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Boletus domino; sed qualem Claudius edit
Ante illum uxoris, post quem nil amplius edit.

Virro sibi et reliquis Virronibus illa jubebit 150 Poma dari, quorum solo pascaris odore;

Qualia perpetuus Phæacum auctumnus habebat,
Credere quæ possis subrepta sororibus Afris.
Tu scabie frueris mali, quod in aggere rodit,
Qui tegitur parma et galea metuensque flagelli

and Cotta would speak of their clients as quam Hesperidum hortos ac regum Adonis • friends in moderate circumstances ;' et Alcinoi ; Plin. xix. 4. PR. Virro would call them 'vile.'

152. The garden of the Hesperides, • Toadstools of very questionable ap- daughters of Atlas king of Mauritania, pearance.' quorumdam ex his facile nos was famous for its golden apples guarded cuntur venena, diluto rubore, rancido by a sleepless dragon. Hercules slew the aspectu, livido intus colore, rimosa stria, monster and stole the fruit. VS. LU. pallido per ambitum labro : Plin. xxii. 22. Ov. iv. 627 sqq. PR. Virg. Æ. iv. 480 LU. ii sunt tutissimi quibus rubet caro, sqq. Ath. iii. 7. A poll. II. v. 11. Diod. magis diluto rubore, quam boleti ; 23. Ath. iv. 27. R. i. 19. Suet. Ner. 33. PR. (Livy xxx, 33, 153. ' Such as a monkey eats.' VS. 10. ED.)

After weighing the various opinions of 147. * The agaricus cæsareus or im- Commentators upon these three lines, I perial agaric' is the most splendid of all think the following paraphrase gives their the species ; it is common in Italy and is sense ; · You are at liberty to enjoy a brought to the markets there for sale. specked and shrivelled windfall, such as The ancient Romans esteemed it one of idle soldiers would amuse themselves by the greatest luxuries of the table. This giving to a monkey, and laugh to see the is the mushroom with which Claudius dice discrimination with which Mr Pug was poisoned ;” Miller's Gard. Dict. G. turns it about 10 nibble the sound part; Locusta supplied the empress Agrippina while he sits in his regimentals on the with the poison, which she introduced back of his bearded charger before the into her husband's favourite dish. VS. J. gate of their barracks, after going through Suet. 44. Plin. xxii. 22. Mart. XIII. bis manual exercise with due gravity and xlviii. boletum, qualem Claudius edit, edas; precision, and in as much

military awe of I. xxi. 4. Claudius was the fifth emperor his master's whip, as any of the raw of Rome. PR. cf. vi. 620 sqq. R. recruits who are grinding at him ever

148. i. e.' After which he died.' R. felt for the cane of their drill-sergeant.' Therefore Nero called mushrooms, Beãue To say · the apple which the soldier đ Suet. 33. PR.

gives away' is more severe than saying 149. Virrones' grandees like himself.' that which he eats.' The monkey nibT.

bling his apple between whiles is more 150. · Pulpy fruits' (as distinguished characteristic, and the comparison more from ‘nuts' and berries') including degrading. (See the simile in the pasapples, pears, peaches, &c. M.

sage of Lucian, quoted at 157.) The An allusion perhaps to an Indian na round target and the lash were not used tion, of which it is said ; odore vivunt in the Roman army. pomorum silvestrium et eorum olfactu Among those who think ' a monkey' aluntur; Solin. H. his ego rebus pašcor. is here meant are CL. DM. RU. . his delector, his perfruori Cic. in HO. HN. R. Pis. 20.

The Prætorian Bands were stationed 151. Phæacia, afterwards Corcyra, now by Tiberius in a permanent camp between • Corfu.' Homer describes the gardens of the Viminal and Tiburtine gates. FE. Alcinous as filled with perpetual fruits; Pliny mentions sata in strorum aggeri. hence an eternal autumn reigned there. bus mala , xv. 14. PR. cf. viii. 43. R. Od. H 112 sqq. VS. LU. Mart. VII. 154. Metuens virgæ; vii. 210. Ov.M. xlii. 6. Antiquitas nihil prius mirata est i. 323. R.

155 Discit ab hirsuta jaculum torquere capella.

Forsitan impensæ Virronem parcere credas.
Hoc agit, ut doleas : nam quæ comedia, mimus
Quis melior plorante gula ? Ergo omnia fiunt,

Si nescis, ut per lacrumas effundere bilem 160 Cogaris pressoque diu stridere molari.

Tu tibi liber homo et regis conviva videris.
Captum te nidore suæ putat ille culina:
Nec male conjectat. Quis enim tam nudus, ut illum

Bis ferat, Etruscum puero si contigit aurum 165 Vel nodus tantum et signum de paupere loro?

Spes bene cænandi vos decipit. “ Ecce dabit jam

155. Among the amusements of the tã di doxtīs tenção, ori lori ooi tão lo xác Asiatic soldiery, Leo Africanus mentions δων άφθόνως έντραγείν ή δ' ελευθερία και το simiam equitem ea capra jaculandi arti- ευγενές, συν αυτοίς φυλίταις και φράτορσι, fcem. HN. CL witnessed an exhibi- Φρούδα πάντα, και ουδέ μνήμη τις αυτών tion of this kind at a fair in Germany. Luc. fiol. ovr. 24. Cf. v 6 sqq. R.

156. In his eagerness to lash the guest, 158. • Than a parasite in all the Juvenal now excuses the host, and con- agonies of disappointed hunger.' PR. tradicts some of his former invectives on 159. Cf. i. 45. expletur lacrymis the inherent meanness of the great men egeriturque dolor ; Ov. Tr. IV.1.38. R. of Roine towards their dependents. Cor. 161. Cf. Pers. v. 73–90. Hor. II S. rect taste would have led him to carry vii. 32 sqq. 80–94. 111. and I Ep. xvi. on both his purposes together, without 63 sqq. Mart. II. liq. IX. xi. R. sacrificing one to the other : the servility 162. Cf. Hor. II S. vii. 38. Mart. I. of the client might have been exposed, xciii. 9. V. xlv. 7 sqq. lri dè xai x xvicou while the pride and parsimony of the ή των σκευαζομένων και το δείπνον απίκναιί patron were preserved as qualities neces hesLuc. Catap. 16. R. sary to the effect and consistency of his 163. ' Utterly destitute.' LU. cf. iv. satire. G.

49. He appears to be acting the rhetorician, • Him and his insolence.' LU. and shifting his ground in order to rouse 164. • A second time.' M. the anger or excite the hatred of Trebius • The golden boss' was an amulet towards Virro; by attributing the conduct adopted from the Etruscans, (who proof the latter to itnesaopòs, or ißers peint bably brought it from the east,) and at Yvce si giuntas aurã, ára' őrws notñ Arist. first was worn only by the children of the Rh. II. ii. 3. cf. the remainder of that nobility. In process of time it became chapter and II. v.

common, like the tria nomina, to all who 157. ii. 152 sq. ridiculus æque nul were free-born. It was a hollow globule lus est, quam quando esurit; Plaut. Stich. something in the shape of a heart. This 1. iii. 64. PR. ONTW ecogía pós on bię badge of liberty was worn by the children Mewn (' of lupines,' xiv. 153.) ioxov in car of all ranks of freemen till the age of fifaygiwe na závw. iriarrer de xai ai xgñuus teen. In our author's days the golden δέουσαι του ψυχρού ύδατος, ως επί ταύτά σε bulla was probably used only by the rich ; υπ' αμηχανίας ελθείν, αλλά δήλον ως ουχ the poorer classes had it of leather or vdaros, oudè diqkws, carà trojeve two xed other cheap materials. Pers. v. 31. VS. öxwe xai ovou krboquíov izidupão láaws, LU. G. Macr. i. 6. PR. xiii. 33. M. xiv. safett Aegea. aurà BáÀa Suwaios vào 5. Plin. Xxxiii. 1 s 4. Aur. Vict. 6. Plut. ogszóusvor courar daspido diarapuís. Façà Rom. p. 30. R. [Livy xxvi, 36, 6. ED.] σόδας τοιγαρούν της λιχείας ταύτης τατί. 166. i. 133 sq. cf. the quotations from xugas, rad Honig oi cilnxos xa osiño debels tòn Lucian at 22 and 157. R. τράχηλον άλλους μιν γίλωτα σαρίχεις, σαυ Οίμοι, τί δήτ' έτερψας ώ τάλαινά με

P

Semesum leporem atque aliquid de clunibus apri.
Ad nos jam veniet minor altilis.” Inde parato

Intactoque omnes et stricto pane tacetis. 170 Ille sapit, qui te sic utitur. Omnia ferre

Si potes, et debes. Pulsandum vertice raso
Præbebis quandoque caput nec dura timebis
Flagra pati, his epulis et tali dignus amico.

'Earis rót', ou píanovra darsacī zágon; himself to what he wanted. BRI. Eur. Her. 434 sq. Ph. 407 sqq.

Hence' i. e. ' owing to this constant This is the soliloquy of the expectant state of expectation.' LU. parasite. LU.

169. · With your bread clinched in Μόνον των περιφερομένων τα οστά, εί your hand ready to commence the action, å Pixoto uixes oo, xatárse oi xúnes Tigre (a metaphor from a sword) and yet sobówv, ó rò oxangor ons panaxma Quador, untouched ; because you are lying by, και τα άλλα συνειλoύσιν, ει υπεριφθείη υπό in silent expectancy, for the good things των προκατακειμένων, άσμενος υπό λιμού which are to come. LU. παραψάμενος. Luc. μισθ. συν. 26. ου λιυ 170. · He shows his sense by the way XOŰ Foto ketov in pognosis, (cf. 67–75.) in which he treats you.' LU. ούτε γι Νομαδικού ή Φασιανού όρνιθος, ών 171. Et · also.' PR. μόλις τα οστά ημϊν καταλίλοιπο(cf. 14.) 172. “One of these days we may ib. 17. R.

expect to see you playing the clown in a 168. Minor may mean either (1) pantomime, (viii. 192.) or submitting to smaller poultry' (viz.'chicken or ducks' any servile indignities.' VS. Pers. v. 82 as distinguished from geese') : LU. or sq. PR. Ter. Eun. II. ii. 13. Plaut. Capt. (2) ' lessened' by Virro having helped 1. i. 20. R.

ARGUMENT.

This Satire is the most complete of our Author's works; and one in which

all his excellencies are combined. Forcible in argument, flowing in diction, bold, impassioned, and sublime; it looks as if the Poet, conscious of the difficulties which he had to grapple with, had taxed all his

powers to do justice to the theme. It is addressed to Ursidius Postumus as a dissuasive from marriage, grounded

on the impossibility of meeting with any eligible partner; the good old times being long gone by, when females were chaste and frugal: 1–29. If therefore he was tired of a bachelor's life, he had better bid adieu to

this world altogether. 30—47. The catalogue, which it contains, of vices and follies is most appalling;

but is not very methodically arranged. Luxury is the source of all, 286–300. From this spring-unbridled lust, pervading all ranks, 47– 132. 327 sqq. 366—378. 597—601. gallantry, 231—241. artfulness, 271–278. unnatural passions, 318—326. attachment to unfeminine pursuits, 67–70. 246—267. boldness, 279—285. coarse manners, 4184 433. drunkenness, 300—319. 425 sqq. profaneness, 306–345. quarrelsomeness, 268—270. litigiousness, 242—245. cruelty, 413—418. 474— 495. waywardness 200—223. and fickleness, 224—230. imperiousness, presuming upon wealth and beauty, 136–160. pride, 161—183. ambitious extravagance, 352–365. 495-511. love of finery and cosmetics, 457–460. fondness for public singers and dancers, 379–397. gossiping, 398–412. affectation, 184—199. pedantry, 434–456. superstition and credulity, 511-591, the producing of abortion, 592—597. the introducing of supposititious children, 602—609. the employment of philtres, 133—135. 610_626. poisoning of step-sons, 627—652. and

murder of husbands. 652–661. G. R. The ashes of the ladies, whose disreputable actions are here recorded, have

long been covered by the Latian and Flaminian ways; nor have their

follies, or their vices, much similarity with those of modern times. It would seem from internal evidence, that this Satire was written under

Domitian. It has few political allusions, and from its subject might not have been displeasing to that ferocious hypocrite, who affected at various

times a wonderful anxiety to restrain the licentiousness of the age! G. Among other writers who have been severe upon the female sex are Euri

pides generally, and Aristophanes in his Thesmophoriazusæ. With this Satire may also be compared Lucian, Amores c. 33 sqq. c. 38 sqq. R. Jo. Filesaci Uxor Justa; SR. Chrysostom, homily on Herodias ; Barth. ep. from Spain to Celestin, p. m. 334 sqq. les Mémoires de Brantosme ; HN. Simonides; Ariosto, Aretino, and Boccacio among the Italians ; among the French, Jean de Meung, Gringoire, Molière, la Fontaine, Boileau in Sat. x. ACH. and Pope in his Moral Essays, ep. ii.

CREDO Pudicitiam Saturno rege moratam
In terris visamque diu, quum frigida parvas
Præberet spelunca domos ignemque laremque,

Et pecus et dominos communi clauderet umbra; 5 Silvestrem montana torum quum sterneret uxor

Frondibus et culmo vicinarumque ferarum
Pellibus, haud similis tibi, Cynthia, nec tibi, cujus
Turbavit nitidos exstinctus passer ocellos;

terre

1. Credo implies some doubt. LU. silva domus fuerat, cibus herba, cubilia

Julia lex (38) ex quo renata est, atque frondes; Ov. A. A. ii. 475. To this intrare domos jussa Pudicitia est; bardy and simple mode of living may be Mart. VI. vii, 1 sq.

attributed the unsophisticated virtues of * The reign of Saturn,' who was said olden times : cf. 286 sqq. and xiv. 161 to have been king of Latium, was the sqq. R. golden age.' cf. Hes. 0. D. i. LU. 6. With leaves and straw.' 'LU. Cic. de N. D. i. 64. Virg. E. iv. 6–45. silvestria membra nuda dabant Æ. vii. 180. viii. 314__329. Ov. M. i. nocturno tempore capti, circum se foliis ac 89 sqq. Lactant. i. ult. v. 5. S Hieron. frondibus involventes ; Lucr. v. 968– in Isa. iv. 11. ix, ult. PR. xiii. 28 sqq. 970. PR. 38 sqq. Tib. I. ii. 35 sqq. Lucr. v. . Of neighbouring brutes.' sæcla fe905_-1026. Prop. II. xxxii. 52 sqq. rarum infestam miseris faciebunt sæpe Ov. Her. iv. 131 sqq. R.

quietem : ejectique domo fugiebant sasea • Tarried :' understand esse.

tecta setigeri Suis adventu validique Leonis, 3. Domus antra fuerunt, et densi fru- atque intempesta cedebant nocte paventes tices et vinctæ cortice virge; Ov. M. i. hospitibus sævis instrata cubilia fronde ; 121 sq. Euryalus and his brother Hy- Lucr. v. 980_985. perbius are said to have built at Athens 7. Manuum mira freti virtute pedumque the first dwellings of brick; Toxius was consectabantur silvestria sæcla ferarum the first who constructed houses of mud missilibus saxis et magno pondere clave in imitation of swallows' nests; previously multaque vincebant ; Lucr. v. 964_967. to which antra et specus erant pro domibus;

Haud similis: cf. Lucr. v. 923 sqq. Plin. vii. 56. . nemora atque cavos R. montes silvasque colebant, et frutices inter Cynthia, whose real name was Hostia, condebant squalida membra, verbera ven was the mistress of Propertius. LU. R. torum vitare imbresque coacti; Lucr. v. The other beauty is Lesbia (her real 953_955. R. Such was the cave of name was Claudia) the mistress of CaInkle and Yarico : Spect. No. 11. tullus, whose exquisite hendecasyllables

• The household god whose altar was on the death of this favourite sparrow are the hearth.' The deceased were buried in still extant. LU. R. G. their houses, and afterwards worshipped 8. Passer mortuus est meæ puella, as the tutelary deities of the mansion. quem plus illa oculis suis amabat. O miSV.

selle passer ! tua nunc opera meæ puellæ 4. Antiquitus ante usum tectorum oves flendo turgiduli rubent ocelli; Cat. iii. in antris claudebantur; Fest. v. caulue. 3. 5. 16—18. LU. ï. PR. Mart. VII. R. Thus old Silenus says " kvayxaiws xiv. 3 sq. R. έχει, σαίρειν σιδηρά τηδί μ' αρπαγή δόμους, • Whose beaming eyes were clouded :' ως τόν σ' απόντα δεσπότην, Κύκλωπ’, ιμών a metaphor from the face of the theavens. καθαροίσιν άντρoις μηλά τ' εισδιχώμεθαLU. συννεφούν όμματα. GR. turbatiore Eur. Cyc. 32–35. See other parts of cælo; Suet. Tib. 69. The Gaul who the same play.

fought Valerius, is described (when as5. Silvestres homines ; Hor. A. P. 391. sailed by the raven) to have been PR. antra petens : contra ignis, viridi- oculis simul ac mente turbatus; Liv. que torus de fronde ; V. Flacc. i. 136 sq. vii. 26.

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