Infant Boarding tion, and has no reference to the School" in the neighbourhood of Christ. OBSERV. No. 298.

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the metropolis, for children from the benevolent and enlightened indiviages of one year to six or seven; duals having witnessed the benefits in which, after mentioning the of the system pursued in our infant general plan of the establishment, schools, in reference to the children which is to be “ after the model of of the poor, have been wishing to the infant schools of Westminster and see schools on a similar plan, for Spitalfields," it is seriously added, the children of parents in more that Mr. H., the husband of the easy circumstances; and it is to be conductress, “ will make use of hoped that our numerous “ prethe powerful means which the new paratory schools” will soon be reand important science of Phrenology formed, so far as circumstances alaffords, for ascertaining the respec- low, after these excellent models. tive mental capabilities of the chil. Such schools, if conducted with dren; for which purpose he in- suitable ability and parental tendertends to take accurate measure- ness, would be a benefit to society; ments of the head of each child for, though a child at an early age once in every three months, which is best under the eye of a judicious will enable him to observe the parent; yet, as too many parents growth of the organs of the different have neither leisure nor judgment, faculties of the mind, and assist for which or some other cause or Mrs. H. with advice on the proper causes, many thousands of children application of correctives and pre- are sent at an early age to preparaventives, with the least possible tory seminaries, it is most important abridgment of the liberty of the that such institutions should be child; and

and to determine what conducted on the best possible species of encouragement will be plan. At present this is far from the best for drawing forth its being in general the case; and it peculiar and superior powers." would be well not only for the

I am not aware whether the parents and children, but the in. worthy conductor of this experiment structors themselves, if the latter will thank me for suppressing his could be induced regularly to learn name, address, and terms, the men- the system of education practised tion of which, he may consider, at a well-disciplined infant-school. would assist the object of his adver- But let there be no foppery; no tising circular; but I should deeply quackery; above all, no craniology regret that the cause of infant edu- to disgust the public mind with the cation should for a single moment new system, and thus to impede the suffer in the mind of any individual success of one of the best schemes by being exhibited in connexion of utility ever contrived for the with this unphilosophical and ab. benefit of the human race. surd system of sçulīship. Various

Παιδοκομος. .


Soames on the Reformation. candid mind to pass over in examinMilman's Anne Boleyn. ing the arrangement of those pro(Concluded from. p. 561.)

vidential events which led on the

great process of the Reformation, THERE were many other marks of both in this country and on the Divine wisdom besides those alluded continent. Among these we may to in our last Number, which it is notice the visits of Luther and impossible for an intelligent and Cranmer to the great seat of papal superstition". They became eye- Both arrived in Rome endued with a witnesses of the iniquities of Popery; deeply 80; and both were struck with and to men whose thoughts were the discrepancy that existed between full of the light which then had but what they had read in God's word, and recently dawned upon them from what they saw in the habits of those who the word of God, the city of the claimed the exclusive right of deciding seven hills must have presented that word enjoined. When Luther was features in which they could not, in Rome, his reverence for the popedom we may conceive, fail to recognize was unshaken; but he could not fail to those of the spiritual Babylon of summon, in the more important stages of the Apocalypse; and they might, nessed in the city, vainly called eternal

, to perhaps, appropriate to themselves strengthen his convictions as they grathe words addressed to the prophet, dually flashed upon his mind. When, “ Son of man, go in and behold the however, Cranmer trode the seven celewicked abominations that they do he saw the seat of a power of which, to

brated hills, he had begun to suspect that here." Mr. Soames remarks on this say the least, the pretensions and spiritual subject,

character had been considerably exagge“Cranmer had remained during a con

rated. Nor could he avoid remarking, as siderable time at Rome, in the vain hope

a confirmation of bis suspicion, that the of advancing his master's objects, either vain and voluptuous, the selfish and inby means of a public disputation, or by triguing churchmen, who passed under the obtainment from Roman canonists of his review, were utterly destitute of that written opinions in concurrence with his sanctity which most of those who knew own. He found himself, however, neither them not associated with their names. able to make any appointment for a so- pp. 307–309. lemn argument upon the king's case, nor The important aid which the to surmount that influence over the canonists which the pope might be rea

cause of the Reformation in Gersonably expected to possess in his own

many received from the decisive capital. Thus the English doctor was and consistent support, afforded to left in the pontifical city, very much at Luther by his friend the Elector leisure to contemplate the habits and pur, Frederick, is so well known that suits of those who filled the principal stations in that celebrated place. Luther,

we need not dwell upon it: but the while yet an obscure individual, bad en- following circumstance so strikingjoyed a similar opportunity:

nor can it be ly displays his superiority to the doubted that both he and Cranmer were

fear of man, as well as his ensupplied, by what they had seen at Rome, lightened views, at a period of such the arduous struggle which has conferred universal corruption, that we cannot immortality upon their names. To the withhold it from our readers. It ocpope and cardinals a character of sanctity curred on the occasion of Charles V. was attributed by the generality of those who passed their lives at a distance from visiting Germany after his coronathose elevated personages; and to the tion at Bologna, in the spring of city in which St. Peter was believed to 1530, and when he was, from mohave fixed his apostolic chair, pilgrimages tives of political expediency, paying from all the regions of the West had been made by devotees during a long succes

a constrained attention to the Prosion of ages. When, therefore, the force testant princes. He arrived at of inveterate prejudice is considered, it is Augsburg in all the pomp of imperial evident that an opportunity of judging for themselves as to the character of the state, to meet the diet which had papucy, at its fountain-head, was no light been summoned to assemble there, advantage to the two great reformers. on the 13th of June, the eve of the

festival of the Procession of the Host.

“ In the thirteenth century, & woman • The former as the deputy of his order resident at Liege either pretended or con00 some question of discipline in 1510; ceited that she had received a Divine rethe latter as one of the embassy with the velation, enjoining the institution of an Earl of Wiltshire, Dr. Stokesley bishop annual service, in honour of the change of London elect, Dr. Lee archbishop of wrought, according to popish authorities, York, and the civilians Tregonnel, Karne, of the sacramental elements into the corand Benet, on the subject of the king'ó porenl substance of Christ. This fraud, divorce.

or folly, being well adapted to keep alive

a superstitious reverence for the Mass, Henry's reign, numerous persecudid not long wait for ecclesiastical patron- tions had been instituted for heresy, age ; and upon the strength of it, in the year 1264, Urban 1V. instituted the festi and, as Mr. Soames remarks in the val known as that of Corpus Christi; early part of his work, “ at interupon which the members of his church vals some holy and undaunted spirit exhibit one of their most elaborate dis

was freed from its earthly prison plays of ritual pageantry. Amidst these ceremonies, usually deemed so imposing, amidst the horrors of the gloomy Charles determined to make his appear- pyre.” The work of persecution ance in Augsburg: But in forming this afterwards increased ; and the resolution, he grievously miscalculated. The Protestants utterly refused the sanc

martyrs Bilney, Bainham, and tion of their presence to the splendid pro

others were brought to the stake. cession. I will instantly offer my head Their offences were against some to the executioner,' said the Margrave of of the doctrines of the Church, still Brandenburg, rather than renounce the Gospel, and approve idolatry. When papal in her principles as well as in attempts were made to shake this embar- her allegiance. In the view which rassing determination, the conscientious our author has given of the first of prince told Charles publicly, “ Christ did these martyrs, we cannot yield the not institute the holy supper with any full tribute of our acquiescence; view to furnish materials for a holiday shew, and for popular adoration. When and, we fear, he has expressed himhe delivered the bread to his disciples, he self in a manner which is calculated said, “ Take, eat ;” but he did not add, to induce many to mistake the holy Put these sacramental elements into a magnificent vase, which bear, aloft in better than enthusiasm, and the

boldness of the martyr for nothing triumph through the streets, and let every man fall prostrate on its approach.' Soon deep convictions of sin, which are after this rebuff, Charles had to encoun- 'felt in a greater or less degree by ter another mortification. The opening of the diet was customarily preceded every true Christian, for mere conby a mass of the Holy Ghost : to which stitutional and morbid melancholy. ceremony, when the emperor was about These may indeed exist together, to repair, the Elector of Saxony refused as might possibly be the case in the to bear the sword of state before him, as it was his ollice to do in quality of grand have no necessary connexion. We

instance of this martyr, but they marshal of the empire. threatened to bestow the Elector's office feel somewhat jealous on this subject, upon another ; but the prince remained and wish to interpose our solemn inflexible, until the Lutheran divines, ad- caution against any view of it which ducing the example of the Syrian Naaman, would tend to make us merge the expressed their opinion, that a Christian attending Mass officially might stand ex- great and influential verities of the cused if he only took care to withhold all Gospel in the generalities of a loose appearance of worship at the elevation of and ill-defined creed. Besides the the wafer. Under an intention of acting in this manner, both the Elector and the questions at issue between ProtestMargrave of Brandenburg were presentants and Papists, we must recollect at the Mass; and, accordingly, when, obe- that there are questions of still dient to the tinkling bell, the Romanists higher moment which divide the fell upon their knees, these enlightened princes continued standing; and thus re

world from the church of God; and buked, in a manner not to be forgotten, we ought to be especially careful the delusion of those who paid to the that to those who have suffered in creature that homage which, according to the record of God's word, is due only to

the cause of pure and undefiled rethe Creator." pp. 328330.

ligion, first in the conflict of their

own bosoms, and then in the agonies But the decisive course which of the flame, should be awarded the was now being adopted in England tribute of a most warm and affectioncould not be advanced without those ate admiration. The case of Bilney sufferings which were foretold by our is thus stated : Lord, as the portion of those who “ The most remarkable victim that should be faithful to his cause in perished at this time was Thomas Bilney, the midst of a crooked and perverse

a Norfolk man, who was fellow of Trinity generation. In the early part of

Hall, in Cambridge. This martyr's stature was diminutive, his health delicate, his

turn of mind inclining to melancholy. He without appetite or relish; the kind atseems to have been seized early in life tentions of his friends were received with with that painful sense of human corrup- stagnant apathy; religious topics even no tion, and that eager aspiration after more longer afforded him consolation. He viewthan human holiness, which sometimes ed himself as an apostate and a reprobate; give a morbid tinge to spirits warmed by one who, for the sake of lingering upon genuine piety. Full of self.condemnation, earth during a few years of iniquity and he was ever disclosing his griefs in con- misery, had basely denied his Saviour, fession, and praying for advice as to how stupidly bartered 'away the inestimable he could subdue the evil, which his too prize which had lately been the anchor of sensitive mind saw and exaggerated within his hope, and perfidiously lured others to him. He was directed to fast, and prac- destruction. Such were the horrors entise other mortifications, to purchase in- gendered by the constant attrition of these dulgences, and to offer masses. He did gloomy thoughts, that those who loved these things, but melancholy still weighed him, apprehensive of some suicidal act, down his soul. At length a friend men- anxiously watched over him both night tioned to him the New Testament, lately and day. For more than a year he conpublished by Erasmus, highly commending tinued thus to struggle with despair. At the manner in which the work was execut- last he came one night into the collegeed. Bilney, upon this recommendation, hall, bade farewell to certain of his friends, bought the book; not, however, so much and told them that he had set his face to with a view to comfort or instruction, as go to Jerusalem. His meaning was soon under an expectation of being delighted apparent. When next heard of, he was by the perusal of agreeable matter, enli- in Norfolk, where, first among his family vened by the graces of composition. His connexions, afterwards openly in the fields, purchase gave a new and an irresistible he boldly preached the doctrines which he impulse to his thoughts. He pondered had once abjured, and exhorted his hearers, with absorbing attention the words of as they valued their own salvation, to reeternal life; and now discerned, in the nounce the principles in which they had Sacrifice of the Cross, a refuge from the been reared. As he probably had both misery by which he had so long been anticipated and desired, his exertions in haunted, the ascetic exercises, hitherto the discharge of his conscience led to his prescribed as medicines adapted to heal apprehension ; and being again convicted his wounded spirit, he at once considered of heresy, he was sentenced to the stake. merely as delusive palliatives : he felt that The place of his martyrdom was a low he, and those around him, had been de- spot of ground without the walls of Norceived in points of vital importance; nor wich, called the Lollards' pit. He met could he refrain from raising his voice to his fate with invincible constancy and warn others of a precipice, down which, cheerfulness, joined with such a bright he believed, he had himself nearly fallen. display of Christian charity, that when His zeal, it may be his enthusiasm, then some of the friars, apprehensive lest the excited him to set all hazard at defiance. people, imputing to monkish malice the He laboured to disseminate his opinions guilt of his death, should contract their among his fellow-academics; and Latimer, liberality towards them, entreated him to with others, became his converts. He exculpate them from the charge; Bilney preached earnestly in the neighbourhood promptly complied, and begged of the of London against pilgrimages, penances, spectators not to intermit towards these the invocation of saints, and perhaps every mendicants their accustomed kindness. other peculiarity of Popery, except tran: After light was communicated to the pyre, substantiation, a doctrine which he held his sufferings seem to have been of no firmly to the last. As might have been long duration. The wind, indeed, raged expected, this conduct exposed him to a violently, and twice or thrice blew from prosecution for heresy; of which he was his scorched and blackened form the blazconvicted; but sentence being purposely ing mass in which he was at first envelopdelayed, in the interval his own fears, and ed. He was then observed to beat his the entreaties of his friends, overcame his breast; he was heard at intervals to ejaresolution, and he recanted.

culate Jesus,' or · I believe;' but he “ After this escape from imminent soon drooped his head, and it was evident danger, he returned to Cambridge, where he had ceased to breathe. Anxious to his constitutional melancholy seized upon relieve the eyes of those around from him with greater violence than ever. The dwelling on the slow combustion of his cheerfulness once infused into his mind withered corse, an officer with his halberd by the contemplation of Scriptural Chris- then loosed the staple by which the chain tianity, the excitement arising from the about it had been secured, and the martyr's communication to others of the know- body fell. Fresh fuel was then expediledge acquired by himself, were exchanged tiously supplied, and ere long a heap of for the intolerable gloom of a corroding, ashes only marked the spot where lately indolent despair. His meals were taken stood the willing victim, anxious to atone

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