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that the propaganda works in every and traitorous superiors, and at all 'corner, and its emissaries run about events, to sanction and accredit se. in all the four quarters of the worldi cret associations, which, in their own (p. 564.)

nature, and independently of the At page 553, he confirms the end which they propose and seek, Abbé Barruel; and, speaking of one are replete with danger, and liable of the degrees in the lodges, he says, to every kind of abuse. The con“I think that I perceive the general spiracy of the Samnites against the drift of the whole: it is to inculcate Romans, as recorded by Livy, may a system of materialism on chemical convince the most sceptical that principles. The candidate Clair- such conspiracies have existed, and voyant enters the lodge by a door, how accursed their nature is. where there is a figure which is

SENIOR *. symbolical of body. He makes a mystical journey round part of the lodge, giving his right and his left Tothe Editorofthe Christian Observer. hand alternately to some of the brethren. - In a corner he is intro- Among the interesting scriptural duced to a brother, who is distin. illustrations which have from time guished by a jewel, which is said to to time appeared in the Christian represent life or breath (spiritus). Observer, selected from the publiThis brother accompanies him to cations of Oriental travellers, works the opposite corner, where they are often costly in their price, and of joined by a third, having a jewel ex- very confined circulation, I have pressing mind, intelligence. They looked in vain for any portion of now make a trio; and, after a few those contained in Mr. Jowett's more mystical movements, they are Researches in Syria and the Holy before the throne. The bandage is Land; the review of it which apsuddenly taken off from the eyes of peared in your volume not containthe candidate, and he is made to ing any extracts from this departsink down in ecstacy, overpowed by ment of his remarks. The following a blaze of light. He is now the passages will supply this omission, ecstasie, the philosophue inconnue, and, it is trusted, interest both the and at the summit of free-masonry." biblical student and the general

The Professor justly closes his reader, though it must be confessed work with the following admonition: that this species of illustration, use“ Beware of false prophets, who ful as it is in its place, has been come to you in sheep's clothing, greatly over-rated. : Seldom does it but inwardly they are ravening solve any real difficulty; or offer wolves. BY THEIR

more than casual elucidations, and

Do men those confined chiefly to points of gather grapes of thorns, or figs of inferior moment; besides which, too thistles?

large a portion of such alleged · More, I trust, needs not be added “ illustrations," illustrate nothing to sound a warning against all se- but the fancifulness or puerile taste of cret associations, which subject the the collector. It might be invidious unşuspicious victim to oaths bind- to cite instances; but every sound ing him to obedience to superiors, and to every kind of temptation to

• We are at a loss to know what are proceed from evil to evil; and in the precise dangers to which our correwhich, if he be not drawn on to. paper; as we are not aware of the exist

spondent alludes in the latter part of his conspiracy and crime, he may be

ence among us, of any such secret associaengaged by allurement of professed tions as he describes'; but we are willing humanity and light, to render him

to shew our deference to so ancient a self subservient to the practices of what he seeins to consider an essential

contributor to our pages by not omitting unknown, and, it may be, wicked part of his argument.






biblical critic will acknowledge the sided at Deir el Kamr, and were truth of this remark. The following risen, the mother, daughter, and illustrations from the pen of Mr. daughter-in-law, who had been Jowett are of a higher class. waiting at the door, came in, and

House of the Dead.—“ While partook of what remained. Thus it walking out, one evening, a few is in Syria ; and thus it has been, fields' distance from Deir el Kamr, probably, ever since Abraham, a with Hanna Doomani, the son of Syrian ready to perish, traversed my host, to see a detached garden these regions, dwelling in tents : belonging to his father, he pointed when Sarah, having prepared an out to me, near it, a small, solid, stone entertainment for three divine building, apparently a house ; very strangers, did not present it, that solemnly adding, • Kabbar beity, being Abraham's office ; but stood

- the sepulchre of our family.' It at the tent-door, which was behind had neither door nor window. He him. So Rebekah prepared food then directed my attention to a con- for her husband to eat, and sent it siderable number of similar build. in by the hand of Jacob." ings, at a distance: which, to the Prov. xi. 21.-“ The expression, eye, are exactly like houses; but though hand join in hand,' may which are, in fact, family mansions for bear a slight correction ; comformthe dead. They have a most melan- able both to the original Hebrew choly appearance, which made him and also to the custom actually shudder while he explained their prevailing in Syria. The original use. They seem, by their dead simply signifies, hand to hand.? And walls, which must be opened at this is the custom of persons in the each several interment of the mem- East, when they greet each other, bers of a family, to say, “This is or strike hands, in token of friendan unkindly house, to which visitors ship and agreement. They touch do not willingly throng: but, one their right hands respectively; and by one, they will be forced to then raise them up to their lips enter ; and none who enter, ever and forehead. This is the universal come out again. Perhaps this Eastern courtesy. The English Vercustom, which prevails particularly sion, and the devices grounded upon at Deir el Kamr, and in the lonely it, give the idea of hand clasped in neighbouring parts of the moun- hand, which is European, rather tain, may have been of great anti- than Oriental. The sense, therequity; and may serve to explain fore, is, “ Though hand meet in hand' some Scripture-phrases. The Pro- -intimating, that heart assents to phet Samuel was buried · in his heart in the perpetration of wickedhouse at Ramah' (1 Sam. xxv. 1): ness -- yet shall not the wicked go it could hardly be in his dwelling- unpunished.'” house. Joab was buried in his own Isaiah xiv. 8.-"As we passed house in the wilderness (1 Kings ii. through the extensive forest of fir34). This is the house appointed trees situated between Deir el Kamr for all living (Job xxx. 23). Possi- and Ainep, we had already heard, bly, likewise, the passages in Proverbs at some distance, the stroke of one ii. 18, 19, and vii. 27, and ix. 18; solitary axe, resounding from hill to may have drawn their imagery from hill. On reaching the spot, we found this custom. He knoweth not that a peasant, whose labour had been the dead are there.... her house in- so far successful, that he had felled clineth unto death, and her paths his tree and lopped the branches. unto the dead. None that go unto He was now hewing it in the her return again."

middle, so as to balance the two Gen. xviii. 6, 10, and xxvii. 14, halves upon his camel; which stood 17.-“ When we had finished our patiently by him, waiting for his meals, in the family in which I re. load. In the days of Hiram, king CHRIST. OBSERY. No. 299.

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of Tyre, and subsequently under sitting down, choose their place, yet the kings of Babylon, this romantic the flowing dress by degrees gathers solitude was not so peaceful: that up the dust: as this occurs, they, most poetic image in Isaiah, who from time to time, arise, adjust makes these very trees vocal, ex- themselves, shake off the dust, and ulting in the downfal of the de- then sit down again. The captive stroyer of nations, seems now to be daughter of Zion therefore, brought almost realized anew-Yea, the fir.. down to the dust of suffering and trees rejoice at thee, and the cedars oppression, is commanded to arise of Lebanon, saying, Since thou art and shake herself from that dust; laid down, no feller is come up and then, with grace and dignity against us.' "

and composure and security, to sit Isaiah lii. 2, 10.-" The use of down; to take, as it were, again, the Oriental dress, which I now her seat and her rank amid the wear, brings to the mind various company of the nations of the earth, scriptural illustrations, of which I which had before afflicted her, and will only mention two. The figure trampled her to the earth. It may in Isaiah lii. 10, The Lord hath be proper to notice that Bishop made bare his holy arm,' is most Lowth gives another renderinglively: for the loose sleeve of the 'Arise, ascend thy lofty seat'-and Arab shirt, as well as that of the quotes eastern customs, to justify outer garment, leaves the arm so the version : but I see no necessity completely free, that, in an instant, for the alteration, although to the left hand passing up the right English ears it may sound more arm makes it bare ; and this is done appropriate. A person of rank in when a person--a soldier, for ex- the East often sits down upon the ample, about to strike with the ground, with his attendants about sword — intends to give his right him.” arm full play. The image repre- Matt. vi. 3, and Prov. vi. 13. sents Jehovah as suddenly prepared " The manner in which the Sa. to inflict some tremendous, yet maritan priest desired me, on partrighteous judgment--so effectual, ing, to express our mutual goodthat all the ends of the world shall will, was by an action, than which see the salvation of God. - The there is not one more common in other point illustrated occurs in the all the Levant. He put the foresecond verse of the same chapter : finger of his right hand parallel to where the sense of the last expres- that of his left, and then rapidly sions is, to an Oriential, extremely rubbed them together, while I was natural — Shake thyself from the expected to do the same, repeating dust-arisesit down, O Jerusalem.' the words right, right;' or, in It is no uncommon thing to see an common acceptation, 'together, toindividual, or a groupe of persons, gether. It is in this manner that even when very well-dressed, sitting, persons express their consent on all with their feet drawn under them, occasions ; on concluding a bargain, upon the bare earth, passing whole on engaging to bear one another hours in idle conversation. Euro- company, and on every kind of peans would require a chair ; but friendly agreement or good underthe natives here prefer the ground. standing. May not this serve to In the heat of summer and autumn, explain the phrase in Matt. vi. 3: it is pleasant to them to while away • Let not thy left hand know what their time in this manner, under the thy right hand doeth ?' that is, shade of a tree. Richly adorned Let not thy heart consent to its females, as well as men, may often own good thoughts, with a sinful be seen thus amusing themselves. self-applause.' So much is said, in As may naturally be expected, with the Old Testament, of speaking whatever care they may, at first with the eyes, hands, and even feet, that it is scarcely understood by thing to see more than five Arab Englishmen. They should see the fingers at one time. Their bread, expressive and innumerable gesti- which is extremely thin, tearing culations of foreigners when they and folding up like a sheet of paper, converse : many a question is an- is used for the purpose of rolling swered, and many a significant re- together a large mouthful, or sopmark conveyed, by even children, ping up the fluid and vegetables. who learn this language much But the practice which was most sooner than their mother-tongue. revolting to me was this: when the Perhaps the expression of Solomon, master of the house found in the that the wicked man speaketh with dish any dainty morsel, he took it his feet (Prov. vi 13), may appear out with his fingers, and applied it more natural, when it is considered to my mouth. This was true Sythat the mode of sitting on the rian courtesy and hospitality; and, ground in the East brings the feet had I been sufficiently well-bred, into view, nearly in the same direct my mouth would have opened to line as the hands; the whole body receive it. On my pointing to my crouching down together, and the plate, however, he had the goodness hands, in fact, often resting upon to deposit the choice morsel there. the feet.

I would not have noticed so trivial Matt. xxvi. 23, and John xiii. a circumstance, if it did not exactly 25-27.-" To witness the daily illustrate what the Evangelists refamily-habits, in the house in which cord of the Last Supper. St. MatI lived at Deir el Kamr, forcibly thew relates that the traitor was reminded me of Scripture scenes. described by our Lord in these The absence of the females at our terms : · He that dippeth his hand meals has been already noticed. with me in the dish, the same shall There is another custom, by no betray me.' (xxvi. 23.) From this it means agreeable to a European; may be inferred that Judas sat near to which, however, that I might to our Lord; perhaps on one side not seem unfriendly, I would have next to him. St. John, who was willingly endeavoured to submit, leaning on Jesus's bosom, describes but it was impossible to learn it in the fact with an additional circumthe short compass of a twenty days' stance. Upon his asking, Lord, visit. There are set on the table, who is it?' Jesus answered, · He it in the evening, two or three messes is, to whom I shall give a sop, when of stewed meat, vegetables, and I have dipped it. And when he sour milk. To me, the privilege of had dipped the sop, he gave it to a knife and spoon and plate was Judas Iscariot, the son of Simon. granted : but the rest all helped And after the sop, Satan entered themselves immediately from the into him.' (xiii. 25–27.)” dish; in which it was no uncommon



(an undesigned mistatement, I beTothe Editorofthe Christian Observer.

lieve,) of the opinion of Bishop WarIf I am not wrong in my opinion burton, on one of the leading docof the Christian Observer, it is in- trines of Christianity, as given in tended to be the vehicle of truth. Mr. Biddulpb's valuable work on I suppose, therefore, that you will the Operation of the Holy Spirit. be willing to correct a mistatement To a paragraph (p. 216) is subjoined the following note, for the the sense which he is suspected to purpose of exhibiting an opinion betray in his use of the term righteof Bishop Warburton: “ Socrates ousness. preaching moral virtue, and dying Doctor Johnson has said of Bi. to bear witness to the unity of the shop Warburton, that “ bis knowGodhead, was made to the Grecian ledge was too multifarious to be people wisdom and righteousness always exact, and his pursuits too not less than Jesus.” I was much eager to be always cautious." He struck, upon meeting with this pass. may have been neither exact nor age in Bishop Warburton's “ Doccautious in this instance; but the trine of Grace," a short time since, charge which Mr. Biddulph's use of to see how very unfairly this sen- the passage in question implies, I do tence, taken out of its connexion not think can be justly made against with the rest of the paragraph, ex- him. In the Essay in which this hibits the bishop's sentiment. The passage is found, although there is paragraph is intended to shew one much of acrimony to be blamed, of the evil consequences following there is much of acute and correct the attempt to change the nature of discrimination, and very much of the Gospel economy of redemption valuable truth to be praised; and I to a republication of the religion of am persuaded that the fanaticism, nature. It is as follows:-“ For he against which he has directed his who considers Jesus only in the vehement invective, has nothing in light of a republisher of the law of common with that statement of nature, can hardly entertain a higher the mode of the operation of the opinion of the Saviour of the world Holy Spirit which Mr. Biddulph has than some have done of Socrates, made and defended. whom Erasmus esteemed an object

T. R. of devotion, and many a better Pro- * Is T. R. aware that Mr. Bidtestant hath thought to be divinely dulph's mistake respecting the above inspired. For, was not Socrates, by passage in Warburton had been his preaching up moral virtue, and animadverted upon in the Quarterly by his dying to bear witness to the Review, among a series of other unity of the Godhead, made to the charges not of the same tenable Grecian people, and (by means of character; and that Mr. Biddulph their extended commerce of polite- has published in reply a pamphlet, ness) to the rest of mankind, wis- in which, after satisfactorily confutdom and righteousness? and what ing the objections of his reviewer, more was Jesus” —[on the suppo- he confesses his mistake, in a sition of his being only a republisher spirit of Christian simplicity and of the law of nature] _“ though candour which reflects far higher the Apostle adds to these two attri- honour on him than this inadbutes, sanctification and redemp- vertency does discredit? As Mr. tion? For, according to the prin- Biddulph's treatise was reviewed ciples of this paganised Chris. with approbation in our work, and tianity, his titles of Messiah and may be in the hands of many of our Redeemer are reduced to mere figu- readers, we have thought it right to rative and accommodated terms.' insert our correspondent's charge,

Now to say the most (and I al- and to append to it Mr. Biddulph's low that to say the most, may be statement on the subject, which is to say the truth,) this paragraph as follows: shews nothing more than a misun- “ I am now arrived at the most derstanding of a single word; and gratifying part of my unpleasant by no means a general contradic- task; for such has the present vindition of the doctrine which that word cation of myself proved, from the is supposed to include: for he seems unavoidable necessity under which to reserve to the term redemption, it has laid me of introducing myself


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