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them from lamps and torches. They therefore could not have been eye-witnesses to the general calamity of mankind. They did not see the mighty eruption of waters, nor the turbulence of the seas: when the fountains of the great deep were broken up. Yet the crash of mountains, and the noise of the cataracts could not but have sounded in their ears: and possibly the cries of people may have reached them; when families and nations were overwhelming in the floods. The motion too of the ark must have been very violent at this tempestuous season: all which added to the gloom, and uncertainty, in which they were involved, could not but give them many fearful sensations; however they may have relied on Providence, and , been upheld by the hand of heaven. We find that the machine, in which they were secured, is termed Thebah, an ark, or chest. It was of such a model and construction as plainly indicated, that it was never designed to be managed, or directed by the hands of men. And it seems to have been the purpose of Providence throughout to signify to those, who were saved, as well as to their latest Posterity, that their preservation was not in any degree effected by human means:
After this the sacred historian proceeds to inform, us, that God remembered Noah, and every living
5 Genes, c. 8. v. 1, &c. ,
thing, -that was with him in the ark: that the fountains of the deep, and the windows of heaven werc stopped, and the rain from heaven was restrained. - And the ark rested in the seventh month, on the seventeenth day of the month, upon the mountains of Ararat. And the waters decreased continually until the tenth month: in the tenth month, on the first day of the month, were the tops of the mountains seen. Ånd it came to pass at the end of forty days, that Noah opened the window of the ark; which he had made: And he sent forth a raven', which went forth to and fro, until the waters were dried up from off the earth. Also 'he sent forth a dore from him, to see if the waters were abated from off the face of the ground: But the dove found no rest for the sole of her foot'; and she returned unto him into the ark. And he stayed yet other seven days; and again he sent forth the dove out of the ark :: And the dove came in to him in the evening'; and lo, in her mouth was an olive-leaf pluckt off : so Noah knew that the waters were abated from off the earth. And he stayed yet other seven days; and sent forth the dove : which returned not again unto him any more. -And in the second month, on the seven and twentieth day of the month, was the earth dried.
Genes. c. 8. v, 4, &c.
And God spake unto Noah, saying, Go forth of the ark. And Noah went forth, and his sons, and his wife, and his sons wives with him. And Noak builded an altar unto the Lord; and took of every clean beast and of every clean fowl, and offered burnt-offerings on the altar.
These are the principal circumstances in this wonderful occurrence; which I have produced in the words of the divine historian, that I might not do injury to his narration : and they are of such a nature, às, one might well imagine, would be long had in remembrance. We may reasonably suppose, that the particulars of this extraordipary event would be gratefully commemorated by the Patriarch himself; and transmitted to every branch of his family: that they were made the subject of domestic converse; where the history was often renewed, and ever attended with a reverential awe and horror: especially in those, who had been witnesses to the calamity, and had experienced the hand of Providence in their favour. In process of time, when there was a falling off from the truth, we might farther expect that a person of so high a character as Noah, so particularly distinguished by the Deity, could not fail of being reverenced by his posterity: and, when idolatry prevailed, that he would be one of the first among the sons of men, to whom divine honours would be paid. Lastly, we might con
clude that these memorials would be interwoven in the mythology of the Gentile world: and that there would be continually allusions to these antient occurrences in the rites and mysteries; as they were practised by the nations of the earth. In conformity to these suppositions I shall endea. vour to shew, that these things did happen : That the history of the deluge was religiously preserved in the first ages : That every circumstance of it is to be met with among the historians and mytholy gists of different countries : and traces of it are to be particularly found in the sacred rites of Egypt, and of Greece.
It will appear from many circumstances in the more antient writers, that the great Patriarch was highly reverenced by his posterity, They looked up to him as a person peculiarly favoured by heaven; and honoured him with many titles ; each of which had a reference to some particular part of his history. They styled him Prometheus, Deucalion, Atlas, Theuth, Zuth, Xuthus, Inachus, Osiris. When there began to be a tendency towards idolatry; and the adoration of the Sun was introduced by the posterity of Ham; the title of Helius among others was conferred upon him. They called him also Mny, and Mæv, which is the Moon; the secret meaning of which name I shall hereafter shew. When colonies went abroad, many took to themselves the title of Minyadæ
and Minyæ from him ; just as others were deNominated Achæmenidæ, Auritæ, Heliadæ, from the Sun.'. People of the former name are to be found in Arabia, and in other parts of the world. The natives at Orchomenos were styled Minya; as were also some of the inhabitants of Thessaly. It was the antient name of the Arcadians, interpreted * Eelnuines, Lunares : but grew obsolete. Noah was the original Z£ús, Zeus, and Dios. He Was the planter of the vine, and the inventor of 9 fermented liquors: whence he was denominated Zeuth, which signifies ferment; rendered Zeus, Zeus, by the Greeks. He was also Dionusos, interpreted by the Latines Bacchus, but very improperly. Bacchus was "Chus, the grandson of Noah; as Ammon may be in general "esteemed Ham, só much reverenced by the Egyptians.
* Και Αρισων6 Xιος εν ταις θεσεσι και Διονυσιος ο Χαλκιδευς εν πρωτο κτισεως τα αυτα φασι, και εθνος δε Αρκαδιας Σεληνιτας ειναι. Schol. in Apollon. Rhod. 1. 4. v, 264. 9 Τον Οσιειν Διονυσον. Diod. Sic. 1. 1.
11. Αλλά και τις απογειώμενην έχοντας χωραν, η προς φυτειών αμπελο απηλλότριωμενην , μαθειν το κατασκευαζομενον εκ των κριθων πομα, βραχι λειπομένον της περι τον αινον ευωδιας, Diod. Sic. 1. 3. p. 407. ....! Nwe, os xezinta. ÉTO Erwy Girxadwy. Theophil
. ad Autolyc. 1.2,
Ηφαισος τις Αιγυπτιος εν τοις χρονοις τε Νωε,
, ... “ος Νωε καν Διονυσος, και Όσιρις καλειται. Hist. 335. 1. í
Tzetzes Chil. 10.