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Cornicini, sive hic recto cantaverat ære.

Signatæ tabulæ: dictum “ Feliciter !” Ingens 120 Cæna sedet: gremio jacuit nova nupta mariti.

O proceres, censore opus est an haruspice nobis ?
Scilicet horreres majoraque monstra putares,
Si mulier vitulum vel si bos ederet agnum?

Segmenta et longos habitus et flamea sumit, 125 Arcano qui sacra ferens nutantia loro

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"A descendant of the Gracchi.' cf. the course of nature.' see F. 143, iv, 2. 24. PR. Of this horrible transaction no 45. 115. vi. 286. 645. &c. R. contemporary writer speaks: Nero, how 123. Such prodigies occur constantly ever, had set the example ; (Tac. An. in Livy. xv. 38.) and royalty is never at a loss for 124. · Fringes' or 'founces.' V. Max. imitators. vi. 616. G.

v. 2. FA. Ov. A. A. ii, 169. PR. cf. vi. 118. • To a horn-blower, or else to a 89. R. trumpeter.' Tuba directi æris, cornua The matrons wore 'a long Aowing flexi; Ov. M. i. 98. The Romans used gown' stola, with • a train' syrma. M. only wind-instruments in their army. M. R. G. • The clarion' lituus belonged to the Virgins on their wedding day wore a cavalry. Hor. II Od. i. 17 sq. Schol. on light flame-coloured hood, that the specI Od. i. 23.

talors might confound the glow shed over 119. The marriage-writings are signed the cheek by the tint of the veil, with the and sealed. “ We wish you joy!" is suffusion of modesty: G. Mart. XI. the general exclamation. Understand lxxviii. 3. PR. vi. 225. X. 334. timidum cedant nuptiæ. PR. Felix hoc; alium nuptæ leviter tectura pudorem lutea dedesine velle virum. LU. Suet. Dom. 13. missos velarunt flamea vultus; Luc. ii.

120. A sumptuous banquet is set out.' 360 sq. From the bride's being enve. i. 96. Ov. Tr. ii. 481. HO. M. or · An loped in this veil, she was said nubere immense supper-party sits down to table.' viro. R. See notes on 134 and 137. BRI. cf. 34. v. 82. R.

125. Ov. F. iii. 259 sqq. PR. Most • The bride' i. e. Gracchus; the of the Commentators by sacra underbridegroom' i. e. the trumpeter. LU. stand ancilia. The epithet urcano may cf. Tac. An. xi. 27. Ov. Am. I. iv. then refer either to ignorance as 5. R.

the genuine shield, or to the strap on 121. Proceres ; see Pers. i. 52. PR. the inside by which the shields were susThere is a bitter sarcasm in this appeal pended ; and nutantia to the swinging of to the patricians,' who were themselves the shields to and fro, as the priests leaped deeply implicated in many of these dis- and danced. FA. It would seem more gusting proceedings. GR.

natural to understand simulacra with sacra, • Do we need a censor to correct such supposing twelve of the Salii to have enormities? or rather a soothsayer to borne the ancilia, and the other twelve expiate such portentous prodigies?' VS. priests to have carried images of the gods, vi.549 sqq. PR. There were two censors, which, by means of a concealed thong, who had the power to degrade citizens were made to nod their heads in answer from their several ranks and to expel to the acclamations and plaudits of the senators from the house. They were surrounding multitude. Thus the image formerly so strict as to be formidable even of Venus, which was borne in procession to their colleagues. M. See 2. HR. at the Circensian games, annuit et motu

It was the office of the soothsayer, signa secunda dedit; Ov. Am. Ill. ii. when any prodigy occurred, to ascertain 58. M. A similar trick is said to have and prescribe the expiation which the been played off some few years ago by gods required. M.

the priests in Portugal, with an image of An; Ov. F. ii. 394. H.

the Virgin, to confirm Don Miguel's right 122. Monstrum is any thing out of to the throne.


Sudavit clypeis ancilibus. O pater Urbis,
Unde nefas tantum Latiis pastoribus ? unde
Hæc tetigit, Gradive, tuos urtica nepotes?

Traditur ecce viro clarus genere atque opibus vir : 130 Nec galeam quassas nec terram cuspide pulsas

Nec quereris patri? Vade ergo et cede severi
Jugeribus campi, quem negligis !

66 Officium cras
Primo sole mihi peragendum in valle Quirini.”
Quæ causa officii ? “ Quid quæris? Nubit amicus,

126. The Salii were priests of Mars, See 117. R. (so called from their dancing, Ov. 130. And yet thou evincest no sympF. iii. 387.) chosen out of the first toms of indignation !' FA. xiii. 113 sqq. families at Rome, as guardians of the cf. Hom. Od. E 285. Virg. Æ. vii. 292. heaven-descended buckler on which de. V. Flac. i. 528. vii. 577. R. [Livy xxiv, pended the fate of the empire. Numa 10, 7. ED.) Cuspis was ' the point of a had eleven other shields made, exactly sword or spear.' LU. similar to the original. The Salii 131. Mars was the son of Jupiter and were at first twelve : Tullus Hostilius Judo; PR. Hom Il. E 896. according doubled the number. FA. öexnow to others, of Juno only. Ov. F. v. 229. υποσχούνται διαφορευόμενοι την πόλιν: M. •If the evil is grown too enormous κινούνται δε επιτερσώς, ελιγμούς τινας to be checked by thy own power, comκαι μεταβολάς εν ρυθμώ τάχος έχοντι και plain to thy father, who is armed with πυκνότητα μετά ρώμης και κουφότητος lightnings. . árodidávtis. Plut. Num. R. Virg. Æ. Cede for discede. FA. iii. 29. Virg. Æ. viii. 285.

vi. 460. M. • Make room for some other The neuter ancile is an adjective and deity, who will take more care of bis agrees with scutum : as ancilia arma; V. charge.' R. Max. I. i. 9. it is derived from ancisus The campus Martius ((Liv. ii. 5.) is

cut around ;' Ov. F. iii. 377 sq. or from put for • Rome,' and is called severus áy xúros ' curved ;' Plut. Num. p. 69. ironically, with reference to the present PR. R.

impunity of crime as contrasted with the Mars himself is here apostrophized, the ancient severity of punishment: (ex. father of Romulus, the founder, and traordinary public trials used to be held Remus. FA. Hor. I Od. ii. 35 sqq. M. in ‘the Field of Mars.') PR. R. This Wherein is thy paternal care displayed ? epithet also belongs to the god himself; R.

Mart. X. XXX. 2. GR. M. 127. · Where is the simplicity and 132. The satirist now introduces a innocence of that hardy race, to which conversation relating to one of these inRomulus and our forefathers belonged ? famous weddings. Officium was. a duty VS. PR. iii. 67. R. viii. 275. On the undertaken out of kindness or compliorigin of the name Latium, see Virg. Æ. ment:' nuptiale (Petron.) or nuptiarum viii. 319 sqq. M.

(Suet. Claud. 26.) is here understood. 128. Mars was called Gradivus (xiii. Plin. Ep. i. 9. T. M. R. 113. Virg. Æ. iii. 34.) either from gra 133. Marriage contracts were often diendo taking long strides,' or 'march- signed ' in the portico of the temple of ing orderly ;' or from xeadú wybrand. Romulus on the Quirinal hill: 1. M. ishing his spear;'GR. nie je expà BoBàs, Mart. XI. i. 9. PR. in colle Quirini; xpadá we donixóorioy yxcos: Hom. 1). Hor. II Ep. ii. 68.10d. ii. 46. Ov.M. H 213. M. or from a Thracian word xiv. 836. R. signifying · brave. PR.

134. • Cannot you guess ? a gentleUrtica' a burning itch' like that ex. man of my acquaintance is to be led to cited by the netile.' LU. xi. 166. R. the altar. Nubere applies only to the

129. • Is consigned over.' Mart. XI. bride, ducere to the bridegroom. Ixxviii, 11. GR. cf. Suet. Ner. 29. FA. GR. 117. i. 62. 78. R. See 124 and 137.

135 Nec multos adhibet.” Liceat modo vivere; fient,

Fient ista palam, cupient et in acta referri.
Interea tormentum ingens nubentibus hæret,
Quod nequeunt parere et partu retinere maritos.

Sed melius, quod nil animis in corpora juris 140 Natura indulget. Steriles morientur et illis

Turgida non prodest condita pyxide Lyde
Nec prodest agili palmas præbere Luperco.

Vicit et hoc monstrum tunicati fuscina Gracchi,
Lustravitque fuga mediam gladiator arenam


445 sq.

135. There will be but a small party arcet. A goat, the emblem of fecunto witness the ceremony:' because the dity, being sacrificed, those who officiated Scatinian law was still in being. LU. put on the skin of the victim and ran Pontice, si qua fucis, sine teste facis, sine about with either a thong of the skin or a turba ; non adhibes multos : Pontice, wand in their hands, with which they cautus homo es; Mart. VII.c.3 sq.GRE. struck the palms of the women who threw

* If it please the gods to spare our themselves in their way to have the benefit lives.' PR.

of the charm. Excipe fecunde patienter 136. The repetition of the word fient verbera dextræ ; Ov. F. ii. 427 &c. LU. adds force to the prediction. Instances Ille caprum mactat: jussæ sua terga of this kind occur constantly in the Greek maritæ pellibus ersectis percutienda dabant;

Shakspeare alludes to it! Salvian, who wrote in the fifth century, Forget not in your speed To touch speaking of this dedecoris scelerisque con- Calphurnia; for our elders say, The sortium, as he calls it, says that it spread barren touched in this holy chase, Shake all over the city, and though the act off their sterile curse;" J. Cæs. ii. M. itself was not common to all, yet the This superstitious practice was one of approbation of it was. M.

the last Pagan ceremonies that was abanActa' the public registers.' FA. cf. ix. doned, and excited the indignation of 84. R. LI. on Tac. An. v. 4.

many Christian writers. It was finally 137. Nubentibus ' these male brides.' abolished by Gelasius; in whose time

138. Such was the complaint of Eu- nobiles ipsi currebant; et matronæ noudato tropius: generis pro sors durissima nostri! corpore vapulabant. G. The festival, fæmina cum senuit, retinet connubia which took place in February, was propartu, uwrisque decus matris reverentia bably introduced into lialy by Evander : pensat: nos Lucina fugit, nec pignore cf. Virg. Æn. viii. 343 sq. The grove nitimur ullo; Claud. in Eut. i. 71 sqq. there described, which was also the spot F.4. Children constitute a bond of love: where Romulus and Remus were afterand sterility was a frequent cause of di- wards found, was fixed upon by the Rovorce. PR. vi. 142 sqq. R.

mans for the site of Pan's temple. PR. 139. · It is just as well that nature 143. See the notes on viii. 192 sqq. and prohibits the fulfilment of such extrava- 199 sqq. R. 'Has outdone.' This may gant wishes.' BRI.

be an instance of that spirit of aggravation 141. Lyde was some woman who com- which so much distinguishes Juvenal. pounded, and sold in small boxes. (Tugis Whatever be the vice which he lashes, he from being originally made of box wood,' bestows the whole of his fury upon it; BO.) a specific against barrenness. T. and in many places the climax of moral The epithet may either imply her own reprehension is strangely perverted. 1. corpulence, as being an old woman, BE. All the writers of Roman history, howor the effects of her nostrum. GR. ever, viewed the gladiatorship of the

142. The festival of the Lupercalia nobility with the utmost horror. G. was instituted in honour of Pan (ovium 144. Cf. viii. 208. • Traversed in custos; Virg. G. i. 17.) because lupos flight,' M.

145 Et Capitolinis generosior et Marcellis

Et Catulis Paullique minoribus et Fabiis et
Omnibus ad podium spectantibus : his licet ipsum
Admoveas, cujus tunc munere retia misit.

Esse aliquid Manes et subterranea regna 150 Et contum et Stygio ranas in gurgite nigras

Atque una transire vadum tot millia cymba,

The centre of the ampbitheatre was navita Porthmeus subficiet simulacra virûm strewed with ' sand,' to hide the blood traducere cymba : classe opus est; Petron. which was spilt. PR.

Sat. 121 extr. Prop. III. v. 39 sqq. 115. (1) M. Manlius surnamed Ca. Lucr. iii. 991 sqq. Pythagoras in Ov. pitolinus from his defence of the capitol Met. xv. 153 sqq. &c.) but suppose them against the Gauls. (2) M. Claudius true, how would the shades of our ancient Marcellus the captor of Syracuse. (3) heroes be horrified at the appearance of Q. Lutatius Catulus who gained the naval such scandalous wretches among them!' victory off the Agates. (4) L. Æmilius Sunt aliquid manes; letum non omnia Paullus the conqueror of Macedonia. finit; Prop. IV. vii. 1. Ov. Met. vi. (5) Q. Fabius Maximus surnamed Cunc 543. Hom. II. V 103. R. tator, who kept Hannibal in constant 150. Ipse (Charon) ratem conto subcbeck by his cautious moves. LU. igit, et ferruginea subvectat corpora

• More nobie;' vi. 124. vii. 191. viii. cymba; Virg. £. vi. 302 sq. Vs. One 30. 224. R.

m3. has cantum; if this be the true read146. Minores; i. 148. R. Perhaps ing, cantum et ranas is equivalent to the two sons of Paullus, one of whom cantum ranarum: cf. Arist. R. 205 sqq. was adopted into the family of the R. The text would then better suit the Scipios, the other into that of the Fabii common interpretation of the whole pasMaximi.

sage. 147. • The front' or lowest row of seats Stygiu palus; Virg. Æ. vi. 323 sq. PR. was reserved for senators : Suet. Aug. 44. G. iv. 480. M. Turbidus hic cæno vasLU. The podium was the projecting taque voragine gurges æstuat; Æ. vi. part of the partition which divided the 296 sq. {gurges and vadum are opposed, seats from the arena. Between this, and Livy xxii, 6, 6. ED.] the first row on which the senators sat, 151. Cf. Virg. ll. cc. Φησί γούν και there was probably just space enough πορθμεύς μή διαρκίσαι αυτούς τότε το left for the chairs of the curule magis. σκάφος, αλλά σχεδίας διατηξαμένους trates, &c. LI.

τους πολλούς αυτων διαπλεύσαι: Luc. . • A narrow slip.' G. Ilodsúv Herod. Dial. Mort. xii. 5. R. viii. 31.

Juvenal describes the world of spirits You may even add the personage as peopled by the figments of the poets ; himselt,' i. e. the prætor ; or, rather, the circumstances he has not invented,

the emperor' Nero or Domitian. PR. but selected; and it does not follow, that, See note on i. 97.

because he believed in a future state, he 148. · The person at whose expense therefore gave credit to such absurdities. the games were exhibited' was called We may attribute the sketch he has given munerarius. GR.

to his satirical turn, which he could not 149. The poet now proceeds to attribute forbear indulging to the disparagement all this gross and degrading profligacy to of his argument. Virgil, to whom our scepticism and infidelity; to ihe disbelief author is here plainly alluding, does not of a future state of rewards and punish- give a very dignified narrative of his ments, and, consequently, of the moral hero's passage over the Styx : Æ. vi. government of the universe. LU. PR. M. 411–416. Such puerilities excite our G. But PYE and R. take the sense to be pity; especially when we think how inThe absurd stories of the infernal regions comparably sublime is the description of are now hardly credited in the nursery; the state of reprobation, in Holy Writ, as (cf. xiii. 151 sqq. Arist. R. 181 sqq. rio a place " where the worm dieth not and

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Nec pueri credunt, nisi qui nondum ære lavantur.
Sed tu vera puta. Curius quid sentit et ambo

Scipiadæ, quid Fabricius manesque Camilli,
155 Quid Cremeræ legio et Cannis consumta juventus,

Tot bellorum animæ, quoties hinc talis ad illos
Umbra venit? Cuperent lustrari, si qua darentur
Sulphura cum tædis et si foret humida laurus.

the fire is not quenched :” St Mark ix. * Legion ;' see üï. 132. 43 sq. while of the state of blessedness At Cannæ in Apulia, Hannibal gained the Apostle says, “ Eye hath not seen, his fourth and greatest victory, defeating nor ear heard, neither have entered into two consular armies, and slaying 40,000 the heart of man, the things which God of the Romans, including Æmilius Paullus hath prepared for them that love him." one of the consuls, and so many of the 1 Cor. i. 9. G.

equestrian order, that three bushels of 152. The common people, when they gold rings were sent to Carthage in token went to a bath, paid the bath-keeper of the victory. PR. a brass coin, in value about a halfpeony. 156. Illustres bellis anime ; Lucan, vi. 446. Hor. I S. ii. 137. M. Children, Phars. VS. bellorum for bellicæ, as anime under four years old, were either not servientium ; Tac. H. iv. 32. for serviles. taken to the baths, or, if they were, paid cf. rodads ipoíuous Yuxas nuwr Hom. nothing. VS. Mart. III. xxx. 4. XIV. II. A 3. R. Virg. Æ. vi. 660. Juvenal clxiii. Seneca calls the bath quadran- adduces these patriots, both as instances taria res; Ep. 86 m. One ms. has nec of the belief in a future state, the greatest senes credunt, nec qui &c. R.

safeguard of integrity and incentive to 153. : But be thou persuaded that valour;' and as examples of the unfading these things are true.' The language is happiness in store for those who faithfully too emphatic for a mere supposition. G. discharge their duties as men and citizens. See R. on 149.

M. Curius see 3.

157. ' To be purified from the con154. For Scipioniadæ, LU. and that tamination of its very presence, if they for Scipiones. Sil. vü. 107. As Mem- could get the requisite articles.' PR. M. miades for Memmius; Lucr. i. 27. R. 158. The fumes of sulphur thrown on geminos, duo fulmina belli, Scipiadas, a lighted torch of the unctuous pine.' M. cladem Libyæ; Virg. Æ. vi. 843 sq. PR. Plin. H. N. xxxv. 15. PR. lustralem Africanus Major, who conquered Han- sic rite facem, cui lumen odorum sul. nibal, and Africanus Minor, who rased phure cæruleo nigroque bitumine fumat, Numantia and Carthage. M.

circum membra rotat doctus purganda C. Luscinius Fabricius, the conqueror sacerdos, rore pio spargens et dira fuganof Pyrrhus. V. Max. iv, 3, 6. PR. tibus herbis numina, purificumque Jovem Virg. Æ. vi. 845.

Triviamque precatus, trans caput aversis M. Furius Camillus, five times dicta- manibus jaculatur in austrum secum rap. tor, saved the city from the Gauls, and turas cantata piucula tadas; Claud. was styled ' a second Romulus.' PR. VI. Cons. Hon. 324 sqq. Ov. M. vii. He was the first citizen, who was 261. F. iv. 739 sq. A. A. ii. 329 sq. honoured with an equestrian statue in Tib. I. v. 11, ii. 61. Prop. IV. viii. the forum. M.

83 sqq. Hom. Od. X 481. GR. ó péros 155. The Fabii, who had taken the dõda xalopívny i zwy tepihyvios us, ova prin Veian war upon themselves, were cut off Baattojeny Úrò tão parracuátu. Luc. by the enemy at the Cremera, in Tus. Nec. 9 & 7. R. cany, to the number of three hundred "A branch of bay dipped in water' and six. The clan would thereby have was also used to sprinkle the parties who become extinct, but for one boy who was were to be purified. Plin. H. N. xv. 30. left at home. Liv. ii. 48 sqq. Ov. F. ii. PR. 193 sqq. PR. Virg. Æ. vi. 846. M. Lauro sparguntur ab u da; Ov. F. Dionys, ix. 22. Sil. vij. 40 sqq. R. v. 677, R.

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