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Jam lavat et bucca foculum excitat et sonat unctis
Striglibus et pleno componit lintea gutto.

Hæc inter pueros varie properantur: at ille 265 Jam sedet in ripa tetrumque novicius horret

Porthmea nec sperat cænosi gurgitis alnum
Infelix nec habet, quem porrigat, ore trientem.

Respice nunc alia ac diversa pericula noctis :

Quod spatium tectis sublimibus, unde cerebrum 270 Testa ferit; quoties rimosa et curta fenestris

Vasa cadant; quanto percussum pondere signent
Et lædant silicem. Possis ignavus haberi
Et subiti casus improvidus, ad cænam si


this untimely end, his unconscious do 266. Portitor horrendus terribili squa. mestics are making preparations for his lore Charon ; turbidus cæno gurges ;, Virg. meal and his previous bath.' LU.

• He has no hopes,' because he is 262. Ipse genu posito flammas exsuscitat unburied. R. aura; Ov. F. v. 507. Ř.

Tunc alnos primum fluvii sensere • Makes a clatter.' The scrapers' cavatas ; Virg. G. i. 136. torrentem unwere of metal and were oiled' to prevent dum levis innatat alnus missa Pado; Id. their hurting the skin. GR.

ii. 450 sq. R. 263. For strigilibus. GR. Pers. v. 267. Triens is here put for obolus. 126. PR.

Luc. Dial. Mort. 9. cf. Diod. ï. 5. PR. Guttus was an oil flask' made of Prop. IV. xi. 7. It was the fare for the horn, with narrow neck, which passage, naulum ; viii. 97. oudè sòv oboròn dropped the oil over the body after έχων τα πορθμία καταβαλείν. Luc. Cat. batlıing. PR. LU.

18. R. This idle notion the Romans 264. Pueros' the servants.' paci di oi had adopted from the Greeks; though παλαιοί, παρθένων έργον είναι το οινοχοί», not a general custom, the vulgar adhered και ανδρών δε νίων, ών και υπηρετείν' όθεν to it most scrupulously, and dreaded και παίδες οι δούλοι, και παιδίσκαι, nothing more than being consigned to δια το της παιδικής ηλικίας υπηρετητικών the grave without their farthing. G. Eustath. on Hom. II. A p. 438. St Luke 268. Now follows an animated and xii. 45. SL. vi. 151. Hor. I Od. xxxviii. l. faithful picture of the evils of night: Garçon, in French, serviteur dans un these are nearly the same in every overlieu public. Our own word KNAVE grown capital, which is not protected by originally signified' a boy,' and after à night-watch or a vigilant police. G. wards ' a servant;' both which senses are 269. The higher the house the greater now obsolete.

the danger. LU. quum areæ complanatæ Ille i.e. servulus infelix according to recipere non possent tantum multitudinem most Commentators : but see note on ad habitandum in Urbe, ad auxilium i. 62.

coacti sunt Romani ad altitudinem ædium 265. Cf. ii. 149 sqq. Virg. Æ. vi. devenire; Vitr. ACH. 313 sqq. Prop. II. xxvii. 13 sq. R. 270. The potsherd.' M. • He takes a seat, (because he has a Curta ' mutilaied, broken ;' Ov. F. ii. hundred years to wait, PR.) on the 645. R. banks of the Styx or Acheron.' PI.

271. · From the force with which Novicius ' by the end of the century they come upon the flint pavement, you he will become used to the grim ferry- may judge a fortiori of the little chance mani' but omne ignotum pro magnifico : your hea would have.' PR. Tac. στυγνούν άιι πορθμήα καμόντων: 272. • Remiss.' Theoc. xvii. 49. Sen. H. F. 764 sqq. 273. · Going out in the evening is a R.

service of such danger.'

Intestatus eas. Adeo tot fata, quot illa
275 Nocte patent vigiles, te prætereunte, fenestræ.

Ergo optes votumque feras miserabile tecum,
Ut sint contentæ patulas defundere pelves.

Ebrius ac petulans, qui nullum forte cecidit,

Dat panas, noctem patitur lugentis amicum 280 Pelidæ, cubat in faciem, mox deinde supinus.”

Ergo non aliter poterit dormire ? “ Quibusdam
Somnum rixa facit: sed quamvis improbus annis
Atque mero fervens, cavet hunc, quem coccina læna
Vitari jubet et comitum longissimus ordo,


181 sq.

274. • So clear it is that :' adeo quanto 279. · He passes as restless a night as rerum minus, tanto minus cupiditatis erat; Achilles mourning the loss of Patroclus.' Liv. F. Quot sunt corpore pluma, LU. tot vigiles oculi subter ; Virg. Æ. iv. 280. "Αλλοτ' επί πλευράς κατακείμενος, .

άλλοτι δ' αυτι ύπτιος, άλλοτε δε πρηνής: 275. Vigilis where the inmates are τότε δ' ορθος αναστάς κ. τ. λ. Ηom. ii. awake :' LU. as pervigiles popinæ ; viii. 10 sqq. PR. Sen. de Tr. An. 2. R. 158. vigiles lucernæ ; Hor. III Od. vii. 281. Ergo &c. This seems to be a 14. R.

question on the part of Juvenal. LU. 276. Tu prece poscis emaci ; Pers. ii. 3. cf. Plaut. Amph. I. i. PR. The verse because in a vow there is a sort of bar- is probably spurious; it might be omitted gain made with the deity or party to without prejudice to the sense. HK. whom it is addressed. GR.

282. This is very similar to a passage Feras tecum; Quint. Decl. ii.p.38. R. in the Proverbs : " Enter not into the

277. ' You are willing to compound path of the wicked, and go not in the way for the contents of the pots and slop- of evil men; for they sleep not except pails, so that the utensils themselves are they have done mischief; and their sleep not launched on your head.' Understand is taken away unless they cause some to fenestræ. GR.

fall;" iv. 14. 16. PR. Pelves' foot-pans' nodaurrñges, VS. Improbus daring;' Virg. Æ. xi. 512. which were not applied to that purpose

R. οι νέοι τα ήθη εισί φιλόνικοι υπεροχής exclusively : M. but iveprav ti raà lvoupíur γάρ επιθυμεί ή νεότης: η δε νίκη υπεροχή και πόδας ένα τονίζεσθαι: Ηer. ii. 172. τις, και ευέλπιδες ώσπερ γαρ οι οινώμενοι. .

278. A vivid picture is now presented ούτω διάθερμοί εισιν οι νέοι υπο της φύσεως. of the wanton insults to which the poor και ανδρειότεροι θυμώδεις γαρ και ευέλπιδες were exposed from the midnight frolics ών το μεν μη φοβείσθαι. το δε θαρρείν, ποιεί of drunken bullies. Nero was one of the oύτε γάρ οργιζόμενος ουδείς φοβείται το τε first of these disturbers of the public ελπίζειν αγαθόν τι, θαρραλέον εστί. και τα peace. Tac. xiii. 25. Suet. Ner. 26. ádırýpata adozoūow sis üßpry' Arist. Rh. Under shelter of his example private II. xiv. 2. persons took the opportunity to annoy 283. · He has just sense enough left, the public : every quarter was filled with to steer clear of the scarlet cloak which tumult and disorder, and Rome, at marks the rich nobleman.'LU.vii. 135 sq. night, resembled a city taken by storm : vi. 246. Xhaiva, hyacinthina læna: Pers. cf. Dio. Otho, Commodus, Heliogabalus, i. 32. Tyrioque ardebat murice læna ; Verus, &c. were also addicted to the Virg. Æ. iv. 262. VS. R. From the cloak same brutal joke. Suet. Oth. 2. Plin. being worn, we may infer that these xiii. 22 s 43. Xiph. G. R. PR. outrages were more common in the long

• He looks upon it as a very bad night's winter nights. HK. sport unless he had thrashed somebody; 284. Comitum ; i. 46, note. Pinotórws so that he cannot sleep for vexation. έπεσθαι, μάλλον δε ηγείσθαι, υπό των LU.

οικετών προωθούμενος και ώσπερ τινά πομπής к

285 Multum præterea flammarum et ænea lampas

Me, quem luna solet deducere vel breve lumen
Candelæ, cujus dispenso et tempero filum,
Contemnit. Miseræ cognosce proæmia rixæ,

Si rixa est, ubi tu pulsas, ego vapulo tantum. 290 Stat contra starique jubet; parere necesse est.

Nam quid agas, quum te furiosus cogat et idem
Fortior? “ Unde venis?” exclamat; “ Cujus aceto,
Cujus conche tumes ? Quis tecum sectile porrum

Sutor et elixi vervecis labra comedit?
295 Nil mihi respondes ? Aut dic, aut accipe calcem !

Ede, ubi consistas : in qua te quæro proseucha ?”
Dicere si tentes aliquid tacitusve recedas,

Tantumdem est; feriunt pariter: vadimonia deinde αναπληρούντα: Luc. π. τ. ε. μισθ. συνόντ. Acetum ' sour wine.' PR. see SL, on 10. R.

bos. 285. • Flambeaux and a bronze can. 293. · Beans boiled in the shell :' a delabrum.' LU. These were the ex common dish among the poorer people, clusive insignia of the rich : the latter which was very filling. Mart. V. xxxix. was carried before tribunes; Plin. xxxiv. 10. VII. Ixxviii. 2. XIII. vii. PR. xiv. 2. PR. Cic. Ver. IV. 26. R. In Guern- 131. infiantes corpora fabæ ; Ov. F. Med. sey, persons of the first class in society 70. R. are distinguished at night by having two There were two kinds of leek, sectile candles carried in their lanterns; whereas and capitatum : Plin. xx. 6. GR. BRI. of others have but one.

.which the former was the coarser sort. 286. • To escort on my way.'

PR, cf, xiv. 133. M. 287. His trimming and parting the 294. Sutor is used for any low fellow; as wick, to prevent his sushlight's going out cerdo, iv. 153, viii. 182. R. Mart. III.lix. or burning too fast, VS. would probably Sheep's heads were among the parts hasten the catastrophe he was so anxious given away to the poor, LU. at the Sato avoid : BRI, as frangere dum metuis, turnalia and other festivals. F. Mart. frangis crystallina; peccant securæ nimium XIV. ccxi. PR. sollicitæque manus;

Mart. XIV. cxi. 295. ' Speak or be kicked.' G. Totiu (Livy xxvii, 50, 3. ED.]

ύβρις το βλάπτειν και λυπείν εφ' οίς αισχύνη 288. · The prelude of the frav.' LU. così om túc xorta, pero live or givntas aurã

26 sqq. ΧV. 51 sqq. του κακώς λέγειν άλλο ή ότι εγένετο, αλλ' όπως ήσθη Arist. γαρ αρχή γίνετ'. αν δ' είπης άπαξ, ευθύς Rh. 11. ii. 3. αντήκουσας ήδη λοιδορείσθαι λείπεται. είτα 296. • Tell me where you take up your τύπτεσθαι δίδεικται και παροινείν. ταύτα stand :' implying that he was one of the γάρ κατά φύσιν πέφυκεν ούτως, και τι fraternity of regular beggars. M. consispártius edu; Alex. in Ath. x. 5. R. tere ; Plaut. Curc. IV. i. R. #poolvrai

289. “Where the beating is all on one were Jewish oratories or houses of prayer; side.' M. Ego vapulando, ille verberundo, VS. which were usually built without the usque ambo defessi sumus; Ter. Ad. II. ii. walls of a town by the river or sea side. 5. VS.

SL. See notes on 13 sqq. iv. 117. This 291."Αφρων δ' όσγ εθέλοι προς κρείσσονας is an insinuation that the poor man was αντιφερίζειν" νίκης το στίρεται, προς τ' not only a beggar, but (what was worse) αίσχισιν άλγια πάσχει: Ηes. O. D. 210 a vagabond Jew. MNS.

297. Si for sive. LU. 292. These insolent questions are put, 298. ' 'Tis all one.' M. pariter just in hopes to pick a quarrel. PR. jurgii the same ; whether you speak or no. R. causam intulit; Phæd. I. i. 4.

see note on opoíwsHer. vii. 120.

cf. v.

sq. ACH.

Irati faciunt. Libertas pauperis hæc est: 300 Pulsatus rogat et pugnis concisus adorat,

Ut liceat paucis cum dentibus inde reverti.

Nec tamen hæc tantum metuas: nam, qui spoliet te, Non deerit, clausis domibus postquam omnis ubique

Fixa catenatæ siluit compago tabernæ.
305 Interdum et ferro subitus grassator agit rem,

Armato quoties tutæ custode tenentur
Et Pomtina palus et Gallinaria pinus.
Sic inde huc omnes, tamquam ad vivaria, currunt.

Qua fornace graves, qua non incude catenæ? 310 Maximus in vinclis ferri modus, ut timeas, ne

• Then they pretend to be the party sequence of which was, that they escaped aggrieved, and insist on your finding bail in vast numbers to Rome, where they for the assault.' LU.

continued to exercise their old trade of 299, Counterfeiting, a violent pas. plunder and blood, and, probably, with sion. M. έστω η οργή, όρεξις μετά λύπης more security and effect than before. G. τιμωρίας φαινομίνης, διά φαινομένην ολιγω- VS. ρίαν τών εις αυτόν και εις αυτού τινά, μη 307. 'The Pomptine marsh’in Cama goonxóytws. Ar. Rh. 11. ii. 1. sic fictis pania (pestifera Pomtini uligine campi; causis innocentes opprimunt; Pbæd. I. i. Sil. vii. 381. Mart. X. Isxiv. 10. XIII. 15.

cxii.) was first drained, partially, by • This is your boasted liberty !' M. Ap. Claudius, A. U. 441. then more

300. With rogat understand veniam. completely by Corn. Cethegus, A. U. LU.

590. (Liv. Ep. xlvi.): Julius Cæsar inAdorut · humbly prays.' R.

tended to execute this among other public 301. ' That the gentleman will be so works (Suet. 44.); and Augustus partly good as not to knock out all his teeth.' carried his intention into effect. (Hor. A. PR.

P. 65.) The work was resumed by 302. Now come the dangers from rob- Trajan (Dio), by Theodoric (Cassiod. bers, LU.

V. E. ii. 32 sq), and in later times by 303. All the houses being shut up

and Sixtus V and Pius VI. But after all the shops closed, there is no help to be that has been done, its vapours are too had. LU. (Livy xxiii, 25, 1. ED.) deleterious to admit of any persons now

304. The shutters were fastened by a harbouring there. PR. . AN. R. G. strong iron chain running through each "The Gallinarian forest' was in the of them. VS. Burglary was one of Nero's same neighbourhood : an örvågos xai Scandalous practices : tabernulas etiam ef- αμμώδης, ήν Γαλλιναρίαν ύλην καλούσι fringere et expilare : quintana domi consti- Suab. v. p. 168. Cic. Div. ix. 23. R. tuta, ubi parle et ad licitationem divi 308. Vivaria; iv.51. preserves, stews, dendæ prædæ pretium assumeretur; Suet. or vivaries :' M. Hor. I Ep. i. 79. R. 26. LU. Tac. A. xiii. 25. R.

Where they will have abundance of 305. ' A bandit or bravo' LU..does sport;' GR. or where they will fatten.' your business. M. cf. Suet. Aug. 32. LU. 43. R.

309. • Though there is no forge or 306. When the banditti became so anvil but rings with the clank of chaios : numerous in any spot, as to render tra- yet all is ineffectual for the suppression velling dangerous, it was usual to detach of crime.' LU. a party of military from the capital to 310. Molus 'proportion, quantity.' scour their retreats: the inevitable con Understand consumitur. LU.

Vomer deficiat, ne marræ et sarcula desint.
Felices proavorum atavos, felicia dicas
Sæcula, quæ quondam sub regibus atque tribunis

Viderunt uno contentam carcere Romam !
315 His alias poteram et plures subnectere causas;

Sed jumenta vocant et sol inclinat: eundum est.
Nam mihi commota jam dudum mulio virga
Adnuit. Ergo vale nostri memor et, quoties te

Roma tuo refici properantem reddet Aquino, 320 Me quoque ad Helvinam Cererem vestramque Dianam

Convelle a Cumis. Satirarum ego, ni pudet illas,
Adjutor gelidos veniam caligatus in agros.”

311. Mattocks and hoes.' The for. 317. · The muleteer gives a hint, by mer word still exists in Italian and smacking his whip.' LU. viii, 153. R. Spanish ; marre, in French, denotes the 318. Sis licet félix, ubicumque mavis, et hoe used in vineyards : R. and from the memor nostri, Galutea, vivus; Hor. III latter word comes our English verb Od. xxvii. 13 sq. M. SARCLE,' to weed corn.'

319. Poets were fond of periodical 312. Cf. xiii. 34 sqq. R. Pater, avus, retirement into the quiet and repose of the proavus, abavus, atavus, tritavus; Plaut. country: me quoties reficit gelidus Pers. I. ii. 5. F. the seventh generation Digentia rivus. Aquinun, a town

the would be tritavi pater, and the next Volscians, was the birth-place of Juvenal. proavi atavus. It is here put for our VS. forefathers' indefinitely. M.

320. Ceres and Diana were especially 313. The military tribunes with con- worshipped at Aquinum : therefore they sular power were first appointed A. U. here stand for the town itself. The origin 310, sixty-five years after the abolition of of the epithet. Helvine' is uncertain: (1) the regal government: (Liv. iv. 7.) VS. from the Helvii, a people of Gaul; Cæs. and tribunes of the commons, sixteen B. G. vii. 7. 75. B, C. i. 35. Plin. iii. 4. years after the same event. (Liv. ii. 33.) xiv. 3. VS. (2) from a fountain of the LU. Augustus and the other emperors name in the vicinity; PR. (3) and the assumed to themselves the latter title. R. name of this, Eluinus, from washing off On the tribunicia potestas see CAR, L. contaminations previously to initiation: ix. p. 226 sqq.

LU. or (4) from the ' yellow (helvus) 314. This prison was built by Ancus colour' of the ears of corn. SCO. BRO. Marcius; Liv. i. 33. GR. Servius Tul. Helvus is akin to gilvus dun,' in etylius added the dungeon, called from him mology and in signification: both the iniTullianum; Calp. Decl. 5. Tac. A. iv. tials are blended in the Dutch gheleuwe. 29. LI. Sáll. B. C. 58. VS. The next “A sweaty reaper from his tillage brought prison was built by Ap. Claudius the First fruits, the green ear and the yeldecemvir. Liv. iii. 57. Plin. vii. 36. V. low sheaf;" Milton P. L. xi. flava Paterc. i. 9. R.

Ceres ; Virg. G. i. 96. 315. · Causes for leaving Rome.' LU. 321, Convelle cf. 223.

316. • They summon me to be mov Cumis cf. 2. PR. ing.' LU. v. 10. PR.

• Unless they scorn my poor help.' T. The carriage, as soon as it was loaded, 322. Aquinum was 'cool' from its hills, set out and overtook Umbricius; and woods, and streams. PR. now it either was waiting, M. or had Caligatus . in military boots ;' LU. got some distance on the road. R. BRI. equipped for our campaign;' PR.

Inclinare meridiem sentis; Hor. III.Od. HO. 'armed at all points.' M. G. Dio xxviii. 5 sq. M. (Livy xxv, 34, 6. ED.] says that Caligula wore the shoe from

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