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corporation at any given time depends principle of competition is one that it is more upon the personal equation than important to preserve in so far as is posupon the presence or absence of compe- sible in the operation of rapid transit lines tition."

in large cities. The Outlook realizes, how

ever, that this is a principle which may In making its recom

well be modified in its application at any mendations, the Com- specified time by other considerations and

mittee quite evidently by existing conditions. The unanimous holds no brief for the present management judgment of two such bodies as the Pubof the Interborough System, and it does lic Service Commission and the Joint Com take occasion to say a word of commenda- mittee—the one composed of experts who tion for Mr. McAdoo and the manage- have been studying the problem with the ment of the Hudson Tunnels. “Does any closest attention for many months; the one doubt,” says the Committee, “ that, other composed of broad-minded citizens if Mr. McAdoo were placed in charge of who have given the most careful attention the Interborough System, the attitude to the factors in the problem for a shorter of the Interborough toward the public length of time—should, in our opinion, would be radically changed? Some day have great weight with those who are even the management of the Interborough neither experts nor in a position to make may learn that the good will of the public a careful study of the question. is worth having for every reason. When this idea really reaches home, the Interborough will strive as earnestly as Mr.

A plan has been announced McAdoo now does to please the public.

by Mr. John W. Alexander, A system that is overtaxed, as the Inter- the well-known painter and President of borough is overtaxed during the rush the National Academy of Design, and also hours, cannot be expected to give service by the governing board of the Academy, which will not be complained of. Perhaps by a group of its influential members, and most of the complaints against the Inter- by others interested in the institution, to borough originate in this condition of secure from New York City, as they hope, things. But there is room, as every one permission to erect an Academy building in knows, for a change of attitude toward Bryant Park' fronting on Sixth Avenue the public on the part of the Interborough and occupying the block from Fortieth to management, which would make its serv

Forty-second Street, the land to be a gift ice satisfactory in many minor respects as from the city and the building to be to which now it is a subject of just criti- erected from funds furnished entirely by cism. Such a change of attitude might the Academy. The opposition with which come from competition, but it may also this plan has been received is the most come without it.” In spite, however, of important fact in connection with that this frank recognition of the shortcomings proposition. It shows that New York of the management of the existing sub- has thoroughly made up its mind that it way system, the Committee feels con- will not part with any portion of the open strained to " deprecate the adoption of spaces reserved for recreation and health. a policy of competition which would These open spaces, whether they are forfeit all of the advantages pertaining playgrounds or parks, are altogether too to the Interborough offer which have small; there ought to be three times as been outlined, which would involve the much ground given to air and to recreacity in useless expense, and in return for tion as is now set apart within the limits which, in the judgment of this Committee, of Greater New York. This proposition the city would be likely to reap disadvan- was preceded, readers of The Outlook will tage rather than advantage.” The Pub- remember, by a proposal to erect a build

. lic Service Commission, and now the ing for the Academy in Central Park on Joint Committee, have advanced strong the site now occupied by the Arsenal, and arguments for the acceptance by the city that plan was defeated by the vigorous of the Interborough offer. The Outlook protests made by the public against the has already stated its conviction that the surrender of any part of what might be


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called the common lands of the city. The is dedicated. If to erect such a building property between Bryant Park and Fifth two blocks now covered by houses are Avenue is occupied by the new Library necessary, it ought to be possible to secure building, a distinct addition to the architec- from the metropolis a sufficient capital to tural features of New York. If the plans put the Academy in possession of adesuggested by the gentlemen who wish to quate ground. The new building ought use the Sixth Avenue frontage of the park to be a part of the higher resources of for the Academy building are carried out, New York; under the direction of the the proposed building will run flush with Academy it ought to be a municipal buildthe curb of the sidewalk, the latter passing ing dedicated, in part at least, to the through an arcade, and a comparatively largest popular use. Mr. Alexander is narrow space would be left between the one of the American artists who has new building and the Library. The proved his faith in the possibility of demoOutlook protests against this use of Bryant cratic art by making very important conPark on the ground that New York greatly tributions to it. His mural work in the lacks park room, and that no further Carnegie Institute at Pittsburgh not only encroachment on the room which it now ranks with the best artistic work in the has should be permitted.

country, but it is thoroughly modern and local in its inspiration. Its motives were

not taken from classical or Renaissance That New York greatly times; they were taken from Pittsburgh, needs an adequate picture and are treated with the courage and sim

gallery, and that such a plicity of faith which have been charactergallery ought to be under the direction of istic of great art in every age. If Mr. the Academy of Design, no one interested Alexander and his associates will elaborate in art in this city seriously questions. The a scheme great enough in its inclusion of Academy is now compelled to hang its all interests, his scheme would be equally pictures at its exhibitions on rented walls, representative of the metropolis and would and those walls are not adequate either appeal to the imagination of New York. to the needs of large exhibitions or perma- It is the firm conviction of The Outlook nently to represent the art interests and that sufficient funds could be collected to resources of the metropolis. There is at turn such a dream into a reality. present a very important collection of the work of American artists in illustration on exhibition in another city, whence it will

When the bill providing be taken to two or three other cities

for the incorporation of Chicago and Boston among them—but it

the Rockefeller Foundacannot be exhibited in New York because tion, which placed in the hands of the no place is open to receive it. This is Board of Trustees a vast sum of money, a state of things little creditable to a was introduced into Congress last year, city which, more than any other Amer- exception was taken to several provisions ican city, is the center of art produc- on the ground that so great a fund, if tion, whatever may be said of its artistic improperly employed, or put at the disposal taste. The Outlook believes enthusias- of some anti-social endeavor, might be used tically in Mr. Alexander's energetic and for the injury of the public; and so strong earnest endeavor to solve the question of was the opposition that the bill was not housing the Academy and making ade passed. A number of important amendquate provision for art exhibitions ; but it

ments have now been introduced for the does not believe that the Bryant Park site purpose of freeing the bill of the prowould be adequate or proper.

The new

visions which Congress found objectionbuilding for the Academy ought to be as able. These amendments provide that noble a piece of architecture as the coun- the capital of the Foundation shall not try is capable of producing, and it ought exceed one hundred millions of dollars ; to be so placed that it can be seen froin this amount, however, is not intended to all sides, and its dignity, beauty, and size cover advances in the value of the propshould symbolize the purposes to which it erty after it has been received by the





Foundation. They prohibit the accumu- which will work in co-operation with a lation of its income, which is to be “ similar one in the University of Berlin, rently applied” to the purposes of the conducted by Professor Paszkowski. At Foundation ; thus preventing an undue these bureaus students may obtain all accumulation of the Fund. The amend possible information regarding various ments also provide that the names of educational institutions in Germany and trustees chosen by the original members the United States. In addition to the named in the bill shall be submitted to academic bureau of information, the Amerthe President, the Chief Justice of the ican “Haus” is to contain a Germanic Supreme Court, the President of the Sen- Institute, equipped for the study of Gerate, the Speaker of the House of Repre- man history and civilization under the direcsentatives, and the Presidents of Harvard, tion of a competent scholar, with whom Yale, Columbia, Johns Hopkins, and the will be associated the Kaiser Wilhelm University of Chicago, and that such Professor of each year. The building is names must secure a majority vote of also to contain a private apartment for these gentlemen. Provision is also made that professor during his term of service. for the distribution of any property held The “ Deutsches Haus ” will be an imby the Foundation at the expiration of portant link in clinching the Germanfifty years, in case the trustees think it American connection as above outlined. advisable to make such distribution ; and The “Haus" is to be located near the at the end of one hundred years Congress University, and is expected to be ready shall have power to compel the distribu- for occupancy before the opening of the tion of any of its principal. Power is also next academic year. It will do much to granted to 'Congress to impose at any cement friendly German-American feeling time such limitations upon the objects in general, and in particular to emphasize of the corporation as it may deem the the value of the Kaiser Wilhelm Professorpublic interest demands, and all property ship. in any form received by the Foundation shall be subject to the terms prescribed

The gift of a hundred by Congress in the bill and its amend

thousand dollars from ments, or that may be hereafter imposed

an anonymous donor is by Act of Congress. It is believed that

also announced, making these amendments will prevent any use of it possible for the Columbia trustees to the great fund in the hands of the trustees place the Roosevelt Exchange Professorwhich may be inimical to the public good, ship in the University of Berlin upon a or any future trustees from placing the more satisfactory basis, and also to congreat fund at the service of any special sider the extension of the system of exinterest.

change professorships to other German

universities. The gift calls renewed attenMr. Edward D. Adams, tion to the professorial exchange comPresident of the Ger- prised under the present Kaiser Wilhelm

manistic Society of and Roosevelt Professorships. They are America, whose benefactions have already the result of a long-standing purpose, been noted in these columns, has now made effective by the active support of added to them the gift of thirty thousand the German Emperor over five years ago. dollars to Columbia University for the par- The Emperor said to Mr. Tower, the ticular purpose of purchasing and equip- American Ambassador, that, for the peace ping a Deutsches Haus. This should be a of the world and the advance of civilizadistinct aid in the laudable efforts on the tion, there should now be added to the part of Columbia University and Harvard diplomatic and commercial intercourse of University to promote cordial relations the nations their more disinterested and between Germany and the United States. altruistic intercourse through the interThe'“ Haus" is to contain an academic mediation of their educators, and that, bureau of information, to be under the above all nations, Germany and the direction of Professor Rudolf Tombo, Jr., United States should introduce this now absent in Germany on sabbatical leave, method of bringing the leaders of the






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world's culture together. The purpose approved it and, through their support and
was carried out through the intermedia- a munificent endowment by Mr. James
tion of two American universities, Har- Speyer, the plan became effective in 1906.
vard and Columbia, in the prosecution of The Kaiser Wilhelm Professors at Colum-
two independent but not conflicting plans. bia so far have been Professors Schu-
The Harvard-Berlin professorial exchange macher, of Bonn ; Leonhard, of Breslau ;
follows the plan of the late Dr. Althoff, Penck, of Berlin ; Rünge, of Göttingen ;
Ministerial Director in the Prussian Min- and Daenell, of Kiel. The Roosevelt Pro-
istry of Education. His advances were fessors at Berlin have been Professors
accepted by President Eliot, and in the Burgess, of Columbia; President Hadley,
autumn of 1905 Harvard sent out Pro- of Yale ; Professor Adler, of Columbia ;
fessor Peabody to lecture at the Univer- President Wheeler, of the University of
sity of Berlin. The Harvard system com- California ; and Professor Smith, of the
prises an exchange of educators between University of Virginia. Thus two admi-
the Harvard corps of professors and such rable educational interchanges have now
educators as the Prussian Ministry of several years of impressive history behind
Education may propose.

It is an inter- them.
change of professors who speak in their
own languages on their own special sub-

Last week the “ Padlock jects. On the other hand, the Columbia

Bill” passed the Spanish plan—the outcome of a project formulated

Cortes, or Parliament, by a for more than twenty years—involves the large majority. The measure has become appointment of men who speak in the known as the “ Padlock Bill ” because it language of the students on some topic locks up Spain against the establishment of connected with the history and institutions new religious “congregations” during the of their native land. The plan provides next two years. While this is taken by for the establishment of a professorship Papal extremists as an affront (persisting of German History and Institutions at as they do in regarding the Vatican as Columbia, to be called the Kaiser Wilhelm a sovereignty and not as a church), Professorship, and for the establishment more liberal-minded Catholics take anof a professorship of American History other view. They admit that some such and Institutions in the University of Ber- law is really necessary if, in its desire lin, to be called the Roosevelt Professor- to revise the Concordat of 1851, the ship. Upon nomination by the Prussian Spanish Government is to have an opporMinistry of Education the Columbia trus- tunity of negotiating with the Vatican tees annually appoint the incumbent of honorable terms. The Concordat, the Kaiser Wilhelm Professorship, and or agreement between the Spanish Govfrom nominations by those trustees the ernment and the Vatican, declares that Prussian Ministry of Education annually the Roman Catholic faith is the religion selects the incumbent of the Roosevelt of Spain, provides for its support, proProfessorship. The latter is required to tects episcopal rights and the already estabdo his work at the University of Berlin lished religious orders. But it does not for the winter semester, but may be sent require the Government to allow monastic by the Prussian Ministry to any other orders to be extended without limit. They university for the summer semester; have recently been alarmingly extended. similarly, the Kaiser Wilhelm Professor The closure of monasteries and convents is at Columbia only for the first half-year; in Portugal a few weeks ago has resulted during the second he may lecture at other in the settlement in Spain of all the Portuinstitutions. In making a selection neither guese monks and nuns—a striking addithe Columbia trustees nor the Prussian tion to the already great increase in the Ministry are confined to the corps of pro- numbers who have settled in Spain since fessors in any university ; indeed, a man the loss of the Spanish colonies, and more may be selected without regard to any particularly since the expulsion of certain university connection at all. This plan orders from France. While the power of was first laid before the Emperor and Dr. the Spanish priest and the Spanish bishop Althoff in August, 1905. Both heartily is still legitimately a vital force, that of



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the average monk and nun in Spain has Monaco is the greatest gambling-place in become so discredited as to cause much the world. There are sometimes fifteen popular aversion towards the religious thousand foreigners in the place, gayly or orders, even among otherwise fervent in somber mood leaving behind them Roman Catholics. Hence, to preserve. the toll exacted of them at the gamingand consolidate the Government's author- tables of the Casino. The citizens of ity, it was long since recognized as desir- Monaco have felt that the millions of able to limit the formation of more monas- francs which go into the coffers of the tic and conventual establishments in the Casino, in which the ruling Prince is a Peninsula. The policy of the present partner, should be expended with some Radical Premier, therefore, logically follow's reference to the interests of the citizens. the modifications attempted by his Liberal They therefore sent a deputation to call predecessor. Canalejas has now on the Prince, who was in Paris, and ceeded where Sagasta failed. The “Pad- present the popular demands. The lock Bill ” will be, we trust, only the first Prince was otherwise engaged, as visiting link in a chain to bind the Vatican from princes often are in Paris. Not having obstructing popular progress. To be in the memory of any French revolution in line with present-day progress in Spain his mind, he kept the deputation waiting there should be a new Concordat which, a week, and then sent them word that he while duly recognizing the Roman Catho- would be glad to meet them in Brussels. lic religion as the religion of the State, This contumacious treatment was a lighted shall contain provisions limiting the match which ignited the accumulation of Church's property holdings, prohibiting inflammable material in Monaco. Meet

. minors from entering monastic houses, ings were promptly held, denunciatory throwing those houses open to legal in- speeches were made, and matters went spection, and, above all, subjecting Church so far that the courtesies of the post-office · teachers to State inspection. If these were disregarded and the Prince was summoderate reforms are resisted by the moned home by telegraph. The Prince Vatican, it is not improbable that they thereupon sent his son, the hereditary will be followed by an entire separation Prince Louis, to arrange matters. On between Church and State in spite of the arriving in Monaco this gentleman was Vatican. But the impetus of the success received in dead silence by a crowd at the already achieved by the Government station. One lady who gave the usual should, we think, do something towards welcome, Vive le Prince Louis .!was promoting at least a temporary agreement answered by a shout of Taisez-z'ous !!! between Spain and the Vatican.

The Prince, who is said to be well-mannered and well-meaning, went to his pal

ace through silent streets, and was there Emerson once spoke of the notified by the Municipal Council that he movement out of which would have forty-eight hours in which to

Brook Farm grew as “a make up his mind, and that if he could revolution in a patty-pan.” Such a revo- not make it up in that time in accordance lution has happened in Monaco. It was with the desires of the people, no one fortunately bloodless; the population is so could tell what would happen. Under small that a sanguinary revolution might the circumstances the Prince thought it have obliterated all the male citizens. wiser to make up his mind and to notify Monaco is the smallest sovereign State in his father of his conclusion ; and in a few the world. There is a still smaller State hours the absolute monarchy of Monaco in Italy, but it is under the control of the was changed into a constitutional monarKing Monaco, on the other hand, is chy, under a Constitution which is being entirely independent. Its population con- drawn up by a commission of French sists of fifteen hundred people, of whom public lawyers. The first Parliament will

. six hundred and fifty are voters. Prince number eighteen members. The only Albert last year accorded to his subjects large thing about Monaco is its relatively the right to elect a Municipal Council. This enorrnous income, which, under the new only whetted their appetite for freedom. Constitution, will be handled, not by the


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