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JANUARY 7, 1911

LYMAN ABBOTT, Editor-in-Chief. HAMILTON W. MABIE, Associate Editor


Contributing Editor

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The New York“ Times” The people could then hold him responsiannounces in one of its ble for the administration of the affairs of

headlines that “ Governor the State. That they now cannot do. Dix is in full control.” We wish he were, The man who really appointed the heads but he is not. This is not his fault; it is of departments in the State of New York the fault of the Constitution of the State is Mr. Murphy, the Tammany chief ; and of New York. The Governor of that the people have no way of holding him State has certain important but narrowly responsible for his appointments. defined powers.

The Constitution does not give him, as the Constitution in a democracy should give its chief execu

Mr. Dickinson, Secretive, “ full control” of the administration

tary of War, and Genof the State. In this respect the Federal

eral Edwards, Chief of Constitution is far more democratic than the Insular Bureau, recently returned from many of our State Constitutions. The a trip around the world, their longest stay President of the United States appoints having been in the Philippines. Both offiall heads of departments. He can re- cials have now published their impressions. move any or all of them. The people, The Secretary's account is in the form of therefore, have a right to hold him respon- a special report to the President; General sible for the conduct of those departments. Edwards's is in his annual report as Chief If the country approves the conduct of of the Bureau of Insular Affairs. Both the Interior Department under Secretary accounts are primarily interesting because Ballinger, the credit goes to the account of the light thrown upon present-day conof President Taft. If it disapproves, the ditions in the islands. At last it can be debit goes to the account of President announced that, whenever an American Taft. But the Governor of the State of quits the Philippine Civil Service, he is, as New York does not appoint the heads of far as possible, to be succeeded by a Filidepartments in the State. They are pino. Such a policy could never be carried elected. If Mr. Bensel's administration out if peaceful conditions did not obtain of the engineering work in the State is in the islands. Even the "head-hunting good, that is not to Governor Dix's credit. tribes ”—those which have had a pasIf it is unsatisfactory to Governor Dix or sion for decapitation—in the north now to the people of the State, neither the feel safe in their lives and property, and Governor the people have any are devoting themselves to agriculture, remedy. The power of removal given enjoying meanwhile more of the comto the President confers on the people forts of life than at any previous time, through the President a quasi power of while the non-Christian tribes in the recall. They have no such power in the south have found out that the American State. One reform greatly needed in Government is not exploiting them, but many of our States is the adoption of the that everything done in the way of control Federal principle: the election of one results to their immediate benefit. No Executive head with power to appoint reduction has been made in the number and to remove all heads of departments. of United States troops in the islands, Governor Dix should be " in full control.” but no call upon them seems likely in the

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immediate future, so General Edwards the industrial combination, “ call it Trust says; their continued presence, he thinks, if you will,” assuming, however, that the may be considered valuable merely for country was determined to place these moral effect. The Constabulary, operating combinations under Government regulafrom nearly a hundred and forty stations, tion.

tion. He regarded the right relations also serves as a military force, and, as between labor and capital as forming the such, demonstrated its fitness with the most important element in the industrial two cases of disorder above mentioned. progress of the United States and the Besides this service, the Constabulary, as development of its commerce with the Secretary Dickinson points out, has been rest of the world. It is of special interefficient as an auxiliary force in sanitary est when Mr. Morton, a railway man by work, especially during epidemics. While industrial training, speaks of the labor the commissioned officers of the Constabu- question in the following terms : lary are generally Americans, a number of

The real object of a labor union should be Filipinos are also officers, and the policy the true and ultimate welfare of labor, of is to fill vacancies by the appointment of the employer, and of the country in which it Filipinos as rapidly as they meet the

does business. I am a great believer in requirements. Thus, among the natives, organized labor, but it is a big mistake to

misdirect itself by attempting to bring a the Constabulary is becoming increasingly good man down to the level of a poor man. respected. The men and the native non- Its aim should be to encourage the man who commissioned officers are constantly con

wants to work and who is efficient, and to

undertake to educate the inferior man to ciliating the people towards the administra

become as good as the best and thereby intion, are learning the English language and crease the production of its organization as habits, and are thus the medium of whole- a whole. Personally, I think it should stand some influences upon the people. As an for and not discourage piece-work. Organindication of loyalty, Mr. Dickinson relates

ized labor and organized capital should both

stand for efficiency and do everything possiasking a member of the Constabulary, in ble to create wealth. I am sure there is no the formerly wild Bontoc country in north- sensible man who will not entirely approve ern Luzon, whether or not he would stand

of a labor organization which has efficiency by our flag in the case of trouble with a

as one of its chief reasons for existing;

Without co-operation between labor and foreign power. The man answered: “Do capital we cannot meet the competition of you think I would hesitate to do that ? the world. Did I not recently, in the discharge of my duty, when ordered, fire upon and kill one

In remarkable of my own townsmen who was defying the

address on the same enforcement of the law ?”

occasion, which is

published in full in the “ Churchman" 23

for December 31, Mr. George W. PerThat the influential kins advocates combination in industry, capitalists of the which he prefers, however, to call cocountry

more operation in industry. Mr. Perkins traced and more taking a broad view of their the growth of the idea that industry is duties and responsibilities with regard to war-war between competitors, war belabor on the one hand and the public wel- tween labor and capital, and even fare on the other is strikingly indicated by between nations—and asserts, what we two addresses given before the Quill Club heartily believe to be true, that civilization of New York at a recent meeting, one by has reached a stage where the injury of Mr. Paul Morton, President of the Equi- one group of citizens means really the table Life Insurance Company, and the injury of all the citizens. He referred to other by Mr. George W. Perkins, until the fact that the recently organized Interrecently a partner of the firm of Messrs. national Steel Institute has adopted as J. P. Morgan & Co. The Quill Club is the motto of its seal or emblem, “ Right a discussion club, composed of thought is might: Co-operation ;” and added that ful New Yorkers of various professions. “ only a few years ago if these same men The subject under discussion was World had met, it is safe to say that every one of Business. Mr. Morton made a plea for them, if asked for a design for a seal for








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an International Steel Association, would quest of Mayor Gaynor, the Chamber of have said that the wording should be,' Might Commerce and the Merchants' Associis right : Competition.'” In pursuance of ation appointed a Joint Committee to

' the principle of co-operation, Mr. Perkins, study the subway situation and advise who is perhaps the foremost practical the Board of Estimate and Apportionauthority in the United States on this sub- ment. The Committee was made up of ject, urges that the relations between labor prominent and public-spirited citizens, and capital should be cemented by genu- headed by former Mayor Seth Low. ine profit-sharing “You cannot spend Four sub-committees studied the transit a million dollars on the education of one problem thoroughly; and the main Comgeneration without having a million of mittee has now embodied the findings of questions raised by the next generation. those bodies in a comprehensive report. As a result of the educational process that The Committee expresses its unanimous has been going on [Mr. Perkins had just hope that the city authorities will accept referred to the great sums of money given the offer of the Interborough, with possiby the captains of industry to establish ble modification in details, and that they schools, colleges, and libraries], one of the will accept it promptly and put an end to questions raised by the present genera- a situation that has become intolerable. tion is, 'What is the proper division of The main reasons advanced for preferring profits as between capital and labor ?!” the Interborough offer are: The benefit Profit-sharing, according to Mr. Perkins's of having one complete system, the shortdefinition, must not be confused with the ening of the lease of the present subway payment of wages. The wage-worker by fifteen years, the assurance that the desires to know and has a right to know city will have an operator not only for the whether the payment he receives for his proposed additions but for any further service, be his wages much or little, is a extensions that the city may decide to “fair proportion of what is made in the make in the future, the assurance of an business of which he is a partner." The early beginning of the work, the leaving entire address is worth reading, for it is to the city of money for other needed one of the soundest expositions we have public improvements, and the assurance lately seen of the threefold partnership of a single five-cent fare over the entire of capitalist, laborer, and consumer. A system. The Committee also considers pleasant and significant incident occurred the main argument which is advanced in connection with this address. At a cer- against the adoption of the Interborough tain point in the reading of his manuscript, offer, namely, that it means the adoption at the end of a sentence which completed of the principle of monopoly in future a statement about the phenomenal growth subway operation, rather than the principle of the idea of honest dealing and the moral of competition. This argument is based responsibility of corporations, Mr. Perkins upon the belief that competition is more emphasized the fact that these ideals had likely to secure satisfactory operation for recently made more rapid progress; then both of the two systems than regulation he paused and added : “When I was dic- would be in the case of a single system. tating this paper and had reached this This argument the Committee does not point, my stenographer interjected, And believe to be strong enough " to prevail Teddy did it!' and I did not object to against the advantages which have been

l the interruption." This incident was shown to inhere in a complete system greeted by the Quill Club with rounds of owned by the city, upon which only a applause.

single fare is charged, upon which uni

versal transfers will be given, and the The proposal of the operation of which is subject to the con

Interborough Com- trol of the Public Service Commission.” SUBWAY SITUATION pany for the exten- It appears to the Committee that the

sion of the existing argument in favor of competition is based subway system in New York City has in the public mind very largely upon temreceived strong support from another porary conditions. It is led to believe quarter. Several weeks ago, at the re- that “the quality of service given by any

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