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performing a duty very irksome, but in- duty devolves on the king and chief dispensable, and which he was determined statesmen. At Shun-teen-foo examinashould be done in a becoming manner. tions there are readers and comparers of Before coming to the palace, the parties theme papers, 100 persons; transcribers, had been asked, if it would be agreeable to 1000; type-cutters, 32; press-men, 24; them to receive a title from the king ; who print the theses to be distributed which having been answered in the af- amongst the students : for every work firmative, the officers proceeded to read must be performed inside the court-yard the titles conferred, and to invest the after the gates are locked. In Kwangmembers of the deputation with them, tung, there are about 10,000 people, conby binding on the forehead of each a sisting of students and attendants, officers piece of gilt leaf on which the words com- and mechanics, collected inside the inposing it were written. They were also closure. The military examinations comeach presented with a ruby ring, a piece mence immediately after the literary close. of silk cloth, two boxes, and two cups. The subjects given at the three days' It was then asked if they had any request examinations are, on the first day, three to prefer; to which Captain Lumsden themes from the “four books"and one copy replied, that as peace had been happily of versés ; on the second day, one theme restored between the two great nations, from each of the Chinese classics; on it was to be hoped that it might remain the third, five questions, referring to the firm.
history or political economy of China. A CEYLON.
variety of minute rules are given respectAn ordinance, it is stated, has been is- ing the mechanical parts of the essays. sued by the Governor, in which the ca- If the number of characters added or pital punishment for women, which had blotted out in an essay exceeds a hundred, hitherto been drowning, is directed for the the student is pasted out; that is, his future to be hanging. The innovation, name is pasted up at the gate, as having it is added, the great importance of which violated the rules; and he is expelled for does not seem very obvious, had caused that year. If a candidate on being searched such murmurs that it was doubtful shall be found to have secreted a prewhether it could be generally carried into composed essay, he is condemned to wear effect.
a wooden collar, to be degraded from his CHINA.
rank, and incapacitated from ever standing Literature is cultivated in China at the a candidate again : his father and tutor present day, almost entirely for political are also to be punished. If the discovery objects, as furnishing a title to and a is made after a student has attained his qualification for government offices. Con- degree, he is not only punished as before, fucius and the other ancient philosophers but the officers who failed to discover the differed essentially from the moderns in artifice are implicated in his guilt. If à this respect: their pursuits in moral candidate prints a rejected essay, with a science were unconnected with political view of appealing to the world for its views. About 700 A.D., the practice of judgment, both the student and the person selecting persons to fill the posts of go- who criticised his essay are to be deliververnment, according to their proficiency ed to a court of inquiry. The seats of in literature, first began; and a plan of the students at the examinations are scruexamination was then adopted, which, pulously regulated, to defeat any contriywith occasional alterations, has subsisted ance of individuals to render mutual aid. to the present period. The official mem. bers of the imperial family are examined
NEW SOUTH WALES. in the public hall after the examination of The Governor has published a scale of all the literary candidates has ended. gratuities, to be paid to convicts employed Dr. Morrison observes, that the ex- in the public departments, as an inciteamination of these imperial person- ment to industry and good behaviour. It ages is a mockery; their themes being is expected that this plan will greatly composed by other people, whilst benefit both the individuals and the public. they sit near drinking and carousing. The product of hopeless compulsatory The other candidates are watched by labour has been found among convicts, proper officers, to prevent surreptitious as every where else, to be of little value essays being smuggled in: at court this to any party.
LIST OF NEW PUBLICATIONS.
THEOLOGY. On the general Structure of the Apoca- An Essay on the War Galleys of the lypse, being a brief Introduction to its Ancients. By John Howell. With plates. Interpretation. By J. H. Frere.
8vo. 5s. Christian in Opposition to Party Com- The Day of Judgment, and other Poems. munion. By the Rev. Robert Hall. 8vo. 2s. By T. Randall.
The Christian contemplated, in a Se- Thoughts on Domestic Education, the ries of Lectures. By the Rev. W. Jay. Result of Experience. By “A Mother,"
Remarks on Oaths, shewing the Duty author of “ Always Happy, &c." of legislative Interference, to abolish Mathematics applied to the fine and some, and reform others.
useful Arts. By Baron Dupin. Adapted Remarks on the “Declaration of the to the state of Arts in England, by Dr. Catholic Bishops, &c. in Great Britain.' Birkbeck. Part I. ls. By the Rev. P. Allwood.
Catherine and Jane; or Walks to and A Sermon preached at the Visitation of from a Sunday School. By Eleanor Wilson. the Archdeacon of Surrey. By the Rev. Remarks on the recent Accusations W. Burrows.
against the Committee of the British and A Guide to an Acquaintance with God. Foreign Bible Society; in a Letter to a By the Rev. J. Sherman.
Clergyman in the Country, from a Lay Critica Biblica; comprising Remarks, Member of that Institution. Illustrative, Critical, and Philological, on The History of the Reign of Henry the the Sacred Scriptures. 4 vols. 8vo. Edited Eighth ; being the First Part of the by W. Carpenter:
Modern History of England. By Sharon Pastoral Watchfulness and Zeal, par- Turner. 4to. 21. 23. ticularly in Personal Instructions and History of Scotland, from the Roman Admonitions, recommended in Two Ser- Invasion, till the Suppression of the Remons. By the Rev.H.Berens. 8vo. Is. Od. bellion in 1745. By the Rev. A. Stewart.
CHURCH-OF-ENGLAND TRACT The Committee transcribe the suggesSOCIETY.
tion of a correspondent, “ that the useThe Fourteenth Report of this Society fulness of the Society would be greatly states, that the contributions for the year promoted, were its opulent members to amounted to 222., and the sales of tracts make consignments of tracts to clergyto 3591., forming a total of 5811. The men of small incomes, for gratuitous dispayments were 6101. To the general tribution ;" on which they remark, that series, now containing seventy-three “many friends of the Society may be tracts, has been added - “An Affec- blessed by Divine Providence with the tionate Address from a Clergyman to one means of adopting this plan of promoting of his Parishioners, on the Sin and Danger the glory of God, the benefit of their fel. of pursuing his worldly Calling on the low-creatures, and the support of their Sabbath-day." To the series for Chil- own church; and may be acquainted dren and Sunday Schools, now consisting with some zealous clergymen whose inof thirteen tracts, have been added- comes are confined, but who would re“ The Life and Death of Lady Jane joice, were it put in their power, to add Grey,”—“ The Fruits of Instruction ; printed or oral instruction among their being an Account of the good Conduct poor parishioners; and to find employand happy Death of four Girls educated ment for the minds and hearts of their in a Church-of-England Sunday-School,” flock, during the little leisure which the --and “ The Young Christian's Reasons industrious poor have at their command. for believing the Bible to be the Word of It is not to be doubted that many a vilGod.” The Society has also furnished lage pastor would rejoice is becoming ten tracts printed on sheets, to be hung up the almoner of his more wealthy friends, in cottages. The total number of tracts in communicating spiritual benefit by published during the year amounts to means of these publications." 265,000, which exceeds the number pub. lished in any preceding year. The total RUSSIAN BIBLE SOCIETY. mumber sold and granted during the year Our readers are apprised of the obhas been 195,124,
stacles which have of late been interposed in the way of the proceedings, hitherto 30 with. I could give you abundant testiprosperous, of Bible Societies in Russia. monies, since the Scriptures have been The following imperial ukase, dated more generally circulated through the April 12, and addressed to the Metropolitan country, of the blessings and consolations of St. Petersburgh, suspends for the pre- thereby secured. sent the proceedings of the Bible So. “ When I was appointed Chaplain at cieties in that country; but it allows of Chunar, I found a considerable number of the sale of Bibles in the vernacular natives there, bearing the Christian name, tongues : and we would trust that what but without any acquaintance with Chrishas been already effected by the circula- tianity. To these, I first addressed myself tion of the Scriptures has “lighted a by an interpreter ; and, in due time, actorch in that country which shall never quired their language sufficiently to conbe extinguished.” The ukase is as fol. verse with them myself: subsequently lows:-“ Having taken into consideration the work was prosecuted by others; and the representations of your eminence and
now a congregation, frequently of 200 of the Metropolitan Eugenius, respecting natives, has grown up, of whom eighty the difficulties which present themselves are regular communicants, and their geto the progress of the cause of the Rus- neral orderly and correct conduct is such sian Bible Society, and considering your as becomes the Christian character. About opinions well founded, I order you, as sixty of these have learned to read since president of the said society, to suspend they arrived at adult age : and, out of this its activity in all its operations, without congregation, to my own personal knowexception, until my further permission. ledge, not less than twenty have died in the You are hereby empowered to extend full exercise of Christian faith and hope.” this my order to all the committees, “ I here might instance the case of one branches, and associations, connected with native, who died in my own house at the society throughout Russia ; and, at Benares. He was born of Christian the same time, to obtain a particular ac- parents, but grew up in ignorance of the count of all property, moveable and im- Christian religion. He afterward learned moveable, in houses, lands, books, mate- to read the Scriptures in the Hindoostanee rials, and money, belonging to the society, tongue. The influence of the Bible wherever these are to be found, and soon began to appear in his conduct. to furnish. me with the most accurate After some years, he fell into a decline, and circumstantial information possible under the sufferings of which he lingered thereof. The sale of the Holy Scriptures for a long time: during that period, his already printed in Slavonian and Russian, advancement in the Christian life was as also in the other languages in use evident: I never met with a more sincere, among the inhabitants of the Russian
or a more deeply-experienced Christian in Empire, I permit to be continued at the any class of society. The last words fixed prices. (Signed) NICHOLAS.” which he uttered were, “I desire to be
with Christ.' This man, in the course of BENEFICIAL EFFECTS OF THE his servitude, had saved 400 rupeesBIBLE IN INDIA.
half of wbich he left, by will, to his The beneficial influence of our Bible, family; 100 rupees to the Bible Society ; missionary, and school institutions in and 100 rupees to the Church Missionary India, strenuously as they have been de- Society. On one occasion, a native gennied by some of the opposers of their tleman, in the course of conversation with truly benevolent and Christian operations, me, observed, that, for his own part, he are becoming every year increasingly had never yet seen any particular good. demonstrable. Did our limits admit, we arise among the natives of this country might in almost every successive Number from their professed conversion to Chrisadduce new and encouraging facts in tianity. I led him to the bed-side of the proof of this assertion. The following dying man : the sight of his patience, his remarks, from an address recently de- meekness, his faith and hope in Christ, livered by Archdeacon Corrie, at a Bible perfectly astonished him ; and he exSociety meeting at Meerut, will corro- claimed, as he departed, that he had borate our remark.--"On my arrival in never before witnessed such a wonderful India, Bibles of the smalleet size and sight : it was the most wonderful that he commonest sort, were with difficulty pro- had ever seen in the whole course of his cured at eight, ten, and twelve rupees a life!” copy, in Calcutta; while in the upper “At Agra, I was a witness, in repeated provinces, they were rarely to be met instances, to the Scriptures proving, to
natives, the power of God unto salvation had delivered them." We trust that the At Chunar, two men, who visited a mis- faith and patience, and truly Christian sionary there, on obtaining a copy of the fortitude, displayed by these devoted serScriptures, took up their abode in the vants of God, may be viewed as auspicious vestry, where they read all day ; and, in of bright days of heavenly light about to the evenings, conversed with the mission beam upon the hitherto dark and cruel ary on such points as struck them in the and degraded land in which they have prosecution of their study. The event fixed the scene of their perilous mission. was, they were convinced of the divine Mrs. Judson's conduct, in particular, apauthority of Christianity, and received pears to have been characterised by an baptism; making five in number, who extraordinary spirit of piety, prudence, have there embraced Christianity, since and heroism. May the earnest wish and Christmas last.
prayer, which' we have more than once “ People who look merely at the out- expressed in our pages, be fulfilled, that side of things conclude the conversion of the late painful events in our intercourse the natives to be next to impossible ; but, with the Burmese nation, may, by the the chief difficulty lies in inducing them at providence of God, be in the end overall to attend to the subject. At every place ruled for its best welfare ; that, as it has where ministers of religion shew any submitted to our arms, it may also learn readiness to afford information, there have from us those blessed truths which flow always been found some natives desirous from, and lead to, Him who is “the Auof it: and there can be no doubt, that an thor of peace and lover of concord.” We opinion is gaining ground among them daily, again recommend the consideration of the that Christianity will finally prevail.” subject to the attention of our Bible,
“ There is one very remarkable circum- Missionary, and Educational Societies, stance, now of frequent occurrence :-the and especially to our fellow-countrymen natives begin to argue with the mission in India. Most happy are we to learn aries out of the Christian Scriptures; a from Mrs. Judson's letter, that the Amesatisfactory proof, that the copies which rican Missionaries, far from retiring in are distributed are read. We may anti- despondency from a scene where they cipate what shall follow. Truth must have suffered so greatly in their truly exprevail."
alted vocation, are looking forward to “ When the Scriptures are stated to be new and increased exertions, fully anticigiven away to natives, it is not to be pating the blessed period when even undersood that they, in every instance, Burmah, and the uttermost parts of the receive an entire copy. At first, a single earth, shall become the kingdoms of our Gospel, or a copy of some one book, is Lord and of his Christ. given ; and, when it appears that this has The following is Mrs. Judson's letter. been read with attention, and further in. “I will not attempt to describe the joyformation is desired, other portions of ful sensations produced, by finding myself Scripture are supplied."
once more in a situation to write to you,
after an interval of two years—yes, two SUFFERINGS AND DELIVERANCE years of suffering and privation, the very OF THE MISSIONARIES IN AVA. recollection of which often chills our feel.
The perilous situation of the American ings and sickens our hearts. Though Missionaries in Ava, during the late war, unbelief has often prompted us to say has excited such general alarm and sym- that our afflictions were greater than we pathy on their behalf, that we take the could bear or deserved, yet our better earliest opportunity of laying before our feelings have triumphed in the sovereign readers an authentic narrative of their government of God, assured that he would sufferings and deliverance, as related in a do all things well, and, if it were his highly interesting communication from pleasure, could easily lessen our sufferings. Mrs. Judson, to the late Mr. Butterworth. Nor have we been disappointed in our That truly pious and benevolent man had hopes; for, in his own time and way, we gone to his heavenly reward, before the have been extricated from all our difficulletter reached this country. No person ties, and are now safe and happy under felt more anxiously than Mr. Butterworth, British protection. respecting the uncertain fate of the Mis. “Knowing your interest in the Burman sionaries in Ava ; and no one would have Mission, and assured of personal sympathy rejoiced more warmly, had he been spared, and regard, I will endeavour to give you, to learn, that, great as had been their in my usual way, a general relation of afflictions, yet “out of them all the Lord events for the last two years.
“In my last to you, I mentioned that them remain. He was now, however, inevery thing had a warlike appearance. formed of the above-mentioned circumThe Burman Government, however, had stance; and, in an angry tone, issued an no idea that the English were in earnest order for the immediate arrest of Dr. in their communications : consequently Price and Mr. Judson. they heard the report that Rangoon was “And now commenced a series of optaken, with surprise and amazement. No pressive acts, which we should, before, preparation had been made at that port have thought human nature incapable of for the reception of strangers; and even committing. the viceroy was absent. An army was “On the 8th of June, a city writer, at immediately raised, and ordered to march the head of a dozen savages, with one under the command of the Khgee- whose marked face denoted him an exWoongyee, who was to be joined on ecutioner, rushed into the house, and dehis way down by Schagah-Woongyee, he manded Mr. Judson. “You are called having been recently appointed viceroy by the king,' said the writer, (a mode of of Rangoon. The only fear and anxiety expression when about to execute the which the king and government then king's order,) and instantly the small cord manifested or expressed, was lest the was produced by the spotted face, who English at Prome should hear of their roughly seized Mr. Judson, threw him on approach; and, precipitately leaving the the floor, and tied his hands behind him. country, deprive the Burmese grandees The scene was now dreadful. The little of the pleasure of employing in their children were screaming with fear-the service, as slaves, a few of the White Burmans in our employ running here strangers. “Send to me,' said one of and there, endeavouring to escape the the ladies of a Woongyee (minister of hands of those unfeeling wretches and state), 'four Kalarpyoos (White strangers) thé Bengal servants mute with amazeto manage the affairs of my household, as ment and horror at the situation in which I hear they are trustworthy'--'And to they saw their master. I offered money me,' said a gay young sprig of the palace, to the executioner, and entreated him to six stout men to row my boat. The untie Mr. Judson ; but in vain were my army, in their gayest attire, danced and tears and entreaties : they led him away, sung down the river ; but few, if any, I knew not whither; and I was left guardever danced back again, and the Khgee- ed by ten men, who had received strict Woongyee found other commissions to orders to confine me close, and let no one execute than those just given him. go in or out. I retired to my room ; and
“ As soon as the first force was de- attempted to pour out my soul to Him spatched, the government had leisure to who, for our sakes, was bound and led look round, and inquire into the cause of a way to execution; and even in that Rangoon being taken, and the probable dreadful moment I experienced a degree intentions of the arrival of those strangers. of consolation hardly to be expected. It was at once concluded, that spies were But this employment was of short in the country; who had communicated duration. The magistrate of that part of the state of things, and invited the fo- Ava in which we lived was in the veranreigners aver: and who so likely to be dah, continnally calling me to come out, spies as Rogers, Gauger, and Laird, who, and submit to his examinations. Supunder the garb of merchants, had plotted posing that all our letters and writings so much evil! They were all three ac- would be examined, and feeling conscious cordingly arrested, and put in confine- of having noted down every occurrence ment. We now, more than ever, began since my arrival in Ava, I instantly deto tremble for ourselves, and hourly to stroyed every thing of the kind, having no expect some dreadful scene. In exa- time to make a selection; and then went mining the accounts of Mr. Gauger it was out to receive the officer. This writer found that Mr. Judson and Dr. Price had was ordered to write down my name, age, taken money of him; which circumstance, and country, with the names of my four to the uninformed mind of a Burmese, little Burman girls, and those of the two was sufficient evidence that they also Bengalee servants; and then pronounced were spies, and in the employ of the us all slaves of the king, again ordered English Government, as they received the guard to watch me closely, and detheir supplies from an Englishman. The parted. It was now nearly evening : with king had, before, been advised to put the what anxiety I waited the return of our missionaries in confinement; but his re- faithful Moung Ing, who had followed ply had been, They are true men: let Mr. Judson at a short distance, to see Curist, OBSERv. No, 299,