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Illuc heu ! miseri traducimur. Arma quidem ultra 160 Litora Juvernæ promovimus et modo captas

Orcadas ac minima contentos nocte Britannos:
Sed quæ nunc populi fiunt victoris in urbe,
Non faciunt illi, quos vicimus. 66 Et tamen unus

Armenius Zalates cunctis narratur ephebis 165 Mollior ardenti sese indulsisse Tribuno."

Adspice, quid faciant commercia! venerat obses.
Hic fiunt homines. Nam si mora longior Urbem
Indulsit pueris, non umquam deerit amator:

Mittentur bracæ, cultelli, frena, flagellum. 170 Sic prætextatos referunt Artaxata mores.

159. See 149. Thus Trimalcio ex IV S. vi. 36 sq. R. claims · Heu, heu, nos miseros! quam Caligula may be the wretch designated totus homuncio nil est ! sic erinus cuncti, by the name of • Tribune ;' Suet. 36, M. postquam nos auferet Orcus;' Petron. cf. xi. 7. R. • Believe, or not; there is our final home!' 166. Cf. 78. GR. Bonum esse cum LU. G. Debemur morti nos, nostraque; bonis, haud valde laudubile est; at immensi Hor. A. P. 63. PR. • We are on our est præconii, bonum etiam inter malos er. road thither.' But R. takes it to mean, stitisse ; Greg. Mag. Mor. i. 1. PR. • To such a pass are we wretches come! As ' a hostage' his person should have

160. The same as Hibernia · Ireland.' been sacred. LU. The breach of honour LU. Camden thinks the Romans did aggravates the crime. M. not conquer that island, M. (cf. Tac. Ag. 167. • Rome is the place for forming 24.) but Juvenal may be obliquely ridi. men.' R. culing the boastsulness of his degenerate 168. · A seducer.' fellow-countrymen. R.

169. · Their national costume and Modo i. e. by Claudius, LU. or by habits will be laid aside.' The Orientals, Agricola ; Tac. 10. R.

as well as the Gauls, wore'trowsers.' FA. 161.. The Orkneys.' M.

Pers. iii. 53. PR. vii. 234. Prop. IV. In Britannia dierum spatia ultra nostri X. 43. Suet. Aug. 82. Ov. Tr. V. x. orbis mensuram : et nox clara, et extrema 34. III. x. 19 sq. 'Avatupidos. (See parte Britanniæ brevis, ut finem atque note on Her. v. 49.) • The dagger, or initium lucis exiguo discrimine internoscas; couteau de chasse,' was an appendage to Tac. Ag. 12. PR. Plin. ü. 75. Cæs. their girdles : a diminutive noun is used, B. G. v. 10. R.

because boys are spoken of. R. 162. Understand flagitia et facinora. 170. Sic' by a protracted residence.'

Thus Seneca says of Alexander; armis BRI. vicit, vitiis victus est. LU.

Artazata, on the Araxes, is the capital 163. Some one here starts an objec- of Greater Armenia. (The noun is in the tion. R.

neuter plural.) BRI. Now' Teflis.' PR. 164, Armenian hostages are men • The morals of the fashionable Rotioned, Tac. A. xii. 9. xv.

mans,' i. 78. M. or 'gross;' Suet. Ves. When the Roman youths assumed the 22. BRI. i. e. by antiphrasis, virile gown, they were said excedere ex

• such

no gentleman would use. ephebis. Ter. And. I. i. 24.

Festus. cf. Pers. v. 30. PR. or such 165. Ardens: Virg. E. ii. 1. M. as require a veil or cloak to conceal • To have yielded his person. Stat. them.' R.

sq9. LU.


ARGUMENT. Umbricius, an eminent soothsayer, (aruspicum in nostro ævo peritissimus ;

Plin. who, on the day Galba was murdered, predicted the impending treason; Tac. H. i. 27. Plut.) disgusted at the prevalence of vice and the total disregard of needy and unassuming virtue, is introduced as on the point of quitting Rome, 1–9. The poet accompanies him a short distance out of the town, 10—20. when the honest exile, no longer able to suppress his indignation, stops short, and in a strain of animated

invective, acquaints his friend with the cause of his retirement, 21 sqq. This Satire is managed with wonderful ingenuity. The way by which

Juvenal conducts Umbricius, 11 sqq. is calculated to raise a thousand tender images in his mind; and, when he stops to look at it for the last time, in a spot endeared by religion, covered with the venerable relics of antiquity, and in itself eminently beautiful, we are led to listen with a

melancholy interest to the farewell of the solitary fugitive. The discourse of Umbricius may be resolved under the following heads :

Flattery and Vice are the only thriving arts at Rome; 21-57. in these points the Romans are left far in the distance by the foreigners, more especially the Greeks, who resort to the city in such shoals, 58*_125. Poor clients are not only defrauded of their dues by wealthy competitors, 126-130. but have the mortification of seeing low-born fellows put over their head, 131-136. 153 sqq. and of finding themselves universally slighted, 137—163. Then the expense of living in Rome is enormous, 147 sqq. 164 sqq. 223-225. Besides, you are in constant apprehension of being either buried by some overgrown, top-heavy, building, or burnt in your bed : 190--222. that is, if you can contrive to fall asleep in the midst of such a din and racket, 232–238. Unless you are rich you cannot move about town with any comfort, 239—267. and if you stir out after dark, you are almost sure of a broken head, either from some missile out of a garret-window, 268—277. or from the cudgel of some choice spirit, who has sallied into the streets in quest of an adventure : 278—301. should you try to avoid such a rencounter by striking into the lanes, you run the risk of being robbed and murdered by one of those numerous ruffians, who, for the accommodation of the honest citizens, have been hunted into Rome, and there left to exercise their vocation unshackled, as the blacksmiths cannot keep pace with the

demand for irons, 302–314. After alleging these various reasons for leaving town, Umbricius bids an

affectionate farewell to his friend, 315–322. G. R. This Satire is imitated by Math. Reignier, Sat. iii. by Nic. Boileau, Sat. i.

and vi. by Sinollett,Satirical Description of London and Bath in the Expedition of Humphry Clinker; 'R. and by Dr. Johnson, in “ London ; a Poem."


Quamvis digressu veteris confusus amici,
Laudo tamen, vacuis quod sedem figere Cumis
Destinet atque unum civem donare Sibyllæ.

Janua Baiarum est et gratum litus amani
5 Secessus. Ego vel Prochytam præpono Suburæ.

Nam quid tam miserum, tam solum vidimus, ut non
Deterius credas horrere incendia, lapsus
Tectorum assiduos ac mille pericula sævæ

Urbis et Augusto recitantes mense poetas?
10 Sed dum tota domus reda componitur una,

Substitit ad veteres arcus madidamque Capenam.

1. Troubled.' R.

141. Mart. VI. lxvi. 2. VII. xxxi. 12. 2. Cuma, which was now decayed X. xciv. 5. XII. xviii. 2. Pers. v. 32. and but thinly inhabited,' was the ancient LU. PR. M. R. capital of Campania and one of the oldest 6. ' Lonely;' Sil. iii. 429. R. cities in Italy, built by a colony of 7. Cf. LI, on Tac. An. xv. 43. HEU, Cumæans from Asia. LU. M. cf. x. 102. Comm. de Pol. Rom. §. 17. and 45. Sen. Virg. G. j. 225. Hor. I Ep. vii. 45. ï. Contr. ix. 2. R. præterea domibus flam81 sqq. R.

mam domibusque ruinam; Prop. II. 3. At least one citizen to the Sibyl,' xxvii. 9. BRI. G. i.e.' to Cumæ. cf. Plaut. Pers. IV. 8. It is cruel to keep persons in conüi. 6. R. In this town there was a stant fear of their lives. GR. celebrated temple of the Sibyl, hence Equidem, nos quod Romae sumus, called Cumæan. The Sibyls were ten in miserrimum esse duco, quod omnibus number; and the name is derived from casibus subitorum periculorum Bouding and Esòs i. e. Aròs, LU. or Ecot for · magis objecti sumus, quam si abessemus ;

. PR. Virg. A. vi. 10 sqq. M. Cic. VI Ep. iv. BRI. 4. “It is the grand thoroughfare to 9. There is much malicious humour in Baiæ, (cf. viii. 160. R.) which was a this climax : ' fires, falls of houses, and very fashionable watering. place; nullus poets reciting their verses in the dog-days! in orbe sinus Baiis prælucet umænis; Hor. In the very hottest month, when every I Ep. i. 83. BRI. Both these towns one who could, ran away from Rome, were pleasantly situated in the Bay of those who remained behind were called Naples. LU.

upon to help make an audience for these 5. Prochyta, now · Procita,' was a incessant spouters. Metastasio's translabarren rock, about three miles in circum- tion of this passage is peculiarly happy, ference, off Cape Misenus. Some derive a tanti rischi Della città trovarsi esposto, the name from argoxúvas, from its having e al folle Cicalar de' poeti a' giorni been thrown out of the sea by an earth- estivi.” cf. i. 1 sqq. Pers. i. 17. Hor. I quake. Plin. H. N. ii. 88. iii. 6. Sil. viii. S. ix. A. P. 453 sqq. BRI. PR. G. 542. Virgil calls it alta; Æ. ix. 715. 10. All his family and furniture are Statius aspera; II S. ii. 76. LU. PR. R. stowed in a single wagon.' PR. This It is now converted into a pretty, fertile, shows the frugal moderation of Umbritius.

BRI. Reda is derived from the same CelSubura, the etymology, and, conse tic root as our verb RIDE. It was a fourquently, the orthography of this word is wheeled vehicle. R. uncertain: cf. Varr. L. L. iv. 8. Quint. 11.' He stopped for it.' VS. While I. vii. 28. BO, P: 82. It now retains the he and Juvenal are standing there, the name of la Suburra.' It was a noisy following conversation takes place. M. street, full of shops, and frequented by “The ancient triumphal arches' of thieves and prostitutes. x. 156. xi. 51. Romulus, which were built of brick

spot. G.


Hic, ubi nocturnæ Numa constituebat amicæ,
Nunc sacri fontis nemus et delubra locantur

Judæis, quorum cophinus fænumque supellex,
15 (Omnis enim populo mercedem pendere jussa est

Arbor et ejectis mendicat silva Camenis)
In vallem Egeriæ descendimus et speluncas
Dissimiles veris. Quanto præstantius esset
Numen aquæ, viridi si margine clauderet undas

originally, afterwards of marble. LU. Or by an edict of Domitian, CU. as, forthe arches of the aqueduct. T. HK. merly, by a decree of Claudius: not

Capena was the gate opening to the long afterwards, however, the city was Appian road: VS. now called “ St again full of them. vi. 542 sqq. R. Sebastian's Gate.” GR. It was


The' hay' probably served by way of a from the number of springs there (whence pillow to keep their heads from the damp it had the name of Fontinalis) FE. and ground. BRI. G. The róquvos was a also from the constant dripping of the * basket,' in which the Jews used to carry aqueducts. Cupena grandi porta qua their provisions, to keep them from pollupluit gutta; Mart. IJI. xlvii. 1. LU. X. tion. See St Matthew xiv. 20. xvi. 9 sq. xxxv. 14. Liv. xxxv. 10. R. It was also St Mark vi. 43. viii. 19 sq. St Luke ix. 17. called Triumphulis, from the triumphs St John vi. 13. M. When it is said that passing through it. PR.

the disciples of our Lord gathered up twelve 12. Numa Pompilius, ut populum baskets full of fraginents, it may mean Romanum sacris obligaret, volebat videri that each apostle filled his own basket. sibi cum dea Egeria congressus esse noctur 15. ‘Not a tree bul pays its rent:' for nos, ejusque monitu accepta diis immortali- the grove was crowded with these poor bus sacra instituere; V. Max. i. 2. Liv. wretches, who were glad to avail themi. 19. 21. PR. Nympha Numa conjux, selves even of this comfortless shelter. M. consiliumque fuit; Ov. F. iii. 262. 276. Suet. Dom. 12. R. &c. GR. M. xv. 482 sqq. Dionys. ii. 60 The phrase mercedem pendere (whence sqq. Plut. Num. R.

our word POUND) originated from sums • Made assignations;' vi. 487. Prop. of money being weighed, instead of IV. viii. 33. R.

counted. LU. 13. Lucus erat, quem medium er 16. Cf. vi. 541 sqq. 'The old tenants opaco specu fons perenni rigabat aqua: being served with an ejectment.' By quo quia se persæpe Numa sine arbitris • the forest' is meant' the new tenantry velut ad congressu m deae inferebat; of the forest,' which goes a begging' to Camenis eum lucum sacravit, quod collect both a livelihood and the rent earum sibi concilia cum conjug e sua against next quarter-day. LU. Or the Egeria essent; Liv, i. 21. PR. forest swarms with beggars.' M.

More than one delubruin were often 17. • I and Umbricius.' LU. within the same templum or réusvos.

Grottoes, altered till they have lost Locare' to let,' conducere ' to hire or all resemblance to nature.' LU. rent;' 31. Such was the a varice of the 18. Cf. xi. 116 sq. Perhaps we should Romans that they exacted rent from these read praesentius; cf. Virg. E. i. 42. Jews, though they were so poor, that' a G.;. 10. Æ. ix. 404. GR. H. R. basket with a small bundle of hay con. 19. Our poet here is indebted to Ovid : stituted the whole of their goods and vallis erat, piceis et acuta densa cupressu; chattels:'vi. 541. and such their im- cujus in extremo est a nirum nemorale piety that they did not scruple to let recessu, arte laboratum nulla : simulaverat the sacred grove to these persecuted out artem ingenio natura suo: nam pumice casts, LU. PR. R.

et levibus tophis nativum durerat 14. The heathens confounded the

Fons sonat a dextra tenui perChristians and the Jews.' The latter lucidus unda, margine gramineo had been expelled from Rome, recently, patulos incinctus hiatus ; Met. iii.


20 Herba nec ingenuum violarent marmora tophum !

Hic tunc Umbricius “Quando artibus” inquit “ honestis
Nullus in Urbe locus, nulla emolumenta laborum,
Res hodie minor est, here quam fuit, atque eadem cras

Deteret exiguis aliquid : proponimus illuc 25 Ire, fatigatas ubi Dædalus exuit alas,

Dum nova canities, dum prima et recta senectus,
Dum superest Lachesi, quod torqueat, et pedibus me
Porto meis, nullo dextram subeunte bacillo.

Cedamus patria : vivant Artorius istic
30 Et Catulus : maneant, qui nigrum in candida vertunt,

Quís facile est ædem conducere, flumina, portus,

15 sq.

155 sqq. Numen aquæ 'the sacred fount:' decrepita. HO. R. or the Naiad of the spring.' M. 27. Dum res et ætas et sororum fla

20. Ingenuum 'native. The tophus trium patiuntur atru; Hor. 11 Od. iii. was 'a coarse lime-stone,' which was

The respective offices of the now supplaced by a marble basin.' R. three Destinies is described in the followArt. 'does violence' to nature: mullo vio. ing verse : Clotho colum gestat, Lachesis latus Jupiter auro; xi. 116. violaverit ostro net, et Atropos occat. The name of ebur ; Virg. £. xii. 67. Mart. I. liv. 6. Lachesis is derived from acer xávu. LU. uscivsy isiqarta posvexo. Hom.11.4141.R. cf. Cat.lxiv. 312 sqq. Torquere and versare

21. The word honestis is emphatic. M. (Tib. 11. i. 64.) signify to spin.' R. This passage is an imitation of Plautus 28. Senex, gruvatus annis, totus in Merc. V. i. 7 sqq. GR.

buculum pronus et lassum trahens vesti22. Emolumentum, from e and mola, gium ; Apul. LU. Compare the riddle was properly' the profit got by grist.' of the Sphinx.

23. My fortune is growing less, daily.' 29. Cf. ii. 131. Artorius and Catulus PR.

were two knaves who, by disreputable Here is an ancient form of heri. PR. arts, had risen from the dregs of the

24. · Will file down somewhat.' dam- people to affluence. VS. nosa quid non imminuit dies? Hor. III 30. Qui facere assuerat, patriæ non Od. vi. 45. GR. Strictly speaking, res degener artis, candida de nigris et deteritur and not deterii. R. de candentibus atra; Ov. M. xi. 314 sq. • I and my family propose.' M.

• White' and · black' the ancients often 25. (Livy xxviii, 15, 5. ED.). Fa- used for 'good' and 'bad:' hic niger est; tigued with his long flight from Crete.' hunc tu, Romane, caveto ; Hor. I S. iv. Virg. Æ. vi. 14 sqq. If Dædalus, who 85, Pers, v. 108. His præmium nunc est, had the choice of all the world before qui recta prava faciunt; Ter. Phor. V.ï. 6. bim, fixed upon Cumæ, it must indeed LU. Pers. ii. 1 sq. Mundana sapientia be a lovely spot (since he was both cor muchinationibus tegere, sensum rúgos and vidás. cf. Arist. Rh. I. vii. 2.) verbis velare, quæ falsa sunt vera ostendere, LU. i. 54. PR. Sil. xii. 89 sqq. R. quce vera sunt falsa demonstrare ; Greg.

26. • Before the infirmities of old age Mag. Mor. PR. grow upon me :' LU. cf. Cic. Sen. 26. 31. · Who have the means of getting 60. PR. donec virenti canities abest contracts for lucrative public works. M. morosa; Hor. 1 Od. ix. 17 sq. R. Phi- These contractors were generally of the losophers divided man's life ihus: from Equestrian order. R. • The building of birth to 3 or 4 infantia, 3 or 4 to 10 a temple;' for this is (almost without pueritia, 10 to 18 pubertas, 18 to 25 adoles- exception) ihe signiheation of aedes in centia, 25 to 35 or 40 juventus, 35 or 40 to the singular. SV. mer pirloolas Her. 50 atas virilis, 50 to 65 senectus prima or v. 62. See note on vi. 597. (Livy xxii, recta, 65 till death senectus ultima or 33, 8 ; xxii, 48, 10. (DT.) ÈD.]


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