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Qui dedit ergo tribus patruis aconita, vehatur

Pensilibus plumis atque illinc despiciat nos?
160 “ Quum veniet contra, digito compesce labellum.

Accusator erit, qui verbum dixerit, hic EST.
Securus licet Æneam Rutulumque ferocem
Committas; nulli gravis est percussus Achilles,

Aut multum quæsitus Hylas urnamque sequutus. 165 Ense velut stricto quoties Lucilius ardens

Infremuit, rubet auditor, cui frigida mens est
Criminibus; tacita sudant præcordia culpa.
Inde iræ et lacrumæ. Tecum prius ergo voluta
Hæc animo ante tubas: galeatum sero duelli

sus ad corporis sui modulum ipse Nero; not you be content, as well as others, Suet. Ner. 49. These executions often with the Legend of Whittington, the took place in the centre of the arena of Story of Queen Eleanor, and the rearing the amphitheatre.' Suet. Cal. 7. PR. of London Bridge upon woolsacks ?'' G. nemo spectator miseras voluptates unco et 163. Committere is a metaphor from ignibus expiavit; Plin. Pan. xxxiii. 3. R. ' matching' a pair of gladiators · against or You labour vain, as if you were each other.' GRÆ. vi. 378. 436. Luc. ploughing the sand.' cf. vii. 48 sq. M. i. 97. R.

158. Here the author replies indig- Nec nocet auctori, mollem qui fecit nantly. LU. See 67. PR. • Wolf's. Achillem, infregisse suis mollia facta bane' may be put for poison generally: modis ; Ov. Tr. ii. 411 sq. GR. Achilles lurida terribiles miscent aconita norercæ ;

was shot with

an arrow by Paris. PR. Ov. Met. i. 147. M. Id. vii. 418 sqq. Hom. ll. x 359. Od. 12 36 sqq. Virg. Virg. G.ï. 152. R.

Æ, vi. 57. R. 159. On pensile couch of down.' VS. 164. ' Sought for by Hercules and the 160. The friend now speaks.

Argonauts.' Virg. E. vi. 43 sq. PR. Contra' in your way; Mart. V. iv. 5. G. ii. 6. R. XIV. lxii. R.

165. Secuit Lucilius urbem; Pers. i. 161. ' He will be regarded in the light 114. PR. Hor. I S. iv. 1 sqq. II S. i. of an accuser, who shall but have wbis- 62 sqq. R. cf. Suet. Cal. 53. Hor. pered " That's he”!' H. even although III Od. i. 17 sqq. In Randolph's Enthese words are generally used in a tertainment there is an admirable parafavourable sense; as Pers, i. 28. Mart. V. phrase of this passage:

" When I but xiii. 3. R. or. If a person does but say frown'd in my Lucilius' brow, Each con“ That's he!" he will have an informa- scious cheek grew red, and a cold tremtion laid against him.' PR.

bling Freezed the chill soul, while every 162. • You may without apprehension guilty breast Stood, fearful of dissection, handle epic themes.' The Rutulian' is as afraid To be anatomized by that skilTurnus. PR. cf. Hor. II S. i. 10 sqq. R. ful hand, And have each artery, nerve, Nos enim, qui in foro verisque litibus and vein of sin, By it laid open to the terimur, multum malitiæ, quumris nolimus, public scorn." G. addiscimus: schola el auditorium, ut ficta 166. · It shudders;' the blood runs causa, ita res inermis innoxia est; Plin. cold. M. formidine turpi frigida corda There is the same idea in the Knight of tremunt; Šil. ii. 338. R. the Burning Pestle: Prol. By your

168. Hinc illa lacruma! Ter. And. I. sweet favour we intend no harm to the i. 99. GRE. city. Cit. No, sir! yes, sir. If you Virg. Æ. iv. 533. vi. 158. 185. R. were not resolved to play the jack, what 169. Tubas is here put for classica ' the need you study for new subjects pur- sounds of the trumpet.' GRÆ. cur ante posely to abuse your betters? Why could lubam tremor occupat artus; Virg. Æ.

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170 Poenitet.” Experiar, quid concedatur in illos,

Quorum Flaminia tegitur cinis atque Latina.

xi. 424. cf. Sil. ix. 52. Claud. in Ruf. wage war on the dead alone. PR. i. 333. de L. Stil. i. 192. R. Juvenal Hall, on the contrary, says,

“ I will not is very fond of adopting Virgilian expres- ransack up the quiet grave, Nor burn sions; see 61. u. 99. 100. vi. 44. (cf. i. dead bones as he example gave; I tax 36.) xii. 94. &c. HR.

the living, let the ashes rest, Whose Galeatus denotes not merely a soldier,' faults are dead, and nailed in their chest.” as in viii. 238. but one who has buckled Yet Hall, like Juvenal, makes use of the on his helmet (cf. vi. 252.); since it names of those departed. G. appears from Trajan's Pillar, that before 171. • The Flaminian and Latin ways,' soldiers went into battle, their helmets as well as the Appian, were adorned on were suspended from the right shoulder. either side with the sepulchres of many HR.

illustrious men: VS. v. 55. for the laws Sero; compare St Luke xiv. 31. of the Twelve Tables prohibited sepulture

Duellum is the ancient form of bellum, within the walls. The Latin way led to and hence the word perduellis. F. Sinuessa. PR.

170. The Poet declares that he will

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SA TIRE II.

ARGUMENT.

This Satire, in point of time, was probably the first which Juvenal wrote.

It contains an irregular but animated attack upon the hypocrisy of philosophers and reformers; whose wickedness it exposes with just severity, 1–28. Domitian here becomes the hero: and the poet must have had an intrepid spirit to produce and circulate, though but in private, such a faithful picture of that ferocious tyrant, at once the censor and the pattern of profligacy, 29 sqq. The corruption, beginning at the

head, is represented as rapidly spreading downwards, 34–81. Such was the depravity and impiety, that a club was formed to dress up as

females and burlesque the rites of the Good Goddess, 82–114. There were even instances of men marrying each other, 115–142. and of

Roman nobles degrading themselves by playing the gladiator, 143—148. Infidelity was now universal. How would the heroes of primitive Rome

receive in the shades below their degenerate posterity! 149–158. Even the victorious progress of the Roman arms served but to diffuse corrup

tion more widely, 159–170. G. R. There is a close correspondence between this Satire and Dio Chrysost.

Tipi oxhpatos Orat. Alex. hab. H.V.

Ultra Sauromatas fugere hinc libet et glacialem
Oceanum, quoties aliquid de moribus audent,
Qui Curios simulant et Bacchanalia vivunt.

Indocti primum; quamquam plena omnia gypso
5 Chrysippi invenias. Nam perfectissimus horum est,

Si quis Aristotelem similem vel Pittacon emit,
Et jubet archetypos pluteum servare Cleanthas.
Fronti nulla fides. Quis enim non vicus abundat
Tristibus obscænis? Castigas turpia, quum sis

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1. · Fain would I fee.' cf. xv. 171 sq. 5. Chrysippus, the Stoic, pupil of Zeno Prop. II. xxx. 2. R. Hor. III Od. x. 1. and Cleanthes. LU. Pers, vi. 80. PR.

The Sauromate, or Sarmata, (iii. 79. Esi i. e. in their estimation. LU. Herod. iv. 21. &c.) inhabited the banks 6. “A fac-simile of Aristotle,' the of the Tanais and Borysthenes; GR. PR. Stagyrite, pupil of Plato, founder of the the province of Astracan.

Peripatetic seci, tutor of Alexander the The icy or northern ocean : et qua great. PR. Thus similem te“ an image bruma rigens ac nescia vere remitti, ad- of thee;' Stat, 1 S. i. 101. II S. vii. stringit Scythico glacialem frigore 129. Mart. IX. cii. 1. R. pontum; Luc. i. 17. M.

Pittacus, Dictator of Mitylene, one of 2. Understand docere, scribere, aut dis- the seven sages. LU. putare. GR. In this line, as in vv. 40, 7. Originals' (úgth TÚ705). T. Mart. 63, and 121, there is a side blow at the VII. X. 4. XII. Ixix. 2. R. Perpetual Censorship which Domitian Pluteum · the bookcase.' VS. Pers. v. had assumed. HR.

106. PR. 3. Simulare' to pretend to be what one Cleanthes, originally a pugilist, was is not;' dissimulare ' to pretend not to afterwards pupil of Zeno, and his succesbe what one is.'

sor in the Stoic School: while student he M'. Curius Dentatus, thrice consul, was so poor that he used to work at conqueror of the Sabines, Samnites, Lu- night iu drawing water for gardeners, and canians, and Pyrrhus, was a pattern of was hence called operéstams. LU. Therefrugality and integrity. Val. Maxim. fore some prefer the reading puteum. iv. 3,5. Plin. xviii. 3. PR. xi. 78 sqq. VA. GRE: H. Pers. v. 64. PR. Auspicis incomplis illum, Deciane, ca If Lucian had read Juvenal, he might pillis? (cf. Hor. I Od. xii. 41 sqq.) have this passage in his thought when cujus et ipse times triste supercilium; qui he wrote his Illiterate Book-collector. loquitur Curios, assertoresque Camillos: Locher, who translated Brandt's Ship of nolito fronti credere; Mart. I.xxv. Fools, had undoubtedly both Lucian and VII. lviii. 7 sq. IX. xxviii. 5 s99. Quid? Juvenal before him, when he gave the si quis vultu forro ferus, et pede nudo, following version: spem quoque nec purvam exiguæque toge simulet texture Cato- collecta volumina præbent, culleo nec vernem, virtutemne repræsentet moresque Ca- bum, nec libri sentio mentem, allamen in tonis? Hor. I Ep. xix. 12 sqq. R. mugno per me servantur honore. G.

Bacchanalia: cf. Liv. xxxix. 8 sqq. PR. 9. Solemn debauchees:' ærumnosique A Grecism for bacchantium more. M. Solones, obstipo capite et figentes lumine Nunc Satyrum, nunc agrestem Cyclopa terram; Pers.iii. 79. GR. Philosophi vulin ovetur; Hor. II Ep. ii. 125. In tum et tristitiam et dissentientem a these rites the grossest vices were prac. ceteris habilum pessimis moribus prætentised under the cloak of religion. R. dunt; Quint. I. pr. §. 15. Pigritia

4. These unlearned pretenders had arrogantioris ( homines), qui, subito fronte brought out of the schools little wisdom, conficta immissaque barba, paulum aliquid but plenty of conceit. HR.

sederunt in scholis philosophorum, ut deinde Understand loca: 'every corner of in publico tristes, domi dissoluti, captheir libraries and halls.' LU.

tarent auctoritatem contemtu ceterorum ; Gypso' of plaster casts or busts.' Ll'. Id. XII. ij. 12. HR.

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10 Inter Socraticos notissima fossa cinædos.

Hispida membra quidem et duræ per brachia setæ
Promittunt atrocem animum; sed podice levi
Cæduntur tumidæ, medico ridente, mariscæ.

Rarus sermo illis et magna lubido tacendi 15 Atque supercilio brevior coma.

Et magis ingenue Peribomius. Hunc ego fatis
Imputo, qui vultu morbum incessuque fatetur.
Horum simplicitas miserabilis; his furor ipse

Dat veniam: sed pejores, qui talia verbis 20 Herculis invadunt et de virtute loquuti

Verius ergo

Castigas, &c. cf. Rom. ii. 1. Μ. Pers. iii. 54. LU. άρσεσιν ουκ επέoικε κόμη

10. The most notorious sink of all was the opinion of Phocyllides. GR. the depraved pretenders to Socratic phi- cf. 1 Cor. xi. 14. M. There is humour losophy.' As Juvenal admired Socrates, in the use of supercilio, as alluding to xiii. 185 sqq. xiv. 320. and is here attack their affectation of superciliousness. v. ing hypocrisy, (Mart. IX. xlviii. R.) the 62. R. alteration of the text to Sotadicos is worse Verius' with more candour. Cic. Or. than unnecessary, for Sotades was no ii. 86. R. hypocrite. G.

16. A fctitious name, from περί and il. Cf. ix. 15. xiv. 194. Mart. II. Berpeds, in allusion perhaps to the dissolute xxxvi. VI. lvi. R. Ov. Met. xiii. 850. priests of Cybele. VS. LU. These were Stoici pæne Cynici; Fatis “ to an unfortunate constitution.”

.' Cic. Off. i. 35. ΗR.

Stupet hic vilio; Pers. iii. 32. "To a 12. V. Flacc. i. 272. Claud. iv. Cons. malign horoscope.'. PR. cf. Manil. v. Hon, 521. Spondet ; vii. 134. στευται, 105. GR. To irresistible destiny.R. Hom. II. Γ 83. E 832. Ι 241. R.

17. · His sin and its consequences.' v. Atror animus Catonis ; Hor. II 50. ix. 49. Rom. i. 27, latter part. M. Od. i. 24. R.

Fatetur manifests,' openly shows.'x. “ But all so smooth below! the surgeon 172. xv. 132. Perhaps quem would be smiles, And scarcely can, for laughter, preferable to qui. R. lance the piles." G.

18. · Of him and the like.' R. 14. The Pythagorean philosophers ex- Vera simplicitate bonus; Mart. I. acted rigid silence from their pupils. GR. xl. 4. R. εώρων αυτούς κοσμίως βαδίζοντας, άναβε. To be patied.' τούτους ελεείσθαι προσ. βλημένους ευσταλώς φροντίζοντας αει αρρε- ήκει: Gal. de Us. Part. xi. αρά μοι κράτι. νωπούς, έν χρω κουρίας τους πλείστους, στον εθελοκακήσαντα και τα νώτα επιστρέουδέν αβρόν ουδ' αυ πάνυ ές το αδιάφορος ψαντα και αδικείν ουκ αρνούμενον επί την υπερεκτίστον, ως έκπληκτον είναι και κυνι κοινήν εκείνην απολογίαν καταφυγείν (λίγω κον άτεχνώς, αλλ' επί του μίσου καταστή δε την τύχην και μοιραν και ειμαρμένην) ματος, και δη άριστον άπαντες είναι φασίν ή και παραιτείσθαι συγγνώμην έχειν μοι τους τούτων ολίγον σοι μίλει άχρις αν ευσταλής επιτιμώντας, ειδότας ως ουδενός ημείς κύριοι, ή αναβολή και και πώγων βαθύς και εν χεω αλλ' υπό τινος κρείττονος, μάλλον δε μιά; και κουρά και και χρή από σχημάτων και των προειρημένων αγόμεθα, ουχ έκόντες, βαδισμάτων και κουράς διαγιγνώσκειν τους άλλ' αναίτιοι παντάπασιν όντες. ά αν λέγωαρίστους δς δ' άν μή έχη ταύτα μηδέ μιν ή ποιώμεν Luc. 'Απ . τί μισθ συν. σκυθρωπός ή και φροντιστικός το πρόσωπον, 9. R. αποδοκιμαστέος και αποβλητέος ; Luc. 19. · They may be acquitted on the Hermot. 18. R.

ground of insanity.' ' 15. The Stoics, who were the most With talia understand fugitia or vitia. rigid sect, (64 sq. iv. 76.) cut their hair cf. 34. quite close to the head; whence the pro- 20. · Herculean,'or in such language verb crine Stoicus; and detonsa juventus; as Prodicus has put in the mouth of

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