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America. The change of the venue ed our early youth -- the Chictaws, is considerable, and the difference be- Mohawks, Chickasaws, and other trutween the Gothic cathedral and the culent gatherings of consonants, are native wigwam, the Spanish cavalier names which seem to have departed and the painted man of the scalp, the from every thing but Mr Fenimore palace and the prairie, loses none of Cooper's very voluminous volumes. its distinctness in the labours of the He is worthy to be their extinguisher ; retired tale-writer. He now occupies and their epitaph can come from no himself with simpler tasks than the more mortal hand. But two powerful offspring of his own brains, and acts tribes survive beyond the mountains, as accoucheur to the teeming memo- who, though they love brandy well, ries of the half-smugglers and half- and are infested with the squatter, yet banditti who supply the Indians with contrive to keep the legislators, negobrandy and the Europeans with bea- tiators, agents, and ambassadors at a ver ; the graceful representatives of determined distance, and would hang civilisation in the land of the buf- an American senator with no more falo.

compunction than if he were not more Yet truth has always some kind of than man. The horse has done this nature ;-Nature is worth describing, for them. By stealing the horse from however natural she may be ; and we the Mexican Spaniards, the Indians are miserably sick of the softest of ro make a cavalry that at once evades mances. Irving's last performance in pursuit, when they are within the his present line of business is “ The range of the rifle, and takes desperate Adventures of Captain Bonneville," a vengeance when the rifleman, drunk rambler through the Back Country, and tired, dozes in the wilderness. on a trapping scheme. The gallant The desert riders—and they ride as Captain's employment, however, not well as any Arab on earth—come in being, as in the southern parts of the troops of fifty or a hundred, charge land of liberty, to trap men, but into the heart of the little camp, scalp wolves, foxes, beavers, rats, and, we the men, carry off the women, represume, every thing that wears a skin. mount their cavalry with the horses, The Captain's adventures lead him and are off a hundred miles before dayinto the heart of the mountain chain light has tipped a single pinnacle of which divides the waters of the west the mountain range with saffron. The from those of the United States. He Crows and Blackfeet are the leading hunts, shoots, and roves at will through tribes. this vast region of rock, precipice, Among the Indians are some exand forest, which some future Helve- traordinary characters. Aropooish, tic will transform into some future the old chief of the Crows, would Switzerland, and which will form the have made a great statesman in Eukey of invasion a hundred years hence rope if he had not been too honest a for the hosts of the prairie land, com- man for the general exigencies of the ing under the conduct of Occidental character. He was politic enough to Napoleons, to strike the last dollar recommend the peculiar avoidance of from the desks of the New Englander, all quarrels with the whites. and teach the Carolinian that the cat- said he, “ we keep friends with them, o'-nine-tails is not made for the dingy- we have nothing to fear from the skinned alone. But this work talks of Blackfeet, and can rule from the more than mountains. It gives us inountains.” Aropooish was a master some insight into the native race which of all the arts of Indian government. range those mountains, and whom the

He was a great

56 medicine man," march of mind, in the shape of Ame. medicine being the established name rican squatters, is hourly driving from for the mysterious combination of their lands; and the march of free character which, in Europe, more acdom, in the shape of peach brandy, is customed to the division of labour, is as rapidly driving out of existence separated into the priest, the physiThe Indians have expressive names for cian, the prophet, and the conjuror. their tribes; some of them lofty and Like Mahomet and his pigeon, and sonorous ; some of them sounding Napoleon and his star, this Numa meanly to our ears ; but all given with of the desert had his oracle in the reference to personal or national qua- shape of a tame eagle, which brought lities. The tribes whose titles astound- to his ear the secrets of fate. When

VOL, XLII, NO, CCLXI.

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the whites laughed at this, the old amount were laid on the floor. It chief joined them in the laugh ; but was evident that they were not the the eagle was indispensable among stolen skins, but had been collected the red men.

through the village.

66 Is all right But Aropooish was capable of high- now?” asked the Indian. All is er things, though in his own quaint right,” replied Campbell. “Good!' style. Mr Campbell, one of the said Aropooish. “ Now, bring me leading traders, distrustful of Indian meat and drink." honour, had deposited a considerable Their parting was equally characquantity of furs in a caché, or place teristic..." When you come again of concealment. The rest of his furs among the Crows,” said the chief, he had placed under the care of the “ do not hide your goods. Trust chief. One evening the old Indian them, and they will not rob you. returned to his lodge with a cloudy. Put your goods in the lodge of a brow, and sat for a while, according chief, and they are safe ; but hide to the manner of his countrymen them in a caché, and any one will when engaged in matters of peculiar steal them. My people have now interest, without uttering a syllable. given up your goods for my sake ; At length he said to Campbell, but there are some foolish young men - You have more furs with you than in the village who may be troubleyou brought into the lodge."-Camp

Pack your horses and bebell knew the folly, or perhaps ha- gone." zard, of equivocating with an Indian, But Aropooish was more than a and told him that he had, and where. chief: he was either a geographer or

“ You speak straight,” said Aro- a wit, or more probably both. To pooish ; “ but your caché has been some enquiry relative to the country, robbed. Go and reckon how many he replied at full length, and with a skins they have taken from it."- patriotic contempt for every other.Campbell searched, and found that he - The Crow country,” said he, “ is a had lost about 150 beaver skins. good country. The Great Spirit has

The chief now summoned the vil. put it exactly in the right place., lage. He reproached his people for While you are in it you fare well. robbing a stranger who had trusted Whichever way you go out of it, you them, ordered them to bring back fare worse. If to the south, great the skins, and declared, that “ as the barren plains—the water warm and stranger was under his roof, he would bad_fever and ague. If to the neither eat nor drink until every skin north, cold winters, long and bitterwas found.” In a little time some of no grass. You cannot keep horses the skins made their appearance, the there; you must travel with dogs. bringers quietly laying them down in What is a country without horses ? the lodge, and departing as quietly as On the Columbia, people poor and they came. Thus passed the first dirty--eat fish.

Their teeth are worn day; Aropooish sitting in a corner out; they are always taking fish. of the lodge, wrapped in his robe, and bones out of their mouths. Poor food tasting nothing. At nightfall, he fish! To the east, live in villages ; asked whether all the skins had live well, but drink muddy water out come in.

Above a hundred had been of the Missouri_bad. A Crow's dog returned, and Campbell expressed would not drink such water. About himself satisfied. But the old chief's the forks of the Missouri, fine counhonour was not to be so satisfied. try; good water, good grass ; plenty He neither ate nor drank all that of buffalo. In summer it is almost as night. In the morning some more good as the Crow country. But in skins were brought in by twos and winter it is cold ; grass gone; no saltthrees, till but a few were wanting to weed for horses. The Crow councomplete the number. Campbell, try," continued the patriot panegyrist, anxious to put an end to the old man's " is exactly in the right place. Snowy fasting, again and again declared that mountains and sunny plains ; all kinds he had got all that was necessary.-- of climates ; good things in all. When “ How many are still wanting ?" summer is in the prairies, mountains asked Aropooishı. On being told the cool ; there grass fresh ; clear water number, he whispered to some of the tumbling from the snow-banks. There men round him, who disappeared; you hunt elk, deer, antelope, while and, soon after, skins to the requisite their skins are fit for dressing. Plen

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ty of white bear and mountain sheep. wear the King's cloth, a human life is In autumn, when the horses are fat taken away, the instigators ought to from the mountain feed, you go into be punished. The death is their the plains; hunt buffalo; trap bea- work, without whose intervention it ver. In winter, camp in woods along clearly would not have happened. the river sides ; there buffalo for But the subject is of a wider descripyourselves, and cotton-wood bark for tion. Wagers of the same kind are your horses ; or in the Wood river not infrequent; and those disgusting valley there salt-weed enough. Crow exploits tarnish the name of England. country exactly in the right place. They often destroy the existence of a Every thing good is to be found there. fellow-creature at the time; and comNo country like Crow country !”. mon sense, as well as common law,

The panegyric is curious, not mere. would bring in the whole parties conly from the ardour of the chief, but cerned as accessaries before the fact. from its giving an enumeration of the This proceeding would soon extin. actual employments and enjoyments guish those abominable wagers. of the Indian's life--a career to which Another vile custom does infinite nothing similar exists at present in

discredit to the magistracy of the prothe world, and of which a few gene- vinces. It is that of selling wives. rations to come will possess nothing A woman, of whom her brute of a but the memory. The Tartar roams husband wants to get rid, takes her a wilderness, but has neither forests into the arket on some fair-day with nor prairies. He feeds sheep, and a rope round her neck-sets her up to drinks mare's milk ; but he does not be bid for by the surrounding clowns, hunt. The South American Indian and the bargain is completed for halflives on roots and fish. The man of a-crown or five shillings. To foreignNorth America is the only habitual ers this proceeding naturally enough hunter.

seems monstrous ; and they scoff at

our affectation of morality. The truth One of the Plymouth papers men

is, that this practice exists but among tions an affair which would justify a the most profligate of the lower classes; heavy punishment. Some military that it does not constitute a divorce; gentlemen, as they are said to be by and that it is directly punishable by the partial journalist, laid a wager at law; the object of the whole shame a drinking-bout that one of their ser- less ceremony being merely an acvants would eat three fowls, and swal- knowledgment that the husband surlow a bottle of whisky for a meal. renders all idea, or right, of taking an The result was as unfortunate as the action against the man who lives with performance was disgusting, and as the separated wife. But this practice, the temptation to the poor glutton was at once illegal and disgusting, is a recriminal. The meal was swallowed, proach to the magistracy, wherever it but it soon produced great suffering. is suffered. Medical aid was called in, but it If the country magistracy overlook proved useless ; the stomach pump one offensive practice, the metropolifailed, and the wretched man ex- tan magistracy, and those of the chief pired.

cities, are still more reprehensible. As we have no means of ascertain. To them all gaming-houses subsist as ing the facts in this instance, we give notorious as the noonday. Yet the the statement, of course, on the credit magistrates look on, and leave the of the journal ; but if it be true, we prosecution to the parishes. Thus the can conceive few offences more fitting nuisance of private waste is aggravaobjects of enquiry. If two drunken ted by the nuisance of public expendipeasants fight in an alehouse, and one ture. The subtlety of the gamingdies in consequence, the coroner's in- house keeper is assisted by the subquest brings in “ manslaughter" at tlety of the lawyer, and as the result, the least. If two prize. fighters maim those actions are generally foiled. each other, and one of them dies, not Yet a few constables sent in once aonly the survivor, but the whole party,' week to seize on the tables, and a po

the bottle-holders, managers, and in- liceman stationed at the door to pre.stigators of the fight come under the vent ingress, would, in a short time, hand of the law. "Undoubtedly, if, at abate an evil which has brought more the instigation of half-a-dozen fools, or young men to ruin, and more old ones brutes, in a tavern, however they may to the gallows, than any known evi"

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of society. But then the whole pro- this evil from managers : they are too ceeding ought to be impartial. Jus- severely pressed by circumstances to tice, unless even-handed, is no justice be enabled to attempt it; they are too at all. The same activity which fas- powerless to effect what would now be tens on the apprentices in Whitecha- regarded, not merely as an innovation, pel, or the bankers' clerks in the Re- but an injury. Riots would probably gent's Quadrant, ought to display it- be the result ; and the theatres might self among the stately structures of St be burned down in a rash attempt to James's Square. The Pall-Mall clubs restore their morality. The change ought to pay their quota of penalty to must come from a higher source. The the public morals, and great lords and magistracy must be excited to dilirich commoners should be taught the gence. The Minister for the Home necessity of respect for the laws, by Department must do his duty; and the feeling the grasp of those laws. metropolis of moral England must not

Another offence, and one of a more nightly exhibit a dozen displays which offensive, because of a more glaring would not be tolerated in profligate description, is the state of the lobbies Paris or gross Vienna. in the theatres. We shall not degrade This reform is the more required our columns by attempting the detail of from the number of the minor theascenes which we shrink from witness- tres. This number was the offspring ing. But we are entitled to ask, by what of popular outcry; and no stronger right a constable is empowered to ar- exemplification of the folly of that rest a wretched wanderer through the outcry ever was offered. It was almidnight streets, when this pampered leged that the multiplication of small and painted profligacy is suffered to theatres would at once improve the display itself in its most glaring and drama, by opening a more extensive insolent obtrusion in the theatres. One field, improve the actors by compecircle of the boxes, though but one, is tition, improve the public taste by undoubtedly kept clear of this nui- the new patronage of genius, and im

prove the morals of their vicinities by If this can be so effectually done, providing rational amusement for the why not keep all equally clear? Do multitude who would otherwise seek the magistrates disregard the insult to it in the gin-shop. The actual conpublic decency? Do they forget that, sequences have been directly the reby this disregard, they actually assist

The drama has wholly died ; in violating a public trust ? for, by the the great theatres being so drained by existence of this nuisance, the public the minors, that they are absolutely are largely excluded from the theatre. unable to offer the due encouragement; Their places are taken up by a class and the minor theatres performing nowith whom they cannot associate; and thing but translations, or the plunder even the interests of managers in every of the principal theatres. Acting is theatre in London are eventually in- as close upon the point of death as jured. For, in a pecuniary point of possible ; a single good actor being view, theatres have never thriven as considered as the full appointment for they did of old, since they have suf- a minor theatre. The companies of fered this obnoxious class to be promi- the principal being thus drained of nent among their audiences. The rea- their best performers, and these per. son is plain : the resident families of formers being totally lost in the vulthe metropolis now seldom go to the garity and dulness of the companies theatres. Once, they went regularly. round them. The improvement of Some often, others at stated intervals the popular taste is to be founded on throughout the year. At Christmas the lowest buffooneries of the lowest and Easter the custom of visiting the minors, and “ Life in London," and two principal theatres en masse was “ Jim Crow," inevitably superseding customary among the majority of the Shakspeare and Sheridan. The imLondon householders. But this, though provement in morals is to be ascerchildren are still taken to see the panto- tained only from the inordinate inmimes, has remarkably fallen away, crease of every species of vileness in and the theatre is no longer among the their neighbourhoods ; every minor regular places of the London family's theatre becoming rapidly the nucleus gratification. The result is the fall of a centre of haunts, themselves the ing off of revenue.

haunts of every abomination. Nor do we demand the remedy of

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We hear perpetual accounts of the this is the expenditure on gin. In the poverty of the lower classes in both

year 1834 the poverty of England laid England and Ireland. That men who out in gin L. 21,874,000. This was will save nothing when they have showy drinking for beggars crushed work, and will drink every thing whe- to the dust by a generation of olither they have or not, are likely to be garchs. The account was still better poor, we feel ourselves under no neces- in 1835, when it was L.23,397,000 sity to deny; but that the lower classes onlyan increase of upwards of a milactually do receive vast sums of money lion and a half in twelve months! In beyond the necessities of existence, we 1836 was L. 24,710,000—the mi). confidently believe. And this we be- lion and a half increase having been lieve not upon hearsay, but upon the duly kept up. We are to bear in public proofs of Parliament. The mind also, that the whole populapauperism of Ireland affords to keep tion of England and Wales is not up the pauperism of Mr O'Connell at above fourteen millions, and that the the rate of eighteen or twenty thou- gin-drinking is confined to the exclusand a-year, which keep up the pau- sive pleasure of the populace ; gin perism of his four relatives who do never being among the luxuries of a Ireland the honour to sit for her in gentleman's table, and very seldom the English Parliament; but also keep finding its way into his house. And up a whole army of solicitors, agents, Ireland and Scotland smuggling and and other functionaries of rebellion, distilling their own beverage ad libibesides the handsome allowance of two tum. While even in England the gin thousand priests, with their usurping drinking is narrowed within these few hierarchy; the MacHales, Murrays, years by the teetotallers and other &c. Besides this, the unhappy and lovers of keeping themselves in hot impoverished people pay about eight water.

. Now, if we estimate the demillions sterling for whisky, not a posit in the savings banks so low as drop of which they require, but every the twelve millions a-year, adding drop of which they swallow. This is these to the expenditure on gin, we tolerable for a country of paupers,

have at once L.36,000,000 a-year, heart-broken with poverty, and not namely, the full interest of the national knowing, Heaven help them and punish debt ; in other words, the whole nathe liars who tell the tale of wo, how tional debt itself; for every one knows to get a meal for the morrow in the that the debt is nothing but the inwide world.

terest. Thus the poverty of England, But the Radical orators of England if it should please to give up misery take up the tale where the Papist mour, and mortality in the shape of dramners break it off, and insist on it, that drinking, and add to what is saved from life is not worth living, when the no- the gin-shop, what it is palpably able blest order of mankind, the ten.pound- to lay by from its daily expenditure, ers, are ground to the dust with taxes, would be enough to pay off the national tithes, and the other abominations of debt any Easter of its existence. So an aristocracy. But, we have two much for poverty. authorities on the opposite side, who We are, of course, aware that invery considerably shake our faith and dividuals sometimes put money into dry our eyes on the matter. The first the savings banks for the higher inis Me Tidd Pratt, the Savings Banks' terest. But this occurs in so small a lawyer, a little man, but a great cal. scale compared with the mass of deculator. Mr Tidd Pratt tells us and positors, that it is not worth considerthe public, that the deposits in the ation. This immense majority are desavings banks amount to little less than positors of a superfluity ; owners of eighteen millions of pounds a-year, money which they do not want, and and that by the constant purchase of do not wish to waste, and which they stock, the lowest orders will soon be very properly put under public protecthe great fundholders of England. tion, first in the savings banks, and next Eighteen millions is certainly a hand- in the funds. some surplus of the purses of the po

On the whole, we think that the paverty-stricken. But Spring Rice, also triotism of the ten-pounders would be a little man, and a great calculator, much more distinctly shown by paying brings in an account which throws the off the national debt, than by drinking savings banks into total eclipse ; and any conceivable quantity of gin ;

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