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cian, and took his seat in February, 1889 ; proper. He was picked out by his father as the address of welcome was made by Ernest heir from a numerous male progeny, the sons Renan. He was also a Commander of the of many mothers, not because of his age, but Legion of Honor, and had been the recipient because of his likeness to his father. He of many other marks of distinction. Like succeeded King John of Abyssinia in 1889. his contemporaries among the

· Immor

He had no little aptness for mechanics, and tals," Meilhac and Halévy, whom he so was able to put in order, or even put together, long survived, he was essentially a man of a modern firearm or a watch. He was first his time, in full sympathy with his surround- brought emphatically to the attention of modings and with the trend of the age ; but, while ern Europe by his crushing defeat of the he heeded the call of the modern spirit in his Italians at Adowa, a defeat which Italy has management of the famous State theater, he not yet forgotten. Since 1910 his Empire upheld its historical classical traditions as has been under actual control of a Council well.

of Regency, from which Meneiik II was He was a war correspondent during the excluded. Franco-Prussian War, and during the Com- King Menelik was a man of intelligence mune acted as staff officer in the National and of definite aspirations towards civilization, Guard. He was also the author of a number despite occasional relapses into cruelty and - of novels and historical works, and of a barbarism. “ History of the French Revolution.”


The most wide-awake among European IS NOW DEAD

monarchs at present seem to be the Kings According to Shakespeare, the late En

of Italy and Spain. Both are noted for their peror could hardly have been called a brave constant personal attention to the doings of man ; for he“ died many times before his their Cabinets. The King of Spain, for indeath,” which has now been announced from stance, presides every Thursday at the Cabinet Adis Ababa, the capital of Abyssinia. meeting In the illustration on another page not " many times," at least several times in the he is seen sitting at the end of the Cabinet past the press has reported his demise, only table, with the new Prime Minister, Señor to deny the statement in the succeeding issue. Dato, at his right hand. As may be seen in The Outlook, in fact, first killed King Mene- that picture, Eduardo Dato has a head which lik by lightning as long ago as 1895.

would have delighted Goya or any other later date The Outlook was about to kill him Spanish painter of character. again, but the denial of his death reached the The new Spanish Premier came into power office before the paper went to press, and in this wise: The murder of Premier Canalejas the paragraph was " killed "instead. Appar- a year ago brought about the promotion of ently he is now officially dead.

one of his Ministers, Count Romanones, to The Emperor of Abyssinia was born in the Premiership. As in the case of the Barthou 18++. He claimed direct descent from Cabinet in France the other day, so the RoSolomon and Queen Sheba, a claim neither manones Cabinet in Spain recently desired to easy to substantiate nor to disprove. Aby's- record its success or failure in a vote of consinia, part of which was included in the fidence, which was lost in the Senate of the Ethiopia of the ancients, has felt the influence Spanish Parliament by a vote of 106 to 103. and contains the elements of more than one 1 “rough-and-ready" Prime Minister would civilization, not the least that of Judea ; for hardly have considered so slight an adverse during the Captivity many Jews settled here vote a reason for resigning. Not so Count and brought with them a knowledge of their Romanones. He did resign, and was sucreligion. Perhaps in this fact lies the germ ceeded by Señor Dato. Count Romanoncs of the tradition regarding the descent of is a radical, Señor Dato a conservative. One Abyssinian royalty from Menelik, son of might think that an immense abyss existed Solomon and the Queen of Sheba. Together between the two men.

But this is not the · with Palestine, Egypt and Greece have case, and, in consequence, no such great gulf likewise contributed to the complex ethnology as might be supposed yawns between the and civilization of the present Abyssinia. former and the present Spanish Cabinets. The late Emperor Menelik was a son of the As a matter of fact, Count Romanones is a King of Shoa, a southern division of Abyssinia radical of a very reasonable sort, ready to


years old.

walk with any man who will walk with him, our opinion, Meunier's achievement ranks and Señor Dato is a conservative of a simi- only second to Rodin's in significance. larly reasonable sort.

Rodin began his breaking away from classic The Spaniards have a good name for the standards over a generation ago. Meunier Dato type of conservative, and that is followed him some dozen years later. Though - Moderate.” The new Premier is fifty-seve

this fact of divergence from hitherto accepted He is best known not so much standards unites the two sculptors, their indias ex-President of the Chamber of Deputies vidual work shows the differentiation of one and as an authority on politics as he is as an who believed in great variety and of one authority on social questions. He is the who believes in less variety. Thus Rodin is author of the Workmen's Compensation Law a safer model for many young sculptors than and of the laws concerning the regulation of Meunier. A too slavish imitation of the women's and children's work. He is also latter might lead to more or less monotony. the founder of the Institute of Social Re- Rodin's work is entirely in the field of pasforms. The real political and social designa sion; that of Meunier entirely within the tion of the new Premier is “ progressive.” field of toil. Any comparison at once brings

out these sharp contrasts. CONSTANTIN MEUNIER

The Albright Gallery at Buffalo has already QUICK-LUNCH CARS justified its existence. It is one of the most One reason that traveling by railway in progressive of our galleries, not only in its America is more expensive than it is abroad own collections, but also in obtaining important is that the bulk of the train-service in this loan collections. The latest exhibition there country is conducted on the assumption is that which has just been held of the works that the traveling public is of one class so of Constantin Meunier, the Belgian sculptor. far as financial means are concerned. We We understand that New York, Pittsburgh, have Pullman cars on which the wayfarer can Chicago, Detroit, and St. Louis are to have a get extra comforts for extra money. but similar privilege. It is thus worth while to there is no such gradation of fares as in the call attention to Meunier's work. It has never first, second, and third class carriages of Eubeen shown here before publicly, although ropean railways. When it comes to eating, there are some pieces of itin private collections. the American in his own country must carry

Meunier is a fit product of this industrial his lunch with him at considerable inconage. He comes from the most industrial venience or must depend upon the ordinary country in Europe—Belgium. The sculptor's dining car, on which the scale of prices is higher models were found in the Belgian factories than many can afford. and mines. He went into the pits and came The Southern Pacific Railway Company out surcharged with the sensation of toil. has in operation a quick-lunch car designed to This he has put into his sculpture. His meet the needs of such of its patrons as like figures remind one strongly of Millet's in to eat quickly and cheaply. The inside view painting But Millet's toilers were in the of the car is like that of an ordinary city broad fields. They were under the open quick-lunch, with a long mahogany counter sky. Meunier's are usually confined in nar- running the length of the car, faced by swivel row pits or within grimy factory walls. Two chairs to accommodate a score of diners. examples of his work appear in our picture The important point is that the price scale is section.

about the same as in the class of restaurants Meunier died in 1905. His had been a of the Childs or Exchange Buffet type—that poor family. His father was a collector of is, reasonable enough to be within the range taxes. After the death of the older Meunier of most people who can afford to buy railthe mother had to open a millinery shop and

This car runs from San Franrent rooms. So the young Constantin knew cisco to Bakersfield, California, a local route what poverty meant. One feels the sculptor's with frequent stops, where it is particularly subjective experience as well as his powers of in demand owing to the fact that a large observation in looking at works depicting all proportion of the passengers are traveling the Belgian industrial life of “ Melting Steel,” salesmen or other persons in a hurry who or “ Smithery,” or “Factory Work,” or consider a dining car a place to eat in and not

Returning from the Pit," or, finally, his a place in which to kill time. The popularity never finished Monument to Labor." In that this innovation has received is reflected

way tickets.

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in the following verses, called “ Quick Lunch work of the College of Agriculture for comon the Fly,” by W. H. James, in the St. munity welfare. Louis " Post-Dispatch :"

The initial idea of the meeting came “When you're traveling to Los Banos, Dos from the Rev. F. I. Drexler, who had Palos, or Gustine,

been brooding over the typical little white Or any of the stations that are strung along church of the country neighborhood, “ standbetween, You get a sandwich egg,

ing on its hilltop in magnificent isolation Or a storage chicken leg,

from the every-day interests of its comWhile you're speeding through the valley of the munity,'' and who wrote to President BenjaSan Joaquin.

min Ide Wheeler to ask if the University All aboard for Alameda, waiter, bring a ham-on

could not do more to help the social life of rye,

the rural districts and at the same time to All out for Goshen Junction, how's the huckleberry pie?

help the church to realize itself as a social You can have a roll or muffin,

center, Dean Thomas Forsythe Hunt, of Ora slice of veal with stuffin

the University's College of Agriculture, was While the locomotive's puffin' through Madera

planning new departures in extension work, on the fly.

and President Wheeler asked him to consult Change cars for Sacramento, have some sugar

with Mr. Drexler.
in your tea;
Next stopis Modesto, cottage cheese and cream
for three;
You can eat from Niles to Ceres,

At a pace that never wearies,
And a little coin will feed you from Fernando to

As finally worked out, Ministers' Week the sea."

was much such a conference as those recently On the first of last month the Pennsylvania

held at Amherst and Cornell, an account of Railroad put on its service between New which appeared in The Outlook of August York and Philadelphia a lunch car very similar

30, though it was probably unique in the to that of the Southern Pacific. It seems to

number of lectures devoted to technical agriThe Outlook unfortunate, however, that the cultural problems. It amounted, in fact, to a Pennsylvania has not instailed the same low

brief continuation school, not in theology but priced menu that the Southern road has in agriculture. All branches of rural sociadopted; in this luncheon car the same prices ology are taught in the modern agricultural are charged as in the regular dining cars. It college, and of course the clergymen gathered seems to The Outlook that this robs the lunch at the University of California Farm School car of its chief point of value to the public.

in Davis were deeply interested in lectures on A picture of the interior of this car appears

rural hygiene and sanitation, community work on another page.

in country schools, and ornamentation of Any institution that tends to reduce the

home and school grounds ; but one of the surcost of living is desirable in this age, and

prises of the meeting was the zest with which such is the low-priced quick-lunch car. There

these ministers attended demonstrations or is no doubt that the installation of such cars

lectures on judging beef, cattle, plant breedwould be greeted favorably everywhere by a

ing, soil formation, poultry raising, irrigation, large class of people who have to travel, but citriculture, plant diseases, the handling and who shy at dining cars as beyond their means.

storing of fruit, and other technical farm

problems. Every one seemed to have taken MINISTERS AND AGRICULTURE

to himself Mr. Drexler's brusque statement IN CALIFORNIA

that when a minister can talk to a man Between four and five hundred California about that man's business without making a ministers, representing all the sects in the fool of himself, he gains that man's respect.” State, were entertained from December 1 to Every talk was interrupted by keen questions December 5 by the University of California from the crowd which gathered around the at its Farm School near the little town of speakers at the close of each lecture. The Davis. The railways gave them free trans- evening meetings were devoted entirely to portation and the University furnished them the country life movement in its socia! with free beds and meals. The meeting was aspects. "Three round-table discussions were called Ministers' Week, and its purpose was to devoted to the social activities of the rural make a closer connection between the organ- church. ized work of the ministry and the organized The University Farm at Davis is only one

of the various units which make up the College of Agriculture; the Farm School itself is comparatively new and still a small institution. To make room for the ministers the boys in this school gave up their beds and slept in cots set up in the basements of the dormitories and in tents. Boys volunteered as extra waiters in the dining-room ; boys lent baseball suits to the ministers when a preachers' nine was organized to play against the students. Good fellowship and gayety were everywhere, mingled with eagerness to get the most out of an unusual and unexpected opportunity.

Many of the ministers went home hoping to have the talks which had interested them most repeated in their own communities. The majority seemed to have gained a more or less definite plan for broadening and vivifying the social organization around them. One man said that he had walked fifteen miles over a mountain to reach the railway, and might have to walk twenty miles back, as his wife would not know when to meet him with a horse ; but the twenty miles would be lightly walked, for he was going home to start a farmers' club and some sort of civic league. Nearly every man took down a list of books and bulletins which would be useful reading in his community, and the spirit of the meeting was expressed by one minister who said, “ Religion is relationship.” Another said, “In the year 1913 science has discovered the church.”

and never will they be, we hope, for the play's the thing, and many would rather be obliged to eat from sideboards and do their own barbering than to miss their evening at the theater. Yet with the formation of the Actors' Equity Association for the protection of the members of the profession against theatrical managers an actors' strike becomes not an improbability.

The abuses which the Actors' Equity Association is fighting are many and long-standing, but their existence is due wholly to the passiveness and faint-heartedness of the actors themselves. An incapacity for co-operation seems to be one of the traits of the artistic temperament. At any rate, all past attempts of players on the legitimate stage to organize have failed. In view of this fact, the success of the present movement is all the more notable.

The Actors' Equity Association, founded for the protection of the rank and file of the profession by a number of actors whose reputation made them virtually independent of theatrical managers, has set out to combat, first of all, certain faults in the contract system. It has made the following concrete demands :

First, that transportation expenses to and from all points “ on the road” and the city in which a company is organized be provided to all members of a company.

Second, that no actor shall be forced to give more than three weeks' rehearsals without compensation.

Third, that there shall be a two weeks' notice of dismissal.

Fourth, that there shall be extra pay for extra performances, and full salary for all weeks played.

Fifth, that actresses shall not be forced to bear the expenses of an unlimited stage wardrobe.

These provisions have already been the rule with some managers, including, it is said, Belasco, Ames, Frohman, Brooks, and Fiske, and several others have already agreed to grant the demands of the actors.

For the payment of slight dues legal protection and advice is assured to members of the Association, who already number more than thousand. Unlimited funds assured by the fact that at any time a production could be arranged with a cast of an all-around brilliancy never before equaled in the United States.

The Outlook believes in the right of all



" The only classes of workers that haven't organized for self-protection long ago are actors and washerwomen, and now even are beginning to get together,” recently declared Mr. Francis Wilson, President of the Actors' Equity Association, in commenting upon the turn of a long downtrodden wormthe actor. In America, with the centralization of capital and the crystallization of class feeling have come strikes with increasing frequency in widely divergent trades and industries. We have had miners' strikes, textile workers' strikes, and strikes of railway men, of course, and more recently we have seen waiters and even barbers at war with their employers. “But does any one remember a widespread strike of actors ? Have the boards ever been empty while Roscius and his fellows fought for shorter hours and higher wages ? Never, that we remember,




ful chaperonage, are given once a week. There is also an employment bureau for tie benefit of pupils who are leaving and who wish to obtain situations. Well-lighted rooms in which the work of pupils in the various departments is shown as a permanent exhibition are provided.

The opportunities offered for the advancement of art through wisely planned exhibitions in such a school may be realized when it is learned that this great educational building houses nearly seven thousand pupils and has a teaching staff of alınost three hundred.


PRACTICAL CONSERVATION A municipal art gallery in a public school is a new thing, at least for New York City. We have heard the objection from many The new Washington Irving High School, practical business men that the policy of the the plans of which provided for such a “ conservation of National resources" has gallery, recently held its first loan exhibition. been advocated too much by theorists and

This school is situated in the vicinity of visionaries. Too little account, they say, has many large mercantile and manufacturing been taken by the Government of the pressestablishments, and in vitations to the exhibi- ing daily material needs of the farmer, the tion sent to these places were freely accepted; miner, and the manufacturer, whose business, during the first week it is estimated that no life, and welfare depend almost wholly upon fewer than twelve thousand visitors passed the use of our natural resources. There is through the galleries. The traditional cold- undoubtedly considerable ground for this obness of a large institution is delightfully absent jection. It must be remembered, however, from the Washington Irving art gallery ; a that no practical application of any principle huge fireplace with a cheerful blazing fire is can be effectively made until the theory of that the first thing to greet the visitor's eye on a principle has been carefully and scientificaily winter day. The exhibition rooms are on the worked out. We could not have had the first floor ; they open directly on the street ; electric light in our homes and offices if the and they are so arranged that they can be theorists had not first worked out the laws of kept open for visitors throughout the day electricity in their laboratories. without interfering with class-room work. An So the first task of the conservationist was exhibition of the work of two rising young to create and foster public opinion to believe American artists, Mr. Hermann V. Murphy in the theoretical principle that it is the and Mr. Ettor Caser, filled the walls and business of the people, through the agency aroused interested comment. This initial of Government, to protect their own welfare exhibition will be followed by two others by stopping the waste and destruction of already arranged; and it is hoped to secure those natural resources which form the essenthe co-operation of the Metropolitan Museum tial material basis of our social and National and other great repositories of art in lending life. some of their unused treasures from time to The second task is the practical application time for the benefit of residents of downtown of the principle, and the time has now come districts who find it difficult to visit the dis- for taking hold of that task in earnest. tant museums.

The Government officer upon whom deThe Washington Irving school embodies volves the greatest responsibility both for in many respects the new idea that the the theoretical statement and the practical school-house is to become the people's social, application of the doctrine of the conservarecreational, and intellectual center. It has a tion of National resources is the Secretary fine hall that seats nearly a thousand people ; of the Interior. It is fortunate for the counin this are given lectures, moving-picture try that the present Secretary, Franklin K. entertainments, and concerts. It has a large Lane, is pre-eminently a man who by educaassembly room in which dances, under care- tion and experience understands both phases

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