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Peter Richer, one of the ministers, vines, it so happened that the judges lay extended in his little cabin, so de- to whom it was delivered were not prived of strength that he was scarce- unfavourable to the Protestants ; Îy able to raise his head in prayer to and, instead of executing the treachGod; though while thus prostrate, erous designs of Villegagnon, they he was almost constantly engaged treated with kindness the unfortuin that sacred exercise. Mean- nate victims of his malignity. while five or six of the crew died of Such was the termination of the absolute starvation,—and from the first attempt of the Protestants, to disposition of the survivers, as well plant the Christian faith in the new as the necessity of their circum- world. The primary design of the stances, it seems truly wonderful, undertaking appears, indeed, to have that they did not devour the bodies been the securing an asylum to the of their unfortunate companions. Reformed, from persecution in Eu. They had now, as often happens in rope : the conversion of the natives cases of famine, acquired such a was only a secondary object. The degree of ferocity, and such an irri- colony itself was of short duration. tability of temper, that they could The Portuguese who had previously scarcely speak to each other but in settled in Brazil, and who at first passion; and without a particular had allowed the French to remain cast of the eye, as if they were unmolested, soon afterwards atready to eat one another. After a tacked them, and expelled them voyage of nearly five months, they from the country. at length discovered the coast of Bretagne ; but as they had already been deceived by the pilot, they Tothe Editorofthe Christian Observer. scarcely believed the person who first announced the joyful tidings. Your correspondent Pastor(ChrisNothing could be more seasonable tian Observer, Oct. 1826, p. 600,) than this discovery, for the master states his opinion, that the recent of the vessel declared that had they researches of the Rev. Mr. Todd remained another day in the same have proved the version of Sternwretched condition, he had resolved hold to be duly authorised; and to kill one of the ship's company; requests that any of your corresnot by lot as has sometimes been pondents, who see reason to dissent done by persons in similar circum- from his conclusion, will state to stances, but by stealth, in order to your readers the result of their inprovide food for himself and his fel- vestigation. low sufferers. Having steered for the Previous to the appearance of shore, they landed at the port of Mr. Todd's work, it was reported Blavet, near Henbonne; where the that this gentleman had discovered relation of their sufferings excited, the long-sought-for authority for as might be expected, the tender Sternhold's Psalms ; but, on the sympathy of the inhabitants. They publication of his work-which unwere warned not to indulge freely doubtedly conveys much new and in food at first, but to repair by de- valuable information-I, for one, grees their wasted strength. This after a careful perusal, came to the salutary caution many of the sailors conclusion, that he had left the neglected: but they paid dearly for question as he found it. their folly ; for of twenty who ar- In perusing Mr. Todd's “ Obserrived in port, more than one half vations,” it should be borne in died in a short time. Others were mind, that he is the avowed advoaffected with various complaints ; cate for the Old Version ; and that but by the use of suitable remedies, other versions, even though honoured they gradually recovered.-As to with the royal permission to be the process against the Geneva di- used in public worship, are depreciated by him as of less intrinsic 1565.”.. And in like manner, a revalue; as well as of inferior autho- newed licence for the printing of an rity, and as intruders on an autho- old play, in 1623. A licence to rized version *. It must also be print is therefore one thing, and recollected, that the version of a permission to use in public worSternhold which Mr. Todd con- ship is another. But Mr. Todd has tends for, is not that which is con- arranged all the versions, whether tained in the editions of the last merely licensed to be printed, or century and a half, but what he expressly permitted to be used in terms (p. 101) “the old unsophis- churches, in one chronological list; ticated publication," from which I including in it versions which not have already presented extracts. only were never admitted into the So sanguine is Mr. Todd, that he church, but which are not calcuappears even to anticipate (p. 105) lated or designed for public use.the restoration of the old unsophis. With respect, however, to the liticated publication which has now cence for the printing of Sternhold's been out of print for one hundred Psalms, as no book could then be and fifty years. These circumstances printed without a licence, the existshould be kept in mind, not as af- ence of such a licence in the case fecting Mr. Todd's facts, but as in- of the Old Version might have fluencing his inferences.

been taken for granted, even though 1. The first document which your Mr. Todd had not discovered it; correspondent notices, as weighing for otherwise, the book could not in favour of Mr. Todd's view of the have been committed to the press. subject is, “A licence for printing 2. The second document noticed this version at the commencement by your correspondent is, " a royal of the reign of Elizabeth.” Now privilege, for a part of this version, it is important to observe, that by which almost immediately followed the · Queen's Royal Injunctions, the publication of the whole." Here published in 1559, (Mr. Todd, p. we have an admission, that the first34,) it was strictly charged and mentioned document was a mere commanded, that no manner of licence to print and publish, since person should print “any maner of the “royal privilege" to sing in booke or paper, of what sort, nature, the church is supposed to follow. or in what language soever it be, But what is this "royal privilege?” except the same be first licensed by It consists (see Mr. Todd) of a her Majestie, by expresse wordes permission to publish sixty-two of in writing, or by six of her privy these Psalms with tunes to them, councell; or be perused and licensed “whiche may be song to al musical by the archbishops, &c. &c." Mr. instrumentes; seth forth for the enTodd proceeds to shew how this in- crease of vertue, &c. Cum gratia junction was carried into effect, and et privilegio Regiæ Majestatis per how the licence given to print a septennium.” Now this is merely work was noticed in the title-page. an exclusive privilege of printing Thus" Sermons of John Calvin, the words and music for seven &c. Newly set forth and allowed, years. If it could for a moment be 1560.” Again—“A very profitable considered as a licence to sing these treatise, made by M. John Calvyne. sixty-two Psalms in the church, Set forth and authorized according they must be sung only to the to the Queene's Majesty's Injunc- identical tunes, and at the end tions, 1561.” Again—“A Sum- of the seven years the authority marie of Englyshe Chronicles, &c, ceased. perused and allowed according to 3. The next particular noticed the Queene's Majesties' Injunctions, by your correspondent, is an entry

in the register of the Stationers' See preface, pp. 14, 15; and the work itself, pp. 30, 59, 63, 69, 71, 78--82, &c.

Company, in 1561 or 1562, of 4d. CHRIST, Obsery. No. 300,

5 B

“received of John Daye, for his be of that opinion." And after all licence for printing the residue of the researches of Mr. Todd, the the Psalms not heretofore printed." assertion of Heylin, made in 1661, 'The nature of their licences has continues to be correct, that "no been noticed. It will not be con- allowance is any where to be found, tended, that the licence to print by such as have been most industhe sermons and treatises of Calvin, trious and concerned in the search." the English Chronicles, and the old The versions noticed by Mr. play, authorised their use in the Todd, may be accurately classed as church; neither did the licence to follows: print the Psalms confer any such I. Versions merely licensed to authority

be printed; comprizing, 4. Your correspondent observes, i. Archbishop Parker's, publishthat “Mr. Todd adduces several ed about 1560, “cum gratiâ et other facts, which illustrate the privilegio Regiæ Majestatis, per public reception and usage of the decennium." Old Version.” On this head, there Mr. Todd labours to shew that is no question. The Queen, by her the Archbishop intended these Injunctions in 1559, permitted that Psalms for public use. Of this, I “ in the beginning, or in the end of conceive, there is no proof; but common prayer, either at morning admitting that he ever entertained or evening, there might be sung a such an intention, it proves that hymn, or such like song," &c. It he knew there existed no exclusive is clear, that this was intended to privilege, for the version of Sternallow of the metrical psalmody, hold, then introduced from Geneva ; and 2. Sternhold and Hopkins's veras the version of Sternhold was sion-first published entire in 1762. either the only English one which 3. Dod's version, first published had then been attempted, or, if not entire in 1620. For this version, the only one, incomparably the Mr. Todd finds no imprimatur or best, there is no question that for privilege, beyond Dod's own assermany years it was the only one in tion in the preface to his work. use. The passage in the title-page, 4. Sandys's Paraphrases on the on which some stress is laid by Mr. Psalms, published in 1636, “cum Todd, “ set forth and allowed to privilegio Regiæ Majestatis.” This be sung

in all churches, before and work was laid on my table, when I after morning and evening prayer," wrote my inquiry ; but, as I found &c., appears to bave a reference to it to consist principally of poems, the Queen's permission in the In- not divided into verses, so as to junctions; but this was a permission admit of being sung to any psalm in favour of metrical psalmody in tunes, ancient or modern ; and as general, and not of any one version it therefore must have been pubin particular. And here it should lished, without any view to congrebe noticed, that the existence of gational psalmody, I did not place any allowance, in favour of the it amongst the versions which had use of Sternhold's version in the received the royal permission. church, was early called in question.

II. Versions licensed to be merely Wither, in his Scholler's Purgatory, printed; but with extraordinary published about 1625, thus appeals powers. to the privy council : “ Your reve Under this special head, I place rencies can witness it, that those Wither's Hymns and Songs of the metrical Psalms were never com- Church, published in 1623.

The manded to be used in Divine service, royal licence of James not only or in our public congregations, by authorised the printing of the work, any canon or ecclesiastical consti. but prohibited, on pain of seizure, tution, though many of the vulgar the publication of any metrical Psalms, without the hymns and gestion, that a new collection, better songs of the church appended adapted to modern taste, might be thereto. This arbitrary power was submitted to the bishops, and alsuccessfully resisted, and, at the end lowed by the king in council

. This, of ten years, was taken away by an Mr. Todd thinks, would “remove order of the privy council.

divisions" as to psalms in metre, III. Versions expressly permitted and would "silence the exclamation, to be used in public worship. What is become of our uniformity?"

1. The version of King James, But the history of royal allowances printed in 1631; to which is prefix- of metrical versions, and the ineffied, the royal privilege of Charles I., ciency of those allowances to ennot only authorising these Psalms force any version which it did not to be printed, but “allowing them please the congregations to receive, to be sung

in all churches, and re- forbids the expectation that such an commending them to all his good expedient, would be productive of subjects for that effect."

that uniformity of metrical psalmody, 2. Tate and Brady's new Version, which Bishop Marsh and Mr. Toda published in 1696, which, by an are desirous to effect. They may order in council, is “allowed and possibly wish to go a step further, permitted to be used in all such and to put down all collections of churches, &c., as shall think fit to psalms and hymns, except a licensed receive the same."

one; but if a similar attempt was 3. Blackmore's Version, publish- successfully resisted in the arbitrary ed in 1720, which, by an order in reigns of James and Charles, it council, is “allowed to be used in surely will not succeed, nor will it all churches, &c., which shall think probably be attempted, in this age fit to receive the same."

of freedom, and under the conciliaIn no instance, therefore, did the tory sway of our present sovereign. crown interfere, so as to controul

I am, &C., the inclination of the people. The allowance amounted to no more than a recommendation; and for this plain reason, that the sovereign Tothe Editorofthe Christian Observer. has no power to command the use of any metrical psalms or hymns, As several papers have occasionbecause the psalms and hymns ally appeared in your miscellany which are directed to be sung in upon the subject of the Deaf and churches, and are pointedthat is, Dumb, most of which have been punctuated with colons—for that written with the intent of shewing purpose, are part of the Liturgy the inutility of public establishestablished by Act of Parliamant. ments for their instruction, I trust

So long as Sternhold's Version you will in candour give place to suited the taste of the times, but the following observations in favour no longer, it continued to have the of such establishments, especially preference. Afterwards, it was first as the principal arguments I shall altered and modernized, and after- adduce will be derived fron the wards was gradually superseded by secretaries of the London and Dubmore modern compositions. What lin Asylums, who I trust you will Mr. Todd says of the authorised consider fully qualified to speak as version of Blackmore, may with practically upon the subject as either equal truth be said of Sternhold's. Mr. Arrowsmith or the Quarterly It is certainly slumbering in re- Reviewers. pose, which will, perhaps, never be It is now upwards of four years, disturbed.”

since the Quarterly Reviewers exMr. Todd, in his conclusion (p. pressed their full conviction, of the 105), quotes Bishop Marsh's sug- practicability of teaching deaf-and


as will

dumb children in common parish parish in the kingdom, where they schools, a long quotation from which are to be found at a distance from appeared in your magazine in 1822. any town or village, or even school. I cannot sufficiently admire the house, how would it be possible wisdom of those who conduct the to introduce any plan of day-school different establishments for the in- for their education that would be a struction of these unfortunates, in substitute for an institution which having suffered these remarks to would give temporary reception, remain so long unnoticed, because with a view of affording them such it has given a full opportunity for a a degree of instruction trial of the method recommended by enable them, on their return to their Mr. Arrowsmith, and so warmly families, to communicate their own advocated by the reviewers. Their thoughts in written, spoken, or masilence hitherto has, in a most for- nual language, and to understand cible manner, disproved the obser- what others speak or write ? vation that “the doctors now en- “ Another reason why it is found gaged in educating the deaf and of importance to place deaf-anddumb will probably oppose the dumb children in an asylum for a modifications of the system here few years, is the manifest fact, that, recommended.” While they have in their earlier years, they are of been teaching language to the deaf all children the most neglected. In mute, they have themselves been fact, they are generally allowed to deaf to the aspersions of their ad- run wild, and do what they will ; versaries, and have opposed them partly out of mistaken kindness only by the eloquence of silence. and pity, partly from the extreme

I have been induced to intrude trouble and difficulty of communimyself at the present moment on cating to them, precisely, either your attention, from having ob- orders or threats, corrections or reserved, in the Report of the Dublin straints. Habits thus formed, and institution for the deaf and dumb, self-will thus matured, inattention, published in September last, some irregularity, and disorder, thus provery cogent arguments and striking duced and nurtured, can scarcely facts brought forward by Dr. Orpen, be corrected, except by a total the secretary, at the last annual change of association, of discipline, meeting, in reply to the observations of occupation; in short, of every of an individual then present. With- circumstance in their condition. out further preface, therefore, I “ But it has been said that a day. will furnish some extracts from his school would cost only about fifty speech on that occasion.

pounds a-year. I know it would, at the “There is at present a strong feel- end of a-year, be found to cost three ing, I confess, in the public mind or four time as much. But suppose a against boarding schools for the day-school did cost but fifty pounds children of the poor. Now, with-a-year-Well. Here is a circular out entering into the general ques- issued by the committee, in which tion, whether it be possible or wise is a list of all the places in Ireland, to abolish altogether such parochial from which their pupils have come, schools for destitute or deserted and by reckoning them you will children, or asylums for orphans or find the number of places fifty-five. foundlings, I think it cannot admit Now, what is the result of fifty of a doubt, that for the deaf and pounds multiplied by fifty-five? is dumb, and also for the blind, it is it not 27501.? Would it not thereindispensable to have establish- fore cost more to establish even a ments where they can be congre- day-school at fifty pounds a-year, in gated and maintained while re- each of these fifty-five places, than ceiving education. For in the in- to support the ninety-three pupils sulated and wild districts of every who came from them, at Claremont?

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