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Siccandam eluviem, portandum ad busta cadaver,
Et præbere caput domina venale sub hasta.

Quondam hi cornicines et municipalis arenæ
35 Perpetui comites notæque per oppida buccæ,

Munera nunc edunt et verso pollice vulgi • The clearing the mud from rivers with such entertainments was one of the and harbours,' or else the fisheries, fer- readiest roads to power. Cicero first ries, and harbour dues.' FA. BRI. Or checked this abuse by a law prohibiting 'the construction and reparation of har. candidates from so doing. Augustus debours.' GR.

creed that they should be given but 32. • The cleansing of the public twice a year. Caligula removed every sewers.' VS. cf. Arist. Eih. iv. 1.* restriction: Domitian gave them every

The furnishing of a fuperal.' G. encouragement: and even Trajan exScipio's funeral was performed by con- bibited the horrid spectacle of 10,000 tract, the sum being raised by subscrip- victims, on his triumph over the Dacians! tion : Plin. H. N. xxi. 3. PR.

There were other checks of a secondary na33. • To speculate in a drove of slaves' ture : among these a decree of the senale, by buying the whole cargo, and then dis- ne quis gladiatorium munus ederet posing of them by auction in separate cui minor quadringentorum millium res ; lots. GR. Pers. vi. 76 sq. M.

Tac. An. iv. 63. and he was also required • A spear' used to be stuck up as the to be a free citizen; for Harpocras, the sign of a public auction. [Livy xxiii, 37, freedman of Claudius, exhibited them by 3; xxvii, 24, b. ED.] It was called the emperor's special indulgence. This the mistress-spear' as implying the will account for the indignation which dominion over the person and life of the the poet feels, when such puise-proud slave, which was then and there vested upstarts presumed to trifle away the lives in the purchaser. BR. M. Tib. II. iv. of their fellow-creatures at the caprice of 54. dominus and domina are often used an unfeeling rabble. Constantine supas adjectives : Ov. Her. iii. 100. H. pressed these barbarous shows; which

34. • They once used to blow the horn were finally abolished by Arcadius and at the provincial theatres, and attend the Honorius. cf. Suet. Cæs. 10. Tac. An. strolling company of prize.fighters from xiii. 49. G. T. R. town to town.' T. PR. The horn' was Vertere pollicem was a sign of con. sounded to call the people together, as demnation, premere pollicem of favour. cf. at the shows in our country fairs. M. Hor. I Ep. xvii. 66. LU. Plin. xxviii. 2.

Municipium was ' a borough-town,' PR. The brutalization, resulting from which had the privileges and freedom of the frequent sight of these massacres, renRome, and at the same time was governed dered instances of compassion but rare. by laws of its own, somewhat like our If any where, we might have anticipated corporations. M.

such pity would be found in the breasts of 35. • Their faces were known;' for the l'estals: 0 tenerum mitemque animum! which Juvenal says their cheeks,' the consurgit ad ictus: et, quoties victor ferrum most prominent part of their faces while jugulo inserit, illa delicias ait esse suas ! they were puffing their horns. PR. M.

pectusque jacentis virgo modesta jubet con36. Now they give shows to the people. verso pollice rumpi; ne lateut pars From the occasional practice of putting ulla animæ vitalitus imis, altius impresso prisoners of war to death at the grave of dum palpitat ense secutor ! Prud. adv. a favourite chief who had fallen in battle, Sym. 1095. No war or pestilence ever as the readiest way to appease his manes, swept away such myriads of the human arose that of exhibiting combats of gladi- race, as these barbarous sports. In some ators in Rome, at the funerals of eminent months, twenty or thirty thousand were persons; to which they were for some slaughtered in Europe alone. Nero and time restricted. The magistrates were the Caligula did but pui to death some hunfirst to break through this restriction, by dreds during their reigns : whereas, at producing them at festivals for the amuse- these games, even private citizens frement of the citizens. Ambitious men quently butchered a thousand in a day! soon found that to gratify the people LI. G.

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Quem libet occidunt populariter: inde reversi
Conducunt foricas; et cur non omnia? quum sint,

Quales ex humili magna ad fastigia rerum 40 Extollit, quoties voluit Fortuna jocari.

Quid Romæ faciam ? Mentiri nescio: librum,
Si malus est, nequeo laudare et poscere: motus
Astrorum ignoro: funus promittere patris

Nec volo nec possum: ranarum viscera numquam 45 Inspexi. Ferre ad nuptam, quæ mittit adulter,


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37. · When the vulgar spectators have But how may I this honour now attaine, notified their wishes, he gives the death- That cannot dye the colour black a lyer ? signal which was waited for, to curry My Poynes, I cannot frame my tune to favour with the rabble ;' LU. GR. and fayn, To cloke the truth, for praise withtherefore might be said to kill' the out desert, or them that list all vice for gladiator : cf. 116. R. upon the prin- to retayne.” Hence he cannot prefer ciple qui facit per alium, facit per se. Chaucer's Tale of Sir Topas to his Pa

From these magnificent exbibitions, læmon and Arcite: he cannot “ Praise they start off to the ediles to get some Syr Topas for a noble tale, And scorne lucrative contract, no matter how sordid.' the story that the Knight tolde. Praise ACH.

him for counsell that is dronke of ale ; 38. • They farm the jakes,' built for Grinne when he laughes that beareth all the accommodation of the public, upon the sway, Frowne when he frownes, and payment of a trifle. conducere to con

grone when he is pale; On others' lust tract for;' vi. 597. R. see note on 13. to hang both night and day." G. cf. Arist. Eth. iv, I.

Librum: cf. Hor. A. P. 419 sqq. 40. • The elevation of such low people Pers. i. FA. quod tam grande " copas !" is solely attributable to a frolic of the clamat tibi turba togata, non tu, Pomponi, blind goddess.' x. 366. Hor. I Od. cænu diserta tua est; Mart. VI. xlviii. xxxiv. 14 sqq. xxxv. 1 sqq. 111 Od. xxix. M. 49 899. M. vii. 197 sq. Stat. Th. iii. 42. Poscere ' to say I should be de179. Claud. in Eut. i. 23 sqq. Hence lighted to have a copy.' FA. she is called improba ; vi. 605 sqq. &vsoto I am no astrologer.' FA. vi. 553 δε και των της Τύχης αγαθών καταφρονείν, sqq. κίν. 248 sq. R. δρώντα, ώσπερ εν σκηνή και πολυπροσώπω 43. Spondere; vi. 548. ' to the proδράματι, τον μεν εξ οίκέτου δεσπότην προϊ- digal and expectant heir” (vi. 565 sqq.), evra, còn ý úvà chouriou niunta, pò di R. qui filius ante diem patrios inquirit σατράπην έκ πίνητος και βασιλέα τούτο γάρ in annos, Ον. Μ. i. 148. . σου και το δεινότατόν έστιν, ότι, καίτοι 44. Though a soothsa yer, I never μαρτυρουμένης της Τύχης παίζειν τα των explored the entrails of a toad, for the ανθρώπων πράγματα και ομολογούσης μηδέν purpose of extracting poison. Er range avrão sivas Balasor, ouws Histoà ssgricos rubete visceribus, id est, lingua, os. Távtis o gigrouévw lazlows. Luc. in siculo, liene, corde, mira fieri posse constat, Nig. 20. R. (Livy xxx, 30, 2. ED.) sunt enim plurimis medicaminibus re

41. Vir bonus et pauper linguaque et ferta; Plin. FA. i. 70. PR. vi. 658. pectore verus, quid tibi vis, Urbem qui, 563 sqq. M. Ov. M. xv. 577. R. Either Fabiune, petis ? qui nec leno potes nec our · toad' is not the rana rubeta, or it comissutor haberi, nec pavidos tristi voce has lost its noxious qualities in this citare reos;

nec potes usorem cari cor- country. The compounders of poisons rumpere amici, plaudere nec Cano plaudere might pretend to extract venom from nec Glaphyro. Unde miser vives? homo toads, in order to conceal their secret, fidus, certus amicus. hoc nihil est: num- which more probably was some vegequam sic Philomelus eris; Mart. IV. v. table or mineral poison. G. Wyatt, in his Epistle to his friend Poynes, 45. Que mittit, · billets doux and preshows that he had this Satire before him: sents.' GR.

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Quæ mandat, norunt alii: me nemo ministro
Fur erit atque ideo nulli comes exeo, tamquam
Mancus et exstinctæ corpus non utile dextræ.

Quis nunc diligitur, nisi conscius et cui fervens 50 Æstuat occultis animus semperque tacendis ?

Nil tibi se debere putat, nil conferet umquam,
Participem qui te secreti fecit honesti.
Carus erit Verri, qui Verrem tempore quo vult

Accusare potest. Tanti tibi non sit opaci
55 Omnis arena Tagi quodque in mare volvitur aurum,

Ut somno careas ponendaque præmia sumas
Tristis et a magno semper timearis amico.

Quæ nunc divitibus gens acceptissima nostris

Et quos præcipue fugiam, properabo fateri 60 Nec pudor obstabit. Non possum ferre, Quirites,

Græcam Urbem: quamvis quota portio fæcis Achæi? 46. Quæ mandat, ' messages.' GR. umquam, commissumque tegas, vel vino

47: · I will never be an accessary to tortus et ira; Hor. I Ep. xviii. 37 sq. peculation, or lend myself as an agent to FA. extortion; therefore no governor, when Estus serenos aureo franges Tago, departing for one of the foreign pro- obscurus uinbris arborum ; Mart. l. 1. vinces, would receive me into his train.' 15 sq. PR.

55. Now' the Taio.' R. arena aurum48. A cripple.' erstinctæ dextra is que (iv dsà duoiv) golden sands.' a Grecism for enstinctu destra. I am 65. Some confouad ponenda with pronot dexterous enough in knavery to posita: (Virg. Æ. v. 292. 486.) it is be made any one's right-hand man.' rather equivalent to deponenda, especially

49. Quis? i. e. nemo, 'none, but the in juxta-position with sumas; R. as in confidant of a guilty secret.' FA. vis Hor. III Od. ii. 19. M. ii. 66. fieri dives, Bithynice ? conscius esto; Mart. 57. To your sorrow,' ou xuiowe. VI, 1. 5. R.

Cf. 113. 1. 33. M. vi. 313. R poßigón 50. Animo æstuante reditum ad vuda iori poßos tão durauitwy po moñoan, l, retulit ; Cat. a metaphor from the sea παρασκευή γαρ ανάγκη είναι των τοιούτον

raging and boiling' under the influence Arisi, Rh. 11. vi. 2. See the history of of a storm: fervet rertigine pontus; Pausanias in Thuc. i. 132 sqq. Ov. M.xi. 549. Maura semper a esta at 59. Nec sequar aut fugiam, quæ diliunda; Hor. II Od. vi. 3 sq. • The git ipse vel odit; Hor. 1 Ep. i. 72. GR. wicked are like the troubled sea, when it 60. Pudor: Umbricius blushed for his cannot rest, whose waters cast up mire country, and dirt. There is no peace, saith my Quirites! is said in bitterness of spirit, God, to the wicked;" Isa. Ivii. 20 sq. M. and as a contrast to Græcam. vi. 16. 185 “ Raging waves of the sea, foaming sqq. 291 sqq. xi. 169 sqq. xv. 110 sqq. out their own shame;" St Jude 13. Pers. vi, 38. K. Sil. iii. 178. xii. 41. 49.

51. “To be under no obligation.' M. 69. Cic. pro Flac. Luc. Nig. 15. R. Nil tibi, vel minimum, basia pura da- 61. “A Grecian Rome. (xv. 110. R.) bunt; Mart. VI, 1. 6. R.

Yet when I see what a deluge of Asiatics 53. Cf. ii. 26. PR. Tac. A. vi. 4. the Orontes has disgorged into the Tiber, Amm. Marc. XXVIII. vi. 20. R. See I must own that the filth of Greece bears 47.

but a small proportion to the inundation 54. Arcanum neque tu scrutuberis ullius of impurity with which we are over

cf. 53 sq.



Jam pridem Syrus in Tiberim defluxit Orontes
Et linguam et mores et cum tibicine chordas

Obliquas nec non gentilia tympana secum 65 Vexit et ad Circum jussas prostare puellas.

Ite, quibus grata est picta lupa barbara mitra.
Rusticus ille tuus sumit trechedipna, Quirine,
Et ceromatico fert niceteria collo.
Hic alta Sicyone ast hic Amydone relicta,

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whelmed.' G. cf. xiii. 157. The depra- ix. 616. Id. Cop. I. Ov. M. xiv. 654. vity of the Greeks we learn from 1 Cor. Claud. Ent. ii. 185, R. vi. 9-11. and elsewhere in the New Tes- 67. The Romans were reduced to the tament. M. ac loun á póws avrád, (at level of prize-fighters; while foreigners Rome) συνώκισται, ως το Κασσαδοκών και were worming themselves into every post Σύρων και Ποντικών και άλλων πλειόνων of power and profit. LU. To mark' his Ath, i. 36. BO.

contempt the more, the poet crowds his 62. The inhabitants of the East, and description with Greek words. G. cf. especially of Antioch, which was on the Hor. II Ep. i. 32 sq. R. Orontes, (Julian. Misop. Herodian II. Rusticus; cf. ii. 74. 127. viii. 274 sq. vii. 15. HN.) were scandalously de- M. bauched in their morals, (viii. 158 sq.) It is not agreed what part of the dress and introduced quite new fashions ; (vii. is meant by reizidu ve. It may be the 14 sqq. viii. 198 sqq.) Mart. III. iv. V. same as ivdqouis, ' a gymnastic dress,' 103. lvi. Suet. Ves. 19. For a similar me- vi. 245. T. or' the succinct vest of the taphor, see vi. 295. Claud. Eut. i. 434. Greek wrestlers,'G.or'a suit of livery,' Isa. viii, 648. R.

cf. v. 143. RU. or a cloak in which 63. Luxuriæ peregrinæ origo ab exer. they ran for their supper or dole,' citu Asiatico invecta in urbem est ; tum 127 sq. LU. PR. HO. or • Grecian psaltria sambucistriæque et convivialia shoes,' V'S. SA. HN. or the same as wxnludionum oblectamenta addita epulis ; Liv. rugsa, i. e. ' prizes worn round the neck, xxxix. 6. the sambucum was a triangular which served as badges to distinguish lyre. The · harp and Aute' were very such as were entitled to partake of the generally played together; cf. Hor. E. suppers provided at the public expense.' ix. 5 sq. and elsewhere. SP.

JS. RI. VO. 64. : National tambourines." VS. Quirinus, a surname of Romulus, deLucr. ii. 618. R.

rived from curis a Sabine word signi65. There were several Circuses at fying a spear;' or from Cures, after the Rome. The Circus Maximus is here admission of the Sabines into Rome. meant, which was first built by Tarquinius Mars was called Grudivus when incensed, Priscus, PR. and by subsequent alter- and Quirinus when pacified. Ov. F. ii. ations was able to accommodate 260,000 475 sqq. PR. cf. ii. 128. spectators, KN. being more than three 68. Cf. ii. 143. ACH. Ceroma was an furlongs in length, and one broad; Plin. ointment made of oil, wax, and clay; xxxvi, 15 s 24. BRI. See 223.

LU. (Mart. VII. xxxii. 9. PR.) Plin. • To stand for hire.' vi. 123. R. i. 47. xxviii. 4 s 13. xxxv. 12 sq. R. with

Puellas, et quas Euphrates et quas mihi which they besmeared their neck and misit Orontes; Prop. II. xxiii. 21, R. breast, and that profusely ; for Seneca, 66. · Hie thither.' G.

telling his friend Lucilius of a journey he · The barbarian harlot with em- had taken, says, ' the roads were so bad broidered' (understand acu). ' turban.' that he rather swam than walked, and, These women were termed lupce from before he got to his inn, was plastered their capacity; and the houses where over with ceroma like a prize-fighter.' G. they lodged, lupanaria The Greeks Mart. IV. iv. 10. xix. 5. and Romans called all foreigners .bar- 69. Cf. vii. 14 sqq. Sicyon, in Achaia, barians.' M. See note on Her. i. pr. was ini aópor iguperév. Strab. viii. p. 587.

Cf. ii. 84. PR. Virg. Æ. iv. 216. R.

70 Hic Andro, ille Samo, hic Trallibus aut Alabandis,

Esquilias dictumque petunt a vimine collem,
Viscera magnarum domuum dominique futuri.
Ingenium velox, audacia perdita, sermo

Promptus et Isæo torrentior. Ede, quid illum 75 Esse putes? quem vis hominem, secum adtulit ad nos :

Grammaticus, rhetor, geometres, pictor, aliptes,
Augur, schænobates, medicus, magus; omnia novit.
Græculus esuriens in cælum, jusseris, ibit.

Ad summam, non Maurus erat neque Sarmata nec Thrax, 80 Qui sumsit pennas, mediis sed natus Athenis.

Amydon, in Pæonia a district of also the training of athletes ; Pind. 01. Macedon. Hom. Il. B 849. LU.

viii. 71 sqq.

Or 'a bath-man' who 70. Andros one of the Cyclades. LU. anointed those that had bathed : cf. vi.

Samos an island off the coast of Ionia, 422. Or possibly,' an oculist.' R. where Juno was especially worshipped. 77. An Augur? divined the future LU.

from the flight, the feeding, and the Tralles a frontier town of Lydia. PR. chirping of birds : FA. 'an Aruspex' Alabanda a rich city of Caria. LU. from the entrails of sacrifices.

71. • The Esquiline and Viminal • A Rope.dancer' (from oroīvos and Hills,' two of the seven on which Rome Beius)funambulus; Ter. Hec.pr.4.34.FA. stood, are put for the city itself. The In Persis augurantur et divinant magi : former is now the Mount of St Mary nec quisquam rex Persarum esse potest, qui the Greater.' PR. It had its name from non ante magorum disciplinam scientiamque esculi'the bay.oaks' which grew there: perceperit; Cic. Div. i. 90. PR. M. but cf. Ov. F. jj. 245. R.

78. The diminutive' Greekling' G. is 72. · The vital organs. PR.

used in contempt. cf, 61. R. Arist. Rh. 73. Ingenium velox ; Ov. M. vii. 254. III. i. 6. R.

Esuriens. Quis expedivit psittaco suum 74. ' Than that of Isæus.' R. There xaigs picasque docuit nostra verba conari ? were two celebrated orators of this name: Magister artis ingenique largitor venter, (1) the preceptor of Demosthenes, who negatas artifex sequi voces ; Pers. pr. came to Athens, from Chalcis : Quint. 8 sqq. FA. Á svíc sis osoudny itavéru xii. 10. (2) An Assyrian, who flourished xai imarnuévny iw ræì segi roadà chy at Rome in Hadrian's reign : Plin. Ep. drávoiæv xox novicey areos imuthu isiorgiou. ii. 3. BRI.

Chrys. Or. IV. ad Ant. R.“ • More rapidly fluent.' torrens dicendi is the mother of Invention.” copiu et facundia ; x. 9 sq. 128. Quint. Ibit he will try.' cælum ipsum petimus III. viii. 60. Plin. xxvi. 3. cf. largus stultitia ; Hor. I Od. iii. 38. R. et erundans ingenii fons ; x. 119. Hom. 79. : In short.' LU. II. A 249. Hor. IV. ii. 5 sqq. R.

Sarmata ; i. 1. PR. • Tell me ;' 296. &c. Quid ; cf. i. 74. 80. There is here a double allusion; xi. 33. Ov. Her. xii. 31. R.

(1) to Dadalus, i. 54. who was either 75. · He is a Jack of all trades: grandson or great-grandson,of Erechtheus nothing comes amiss to him; he is such king of Athens : (2) to a man at Rome, a universal genius.' M.

who made an attempt to fly in the reign 76. Terra mensor ; Hor. I Od. xxviii. of Nero: inter Pyrrhicarum argumenta, 1 sq. PR. geometres must be scanned as Icarus primo statim conatu juxta cubiculum three syllables: FA. thus uno eodem- ejus (Neronis) decidit, ipsumque cruore que igni; Virg. E. viii. 81.

respersi!; Suet. Ner. 12. Mart. Sp. viii. • An anointer' of wrestlers in the gym. Though there is no certainty that this nasium (from åncipuv): FA. who had latter was an Athenian. R. GR.


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