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ARGUMENT. The poetical and philosophical claims of Persius rest, in some measure,
upon this poem; and it is but justice to say that they are not ill
supported by it. The Satire consists of two parts; the first expressive of the poet's deep
and grateful sense of the kindness of his friend and instructor, Cornutus, 1-29. with a beautiful summary of the blessings derived from his
wisdom and goodness. 30—64. The second part is a laboured and ostentatious display of our poet's pro
ficiency in the esoteric doctrine of the Stoic School; something must here be forgiven to the ardour of youth, and the vehemence of inexperienced virtue. This division of the Satire is principally occupied with that celebrated paradox of the sect, that the wise man alone is essentially free; 65 sqq. and that the passions of avarice, 109 sqq. luxury, 142 sqq. love, 161-175. ambition, 176 sqq. superstition, 179 sqq. and other passions exercise as despotic a control over their victims as the severest taskmaster over his slaves. It cannot be supposed that much new matter should be produced upon such a topic. Both Persius and his preceptor came too late for this; and could only repeat, in other forms, what had been said a thousand times before.
But there may be ingenuity, where there is no novelty; and this is not wanting. Some amusement may be found in contrasting the sober earnestness of
Persius, with the solemn irony of Horace. The language of both is much the same, and the conclusions do not greatly differ; but the Stertinius of the latter, in spite of his inflexible gravity, must have provoked resistless laughter ; while the youthful poet commands respect, and though he may fail to convince, always secures attention. G.
Vatibus hic mos est, centum sibi poscere voces,
“ Quorsum hæc? aut quantas robusti carminis offas
Fervebit, sæpe insulso cænanda Glyconi.
1. Homer was content with ten; oude equo describere vulnera Parthi; Hor. II ή μοι δίκα μεν γλώσσαι. δέκα δε στόματ’ S. 1. 15. Μ. cf. Ον. F. ν. 581 sqq. Prop. ssr Il. B 484. Hostius squared the num
III. vii. 53. (BU.) K. ber at once ; non si mihi linguæ centum Ab inguine denotes the position of the atque ora sient totidem vocesque liquate; quiver, K. near the groin, WB. or side. B. Ist. ü. Macr. vi. 3. With this cf. Virg. Æ. x. 589. and SV, on Æ.ix. hyperbole succeeding poets appear to 417. PM. “The Parthian wounded by have rested content; Virg. G. ii. 43. Æ. the lance of the pursuing Roman, G. vi. 625. vii. 37 sqq. Sil. iv. 527. Claud. when in the act of drawing his arrow Prob. 55 sq. not so the orators: omnia from the saddle-bow:' where holsters are licet huc revocemus præterita, et ad ca- now slung. nendas unius laudes, universorum vatum 5. “ Those huge gobbets of robustious scriptorumque ora consentiant : vincet ta- song." G. men res ista mille linguas, &c. Quint. 6. “That you require the support.' Decl. vi. fin. S. Hier. Epit. Paul. init. CAS. Cassiod. Ep. xi. 1. PR. cf. Virg. Æ. vi. 7. Ne, dum vitat humum, nubes et 43 sq. M. Ov. M. viii. 532 sqq. Tr.i. 453 inania captet ; Hor. A. P. 230. versus sqq. F. ii. 119 sqq. K. “ Non io se cento inopes rerum, nugæque canoræ; ib. 322. bocche e lingue cento Avessi e ferrea lena PR. e ferrea voce, &c.” Tasso. G.
8. Procnes; Juv. vi. 644, note. K. 3. Tristia mast um vultum verba de- Thyestæ ; Juv. vii. 73, note. SV, on cent; Hor. A. P. 105 sq. PR.
Æ. i. 572. Claud. i. 171. Hor. A. P. 91. Ponatur ; i. 70, note. Quint. Inst. ii. K. 3. K.
9. The theatrical taste of the Romans Hianda : Juv. vi. 634 sqq. PR. Prop. must have degenerated sadly since the II. xxi.5 sq. Much bad taste prevailed Augustan age; when such disgusting on the stage in these days. oid ai ixsive exhibitions would have been exploded. σεριθείς τους λόγους, μη και κατ' άλλο τι Hor. A. P. 182-188. PR. γένωμαι τους υποκριταϊς εκείνους, οι πολλάκις Cænanda is here used for to be acted,' ή 'Αγαμέμνονος ή Κρέοντος ή και Ηρακλέους as forming one of the principal features αυτού πρόσωπον ανειληφότες, χρυσίδας ήμ in these tragedies : in like manner saltare φιεσμένοι, και δεινόν βλέποντιςκαι μίγα fabulum is used ; Ον. Τr. ii. 519. Juν. κεχηνότες, μικρόν φθίγγονται και ισχνών και vi. 63. Hor. Is. v. 63. Κ. γυναικώδες, και της Εκάβης ή Πολυξένης
The tolerating such an unnatural Todù sætuvóticor. Luc. Nigr. t. i. p. 50. spectacle, enacted by an insipid' perHor. A. P. 96 sq. K.
former was a reproach to the audience. Tragædus and tragicus differ as come
G. dus and comicus ; Juv. ii. 94. PR. 40. Juv. vii. 111, note. K. a nostris
4. The Parthian wars were carried on procul est omnis vesica libellis, musa nec under Augustus and Nero. cf. Tac. An. insano syrmate nostra tumet; Mart. IV. xii sq. Suet. Just. Dio. PR. aut labentis xlix. 7 sq. PR.
Folle premis ventos; nec clauso murmure raucus
Doctus et ingenuo culpam defigere ludo.
11. Cf. iii. 81, note. M.
suited to compositions in a familiar style, 12. 'Nor do you croak. Priscian viii. as opposed to the stretch-mouthed decla828. alii intra se nescio quid cornicantes mation of the heroic poets. The frequent tumentia verba trutinantur, &c. S. Hier. recurrence of poetical rehearsals, and Ep. iv. PR. Xembur Arist. Pl. 369, the obligation of attending them, is menSchol. Virg. G. i. 389. (HY.) K. tioned not only in instances in which it Inepte ; HO
A. P. 457 sq. K. might be considered as a ludicrous exag. 13. Stloppus is the sound made by in- geration, but seriously by Pliny, among flating the cheeks to their utmost extent, others, as one of the main inconveniences and then forcibly expelling the air by attendant upon a residence in Rome. striking them together with the hands. An occupation which took up so much PR.
of the leisure of a refined and fastidious 14. Verba togæ. This phrase must people must have given rise to a variety have signified the language of good of phrases such as that of which Persius society at Rome,' as distinguished from here makes use. FRE. cf. Hor. A. P. that of the populace, (tunicatus popellus,) 323. C'AS. V. Flac. ii. 242. (BU.) K. and from that of the provinces and a plena quædam oratio, et tamen teres ac great part of Italy, where “ none as- tenuis, at non sine nervis ac viribus ; Cic. sumed the toga but the dead.” The toga Or. iii. 197. PR. not like the specimen had fallen ato general disuse among the in i. 98-102. M. lower orders in the days of Augustus, Pallentes may allude to the effects of a and from his reign to the age in which guilty conscience: nil conscire sibi, nulla Persius lived, there was sufficient time pallescere culpa; Hor. I Ep. i. 61. LU. for the invention of a term so obvious. Juv. i. 165 sqq. K. Or the images and ex
The phrase in question was not coined pression may be taken from the spectacles by Persius himself, but owed its origin of the circus. Radere means to graze to some one of the innumerable dicaces with a dart or other missile weapon, which et urbani who had preceded him; he accounts for pallentes; and as the ludi employed it as a well known and fami- gladiatorii and the venationes of the Cirliar expression. FRE.
cus were considered as degrading to those Notum si callida verbum reddiderit who exhibited themselves, the poet, in junctura novum; Hor. A. P. 47 sq. cal- applying the metaphor to himself, takes lidus, ' workmanly,' is there used (as it is care to qualify the word ludus by the by Persius) in strict conformity to the epithet of ingenuus' gentlemanly. The metaphor; (cf. i. 64, note.) acris junctura games of the Circus, likewise, must have may be understood to signify what a furnished a large supply of phrases to the workman might call “ a sharp joint,' conversational dialect of a people among meaning one that was close and accurate. whom they were considered as an object We may conclude that the expression of interest, second only to the immediate used by Persius, like those of Horace, necessaries of life, panem et circenses. The was familiar and usual in his time, that association of ideas between a satirist reit had its origin in the manufactory and citing, and an armed man in a menacing the shop, and was from thence trans- attitude, is not peculiar to Persius, it ferred into the phraseology of the higher occurs in Juvenal, ense velut stricto orders as indicative of elaborate accu- quoties Lucilius ardet; i. 165. The apracy, either in literature or upholstery. parent confusion of metaphors in this FRE.
passage is a strong proof that it consists 15. Ore teres modico is descriptive of of terms in familiar use. FRE. the natural and easy mode of recitation 17. Respicere exemplar vitæ morumque
Cum capite et pedibus, plebeiaque prandia noris.”
Non equidem hoc studeo, bullatis ut mihi nugis 20 Pagina turgescat dare pondus idonea fumo;
Secreti loquimur. Tibi nunc, hortante Camena,
Ostendisse juvat. Pulsa, dignoscere cautus 25 Quid solidum crepet et pictæ tectoria linguæ.
Hic ego centenas ausim deposcere voces,
jubebo doctum imitatorem et veras hinc iv. 69. Stat. S. III. ii. 7 sq. Luc. Tox. ducere voces; Hor. A. P. 317 sq. K. t. ii. p. 558. K. Ov. Her. x. 58. xviii.
18. "The head and feet' were re- 125 sq. M. viii. 406. Maxim. El. i. 1 served to show Thyestes, on what he had sq. v. 117 sq. D. Chrys. Or. iii. 56. S. been banqueting. denudat artus dirus Hier. Ep. i. xv. M. Fel. i. p. 20. Lact. atque ossa amputat; tantum ora servat et de M. Pers. viii. Clem. Rom. Ep. Cor. datas fidei manus; Sen. Thy. PR. Her. ii. 12. and that beautiful picture of peri. 119, notes.
fect friendship which is described in Acts · Familiarize yourself with every-day iv. 32. dinners.'
Annæus Cornutus was banished by 19. “ Inflated frothy nothings.' am- Nero, in the fourth year after the death pullas et sesquipedalia verba ; Hor. A. P. of his pupil. LU. 97. PR. “ Air-blown trifles." G.
24. Pulsa: a metaphor from earthen20. The page' is put for its contents. ware, which will not ring, when struck, Prop. II. xvii. 1. inque libellis crevisset if there is any flaw in it. LU. cf. iii. 21. sine te pagina nulla meis; Ov. Tr. V. ix. M. Auson. Id. xvi. 12 sqq. K. 3 sq. Mart. IX. Ixxviii. 2. K.
25. • The thin varnish of the painted Nugis addere pondus; Hor. I Ep. xix. tongue.' LU. cf. Juv. vi. 467. 42. M.
Res est (i.e. the Holy Scripture) solida 21. You are not to suppose that what et sincera, non fucata eloquia, nec ullo I am about to say is dictated either by linguæ tectorio inane aliquid ac pendulum flattery or a love of display: for we are crepitat ; S. Aug. to Volus. PR. Comenjoying a snug tete-a-tete.' LU. pare St Matthew xxiii. 27. M.
22. Explicandus est animus, et quce- 26. Persius intimates, to borrow the cumque apud illum deposita sunt, subinde words of Cicero, omni officio ac potius ercuti debent; Sen. Ep. 72. K. To be pietate erga Cornutum, etsi aliis satisthoroughly sifted :' but cf. 27 sq, notes. faceret omnibus, at ipsum sibi numquam
Præcordia: rüyen kis tà Ogsvão ipina satisfacere; Ep. i. 1. to Lentulus. réat'iy puxo o Theoc. xxix. 3. R. PR.
23. This sentiment is borrowed from 27. “ Full of folds :' a metaphor from Pythagoras, who said a friend was“ an- a gown. K. other self.” 'Horace calls Virgil, anime 28. ' I may draw forth from those dimidium meæ; I Od. iji. 8. VS. Orestes folds. K. and Pylades duo corporibus, mentibus Pura opposed to picta: LU, 'guileunus erant; Ov. Tr. IV. iv. 72. S. Aug. less.' M. Conf. iv. 6. Hence the expression May unseal,' PR. 6 and unfold for our yuxíce used by Greg. Naz. PR. The your perusal, more than my words can same idea is constantly occurring both express.' in heathen and in Christian writers: as 29. Fibra: i. 47. PR. Luc. i. 285 Hor. II Od. xvii. 5 sqq. Ov. Pont. III. sq. Sil. i. 140. K.
30 Quum primum pavido custos mihi purpura cessit
Bullaque succinctis Laribus donata pependit;
Quumque iter ambiguum est et vitæ nescius error 35 Diducit trepidas ramosa in compita mentes,
Me tibi supposui. Teneros tu suscipis annos
30. Boys might feel timid' (Juv. xvi. superstition forbade all attempts at inno3. M.) at first laying aside the dress of ration in their costume. G. They were their early years, and assuming the garb dressed, after the Gabinian fashion, with of manhood. LU. Cat. Ixviii. 15 sqq. Ov. their toga twisted over the left shoulder, Tr. IV.x. 27 sqq. Prop. III. xiii. 3 sqq. leaving the right arm bare. VS. cf. Ov. K.
F. v. 129 sq. (BU.) Prop. IV. i. 131. The prætexta was intended to be 'a (BK. VU.) K. protection' to those who wore it. CAS. 32. - When I had indulgent com(Macr. S. i. 6. SCH. Plin. ix. 36. præ- panions, who would let me go my own texta infirmitatem pueritiæ sacram fieri et way; instead of an uncle to thwart me venerabilem, non secus ac sacerdotes ves- and a pedagogue to curb me.' PR. M. tibus suis; Quint. Decl. 340. cf. imberbis Subura; Juv. iii. 5, note. PR. Anth. juvenis tandem custode remoto; Hor. A. L. t. ii. Ep. xli. p. 514. (BU.) K. P. 161. PR.) In the general corrup- 33. Ov. F. ii.771–778. K. postquam tion of manners, however, its sacred cha- excessit ex ephebis, liberius vivendi fuit racter was utterly disregarded. Cic. Cat. potestas: antea vero ætas, metus, magister ii. 2. 10. Phil. ii. 18. Juv. a. 308. prohibebant; Ter. And. I. i. 24 sqq. Mart. sæp. For better security the boys oculi sunt in amore duces; Ov. PR. were always accompanied to and from Their white gown, having the gloss of school by a pedagogue. Hor. I S. vi. newness on this momentous occasion, 81 sqq. Juv. x. 114 sqq. Mart. XI. xl. would be candidus. G. cf. Prop. II. iii. 10 sq. Petr. 85. V. The toga was so arranged as to be Max. iii. 1. iv. 1. Plin. Ep. iii. 3. K. gathered into many plaits on the left per hoc inane purpuræ decus precor; Hor. shoulder; the centre, where all these Ep. v. 7. DŃ.
folds met, was called the umbo or 'boss.' 31. Bulla; Juv. v. 164, note. PR. CAS. T. cf. Tert. de Pall. p. 373 sqq. Petr. 60. K. Boys consecrated their palla nigerrima, splendescens atro nitore, billa, as girls did their dolls : cf. ii. 70, quæ circumcirca remeans, et sub dextrum note. A, v. 18. PR. This dedication latus ad humerum lævum recurrens, umwas a private ceremony; the putting on bonis vicem dejecta parte lacinia multiof the toga was a public one. If the plici contabulatione dependula; Apul. xi. latter was performed at Rome, the youths LI. From this boss, the extremity of repaired immediately afterwards to some the lappet fell down before, and was temple (generally to the Capitol) to tucked into the girdle, forming the complete the ceremony by offering the sinus, (an apology for a pocket,) in customary sacrifices. "Being an act of which papers and other light articles great solemnity, it frequently formed, were carried; and it is far from improamong the youths who changed their bable that some affected display was gown at the same time, a bond of fellow- made of it, in the pride of recent manship which subsisted unbroken through hood. G. life. G. Hor. I Od. xxxvi. 9.
34. Cf. iii, 56, note. PR. Juv. ii. 20, Succinctis. cf. cinctutis; Hor. A. P. note. 50. These domestic deities, who were 35. Οι νέοι τα ήθη εισίν ευμετάβολοι rather regarded as pallaslia or amulets Arist. Rh. II. xiv. 2. than as gods of power, were probably Ramosa: cf. Aus. Id. xv. PR. represented in the same homely garb 36. The metaphor may be taken from which they wore before Rome became a an animal placing its neck under the city. A kind of affectionate home-bred yoke; Ov. Am. III. z. 13. or from a