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140 Protenus ad censum, (de moribus ultima fiet

Quæstio,) “ Quot pascit servos ? Quot possidet agri
Jugera ? Quam multa magnaque paropside coenat?”
Quantum quisque sua numorum servat in arca,

Tantum habet et fidei. Jures licet et Samothracum 145 Et nostratum aras; contemnere fulmina pauper

Creditur atque Deos, Dis ignoscentibus ipsis.
Quid, quod materiam præbet causasque jocorum
Omnibus hic idem, si fæda et scissa lacerna,

Si toga sordidula est et rupta calceus alter 150 Pelle patet; vel si consuto vulnere crassum

Atque recens linum ostendit non una cicatrix ?
Nil habet infelix paupertas durius in se,

timuere patres, quo tempore Vesta arsit! Minerva. LU. Virg. Æ. ii. 12. PR. see attonita flebant demisso crine ministre : Cumberland, Orig. app. de Cabb. G. abstulerat vires corporis ipse timor. (Ves 145.“ To swear by the altars,' i, e. tales Metellus) dubitare videbat et pavidas • laying your hands on the altars, and posito procubuisse genu ; Ov. F. vi. 437. swearing by the deities to whom the altars &c. G.

were consecrated.' GR. Hor. II Ep. i. 140. Quærenda pecunia primum est, 16. M. xiv. 219. Tib. IV. xiii. 15. sil. virtus post numos; Hor. I Ep. i. 53 sq. viii. 105. R. St Matthew xxiii. 18 sqq. R. Thus they quite reversed the order of To despise,' as if the poor were bethings, for sit omne judicium, non quam neath the notice of the gods. BA. cf. locuples, sed qualis quisque sit ; Cic. Off. Hor. II Od. x. 11 sq. Or as if the deities ži. 20. GR.

would forgive perjury, when it originated 141. A person's fortune is estimated in necessity and not in wilfulness. VS. by the establishment · he keeps.' LU. 146. The sentiment in these lines vii. 76. 93. ix. 67. 136. xii. 28. R. seems borrowed from a Greek comedy;

142. Jugerum was as much land as πρόσεστιν άρα και το τίνητ’ απιστία κάν could be ploughed in a day by one yoke σοφός υπάρχη, κάν λίγη το συμφερον, δοκεί of oxen. LU.

τι φράσεις τους ακούουσιν κακώς, των γάρ Ilægolis' a dish.'T. • What sort of wινήτων πίστιν ουκ έχει λόγος ανήρ δε table he keeps.' PR.

πλουτών, κάν άγαν ψευδηγορή δοκεί τι 143. Quia tanti, quantum habeas, sis; Qgéour tos árovovo' kopanásPhil. fr. G. Hor. I S. i. 62. in pretio pretium nunc 147. See 86. “Men of all sorts take est, dat census honores, census amicitias, a pride to gird at him;" as Falstaff says ; pauper ubique jacet ; Ov. F. i. 217 sq. K. H. 1v. pt. ii. A. I. sc. ii. LU. aurum atque ambitio specimen virtu * 148. Hic idem pauper. LU. cf. Theoph. tis utrique est, tantum habeas, tantum ipse Ch. xix. 3. Sen. Ep. 93. Suet. Aug. 73. sies, tantique habearis ; Lucil. VS.“ Men's R. honesties,” says Barnaby Rich, “ are Lacerna ; i. 62. PR. now measured by the Subsidie Book ; be 149. Somewhat shabby and soiled.' that is rich is honest; and the more a PR. Cf. Hor. I S. iii. 31 sq. Mart. I. civ. man doth abounde in wealth, so much he 5 sq. R. doth exceed, and that as well in honestie Calceus; vii. 192. R. as in wit ;" Irish Hubbub. G.

150. Vulnus'a rent;' V. Flac.i.480. R. 144. The Thracian Samos at the north 151. Cicatrix · a seam.' LU. : of the Ægean is now called . Samandra 152. Paupertas fecit, ut ridiculus forem; cbi.' The Roman penates came origi. Plaut. Stich. I. iii. 20 &c. huic quantum nally from this island. Macrobius iii. adjiciunt stultitiam,negligentiam,somnium, 4. says, 'the Samothracian gods' (called et gulam ; Id. Quer. magnum pauperies opCabiri) were Jupiter, Juno, Vesta, and probrium jubet quidvis facere et pali; Hor.

Quam quod ridiculos homines facit. “ Exeat," inquit,

« Si pudor est, et de pulvino surgat equestri, 155 Cujus res legi non sufficit et sedeant hic”

Lenonum pueri quocumque in fornice nati.
Hic plaudat nitidi præconis filius inter
Pinnirapi cultos juvenes juvenesque lanistæ.

Sic libitum vano, qui nos distinxit, Othoni.
160 Quis gener hic placuit censu minor atque puellæ

Sarcinulis impar? Quis pauper scribitur heres?
Quando in consilio est Ædilibus? Agmine facto
Debuerant olim tenues migrasse Quirites.

Haud facile emergunt, quorum virtutibus obstat III Od. xxiv. 42 sq. LU. xi. 2 sq. v. 157 plaudits on their entrance. Hor. I Od. sq. ουκ έστι πινίας ουδέν άθλιώτερον εν τω βίω ΧΧ. 3 sq. LU. R. σύμπτωμα και γαρ άν φύσει σπουδαίος ής, Plaudat implies spectet. PR. rions dà, xutársas con Crat. in Stob. Nitidus and cultus · sleek, spruce, See the Comm. on St Matthew v. 3. R. smart,' the consequence of opulence.

153. Quid turpius quam illudi? Cic. M. R. Am. PR.

158. The Samnite gladiator wore a They used to sit promiscuously in the crest of peacock’s feathers, his adversary theatres, till L. Roscius Olho, the tri- the retiarius endeavoured to throw his net bune, introduced a law, (A. U. 685.) over the plume. T. LI. Cum septem inby which the fourteen rows with cushions, columis pinnis redit ac recipit se ; Lucil. next to the senators' seats, were reserved VS. cf. ii. 143. PR. for knights exclusively. The elder Afri Lanista was the fencing-master' who canus had obtained the like privilege for taught the gladiators laniure' to mangle' the senators, about 130 years before. each other. PR. Both these regulations were extremely 159. Such was the whim and caprice.' unpopular; and the distinction was grow- M. ing obsolete, when Domitian revived it, 160. • Of less fortune than the bride.' and appointed overseers of the theatres to Themistocles showed more sense, saying enforce it. Suet. Dom. 8. Lectius, one that he preferred, for his daughter, a man of these functionaries, was very officious; without money to money without a man. perhaps he may be the speaker here. (x. Plut. LU. 291. R.) cf. Mart. V. viii. xxv. LU. 161. ' To the dowry;' VS. rather le PR. G. xxvii. (Her. i, 54 n. 84. ED.) trousseau,' ACH, 'the wardrobe or outfit

154. ' Any respect for the prince or of the bride.' the Roscian law.' PR. cf. xiv. 323 Quis? nemo. LU. 160. 208. &c. (Livy

xxiv, 26, 3. ED.) 155. Cf. i. 106.

162. Curia pauperibus clausa est, dut Et sedeant hic—the theatre-keeper's census honores ; Ov. Am. III. viii. 55. speech is taken up by Umbritius and • Even the lowest magistrates would never continued with indignant irony. LU. think of consulting them.' T. The ediles

156. “Men of the vilest origin or cha were of two sorts, curule and plebeian. racter take the equestrian seats, if they PR. cf. AD. have but the requisite income, no matter Agmine facto; Virg. G. iv. 167. Æ. i. how it may have been acquired.' Hor. 86. M. cf. x. 218. R. Ep. iv. 15 sq. PR. M.

163. He alludes to the secession of the Fornir “a vaulted cellar, a low bro- Plebeians to the Sacred Mount. Flor. i. thel ;' xi. 171. Hor. I S. ii. 30. R. 23. LU. Liv. ii. 32 sq. iii. 50 sqq. PR.

157. Not only was applause given to Tenues ' poor.' PR. the performers; but the emperors and 164. Cf. vii. 61 sq. et genus et virtus, nisi men of popularity were received with cum re, vilior alga est ; Hor. II S. v. 8, M.

sqq. R.

165 Res angusta domi; sed Romæ durior illis

Conatus: magno hospitium miserabile, magno
Servorum ventres, et frugi canula magno.
Fictilibus cænare pudet, quod turpe negavit

Translatus subito ad Marsos mensamque Sabellam 170 Contentusque illic veneto duroque culullo.

Pars magna Italiæ est, si verum admittimus, in qua Nemo togam sumit, nisi mortuus. Ipsa dierum Festorum herboso colitur si quando theatro

Majestas tandemque redit ad pulpita notum 175 Exodium, quum personæ pallentis hiatum

pigra extulit arctis haud umquam sese virtus; tum lutum ; Mart. III. Ixxiv. 4. cf. VIII. Sil. xiii. 773. ad summus emergere opes; vi. 2. XIV. cviii. 2. Tib. I. i. 40. R. Lucr. ii. 13. R. (Livy xxv, 38, i. ED.] 172. The toga was the dress of cereαδύνατον γάρ ή ου ράδιον τα καλά πράττειν mony, worn by the poor, when they paid άχορήγητον όντα πολλά γαρ πράττεται their respects to the rich: it was also the καθάπερ δι' οργάνων, και διά φίλων και dress of business. In the country the πλούτου και πολιτικής δυνάμεως Arist. tunic was the usual dress, which was less Erh. i. 8. PR. Claudian insinuates that cumbersome, 179. Martial says of Spain things were changed for the better in his ignota est toga ; XII. xviii. 17. cf. IV. days; non obruta virtus paupertate jacet : lxvi. 3. X. xlvii. 5. li. 6. Pliny of his lectos ex omnibus oris evehis, et meritum, villa, ibi nulla necessitas toge; Ep. ix. Ron qua cunabula, quæris ; et qualis, non 1. vii. 3. both of them regarding this unde satus; Stil. ii. 121 sqq. G.

circumstance as a comfort. But the 165. • It difficult any where; but Romans always dressed the remains of &c.' PR.

their deceased friends with the most 166. Magno understand constat pretio. punctilious care. Mart. IX. lviii. 8. G. LU.

LI. PR. 167. · Servants' appetites,' i. e. ' the 173. It was many ages before the keep of servants.' VS. xiii. 162 sqq. R. Romans could boast of a permanent

168. Magnus ille est qui fictilibus sic theatre ; the first was built by Pompey, utitur, quemadmodum argento ; nec ille of hewn stone : Tac. A. xiv. 20. The minor est, qui argento sic utitur, quem- temporary country theatres were admodum fictilibus ; Sen. LU.

structed of turf. LU. Virg. Æ. v. 286 Negabil; GR. FE. HO. negabis; VA. sqq. M. in gradibus sedit populus de cespite negarit; cf. xiv. 134, G. but no alteration factis; Ov. A. A. i. 107 &c. R. Prop. is necessary, for the verb is put indefinitely, IV. i. 15. Our word scene is derived ' which no one would be ashamed of.' from oxnin' a shady bower.' PR. LU. See notes on árißn, Her. iii. 82. 174. • The solemnity.' LU. and ipoagnoar, Her, vii. 10.

Tandem'at the expiration of the year.' 169. Cf. xiv. 180. Frugality was not or' at the conclusion of the serious play.' yet exploded in these parts of Italy. BE. Redit for rediit has its last syllable long. At Rome every thing is extravagantly Pulpila. the stage. viii. 195. FE, . dear, and yet we dare not retrench for xiv. 257. R. Notum; in Rome some fear of being despised; in the country we novelty was produced. PR. should have none of these prejudices to 175. The farce' acted after the tra. encounter ; we might be poor without gedy, to dispel melancholy impressions. T. becoming the objects of scorn, and frugal vi. 71. PR. The sicédoc were performed without being thought ridiculous.' G. at the beginning, and the ipßone 'inter

170. Veneto' of common blue ware.' ludes' in the middle of the drama. princulullo ' a bowl or great handled cup,' cipio eritus dignus erodiumque sequetur ; properly of earthen ware.' Schol. on Lucil, VS. Liv. vii. 2. R. Hor. I Od. xxxi. 11. A. P. 434. Vene • The masks' were painted of a


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In gremio matris formidat rusticus infans;
Æquales habitus illic similesque videbis
Orchestram et populum: clari velamen honoris,

Sufficiunt tunicæ summis dilibus albæ.
180 Hic ultra vires habitus nitor: hic aliquid plus,

Quam satis est, interdum aliena sumitur arca.
Commune id vitium est. Hic vivimus ambitiosa
Paupertate omnes. Quid te moror? Omnia Roma

Cum pretio. Quid das, ut Cossum aliquando salutes ? 185 Ut te respiciat clauso Veiento labello?

Ille metit barbam, crinem hic deponit amati.

ghastly colour' and had' wide mouths' • You pay dearly for every thing at to allow free scope to the voice of the Rome;' cf. 166 sq. LU. actor. FA. LU. στόμα κιχηνός τάμ 184. - What does it not cost you to μεγα ως καταπιόμενος τους θεατές: Luc. bribe the domestics of Cossus to admit 5.ogx. 27. cf. Hor. A. P. 277. Plaut. you to his morning levee ?' LU. DifRud. II. vi. 51. R.

ficiles aditus primos habet. " Haud mihi 176. That women used to carry chil deero: muneribus servos corrumpam: non, dren to the theatre appears from the fol- hodie si exclusus fuero, desistam ;" &c. lowing passage ; nutrices pueros infantes, Hor. I S. ix. 56 sqq. PR. úvò Quempang minutulos domi ut procurent, neue ερεcta- κακώς συρίζοντι και ονομακλήτορι Λιβυκώ tum afferant, ne et ipse sitiant, et pueri ταττόμενον και μισθόν τελούντα της μνήμης peritent fame; neve esurientes hic quasi Toő óvójec To6 Lucian . r. iri mootão hædi obvagiant; Plaut. Pæn. pr. PR. ouróvtww. R. We may suppose Aurelius 177. Illic in country towns.

Cossus to have been a wealihy nobleman 178. • The orchestra' was the space of the day. M. next the stage, where the senators were 185. Fabricius Veiento; iv. 113. vi. accommodated with chairs; vii. 47. The 82 sqq. T. Tac. xiv. 50. Plin. Ep. iv. 22. rustic theatre had no such orchestra ; the PR. Mart. X. X. 5. Suet. Ner. 37. word here denotes the place next the Seneca de Br. Vit. 2. R. performers, where the most consequential Clauso labello without once deigning country.gentlemen sat. FE. PR. G. to open his lips.' PR. 179. • For the very highest personages,

186. The wealthier Romans, on arthe ediles, it is distinction enough to riving at manhood, dedicated the first wear a white tunic;' LU. FE. which shavings of their beard and pollings of would have been no distinction at Rome, their hair to some deity: many to the Mart. IV. ii. PR.

Pythian Apollo, others to Asculapius, 180. • Beyond their means.' BRI. others to the river gods of their country: vii. 138. R.

Mart. I. xxxi. IX. xvii. xviii. Nero 181. · And this extravagance is at the enclosed his in a golden pix adorned expense of others;' vi. 351 sqq. by either with pearls, and offered it with great hiring, borrowing, or pilfering. LU. state to Capitoline Jove. Suet. 12. Dio. 182. ii. 46. LU.

The day of dedication was kept as a fes• Anbitious of living beyond our in- tival, and complimentary presents were come,' in order to be thought richer than expected from friends and clients, as on we really are. LU. vi. 352. (vii. 50.) birthdays. Here the poor client has to Theoph. Ch. xxi. R.

pay the same compliment to the patron's 183.

Why should I detain you?' minions, in order to gain the ear of their whence the form of adjourning the se lord. Ille and hic are two patrons. LU. nateNil vos moror, Patres Conscripti;" FA. PR. G. See Hom. Il. y 141 sqq. LU. Ne te morer, audi quo rem deducan; and Schol. on Pind. P. iv. 145. Hor. I S. i. 14 sq. M.

Metit • has it shaved ;' deponil has it

Plena domus libis venalibus. Accipe et istud
Fermentum tibi habe: præstare tributa clientes

Cogimur et cultis augere peculia servis.
190 Quis timet aut timuit gelida Præneste ruinam

Aut positis nemorosa inter juga Volsiniis aut
Simplicibus Gabiis aut proni Tiburis arce ?
Nos urbem colimus tenui tibicine fultam

Magna parte sui. Nam sic labentibus obstat 195 Villicus et, veteris rimæ quum texit hiatum,

Securos pendente jubet dormire ruina.
Vivendum est illic, ubi nulla incendia, nulli
Nocte metus. Jam poscit'aquam, jam frivola transfert

Ucalegon; tabulata tibi jam tertia fumant: cut.' Ik. ACH. cf. 116. The hardship, Tibur, now · Tivoli,' on the Anio; a however, would be aygravated if we town of Latium, built on a steep acread amatus, implying that there was clivity: hence called supinum; Hor. III more than one favourite to be courted in Od. iv. 23. VS. PR. M. each great man's house. R.

Arx denotes (1) a height,' (2) 'a 187. The libum was a kind of ginger- citadel,' (3) ' a city' in general. R. bread, made of flour, honey, and oil. PR. 193. Tibicen ' a prop or shore.' LU. or, according to Athenaus, mhuxoūs éx 195. · The steward,' M. or' the city ganatos irgiwy os aceà peidotos 111. 66. R. surveyor ;' cf. iv. 77. FE. or' the land

These cakes' were sent in such quan- lord,' or 'the edile;' R. or the village tities as' to be sold.' PR.

mason.' ACH. 188. • Take this if you can digest it, · After closing the crack in the walls and let the leaven work within your with a little plaster.'V'S. spleen.' VS. LU. M. cf. i. 45. Pers. i. 196. • Without apprehension ;' though 24. Plaut. Merc. V. ii. 3. Cas. II. v. not tutos ' secured from danger ;' tuta 17. Aul. III. iv, 9. R.

scelera esse possunt, secura non possunt ; 186. Cullis i. e. amatis, 186. R. cf. Sen. ep. 97. 158. It may also mean respectfully Pendente ' impending.' FE. courted :' M. ‘pampered menials.?. 197. Illic in the country.' cf. 190.

Peculiu • the vails or perquisites.' M. 223 sq. R. • That property of a servant or child, 198. The repetition of the word jam over which the master or parent had no three times, denotes the progress of the power.' LU.

fire. 190. Præneste, being here feminine, • Having saved his valuables in the comes from the nominative Prænestis, first instance, he is now moving his lumGRÆ. a town of Latium, now · Pales- ber, without ever thinking of giving the trina.' It was · cool’ from its waters, as alarm to his poor lodgers.' R. well as from its situation on a hill: PR. 199. The name of Ucalegon is introfrigidum Præneste; Hor. 111 Od. iv. 22. duced from Virgil's description of Troy R. altum; Virg. Æ. vii. 682. M. in flames: jum Deiphobi dedit amplu Ruinam; cf. 7 sq.

ruinam, Vulcano su perunte, domus; jum 191. Now · Bolsena,' a city of Tus- prouimus ardet Ucalegon; Æ. i. cany. PR.

310 sqq. O's. 192. Gabii, a town of Latium between · The third floor which you occupy.' Rome and Praneste. R. ' Simple,' from The rich used to let the upper rooms of being a dupe to the artifices of Sextus their houses to poorer people: cænacula ; Tarquinius. Flor. i. 7. LU. Liv. i. 53 x. 18. sculis habito trilnis, sed altis; Mart. sq. PR. or' unadorned' VS. cf. simpler J. cxviii. 7. LU. cf. vii. 118. Hor. I Ep. munditiis ; Hor. 1 Od. v. 5.

i.91. Plaut. Amph.111.1.3. Suet. Vit. 7. Ř.

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