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which he derived his name, to mark his Umbricius, the tender farewell he takes renunciation of his former town shoes; of his friend, the compliment he introavtà tão á o Texãy úrodnuétw. Umbri- duces to his abilities, and the affectionate cius may here avow a similar determin. hint he throws out, that, in spite of his ation. He promises that he will not attachment to Cumæ, Juvenal may comappear in shoes of a town make; that mand his assistance in the noble task in there shall be nothing about him, even which he is engaged, all contribute to on his feet, to remind Juvenal of the leave a pleasing impression of melan. detested city. I.

In country shoes I'll choly on the mind,' and interest the come.” BM.

reader deeply in the fate of this nego There is something exquisitely beauti- lected, but virtuous and amiable exile. ful in this conclusion. The little circum- G. stances which accelerate the departure of

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ARGUMENT. In this Satire, which was probably written under Nerva, Juvenal indulges

his honest spleen against two most distinguished culprits; Crispinus, already noticed in his first Satire, 1-27, and Domitian, the constant

object of his scorn and abhorrence, 28—149. The sudden transition from the shocking enormities of Crispinus, 1-10,

to his gluttony and extravagance, 11 sqq. is certainly inartificial, but appears necessary in some degree to the completion of the Poet's design,

the introduction of Domitian, 28. The whole of the latter part is excellent. The mock solemnity with which

the anecdote of the enormous turbot is introduced, 37 sqq. the procession, or rather the rush, of the affrighted counsellors to the palace, 75 sqq. and the ridiculous debate 119 sqq. (as to whether the fish should be dressed whole or not, 130) which terminates in as ridiculous a decision, 136 sqq. (that a dish should be made for it, 131, according to the

sage advice of Montanus)—all show a masterly hand. We have, indeed, here a vivid picture of the state of the empire under the

suspicious and gloomy tyranny of Domitian; of his oppressive system of espionage and rapacity, of his capricious severity and trifling, and of

the gross adulation in which all classes sought a precarious security. Many masterly touches are given in the brief allusions to the character

and conduct of the chief courtiers as they pass in review: the weak but well-meaning Pegasus, stoic, and bailiff of Rome, 75 sqq. Crispus the complaisant old epicure and wit, 81 sqq. Acilius, and his ill-fated young companion, 94 sqq. Rubrius the low-born ruffian, 104 sqq. Montanus the unwieldy glutton, 107. Crispinus the perfumed debauchée, 108 sq. Pompeius the merciless sycophant, 109 sq. Fuscus the luxurious and incompetent general, 111 sq. Catullus the blind hypocrite, extravagant in his praises of the finny monster, 113 sqq. and Veiento the timeserving

fortune-teller, 113. 123 sqq. And we cannot but admire the indignant and high-spirited apostrophe,

with which our Poet concludes, reflecting on the servile tameness of the patricians as contrasted with the indignant vengeance of the lower orders, 150—154. an apostrophe which under some of the emperors would be fatal, and under none of them safe. G. R.

Ecce iterum Crispinus ! et est mihi sæpe vocandus
Ad partes, monstrum nulla virtute redemtum
A vitiis, æger solaque libidine fortis :

Delicias viduæ tantum aspernatur adulter. 5 Quid refert igitur, quantis jumenta fatiget

Porticibus ? quanta nemorum vectetur in umbra ?
Jugera quot vicina foro, quas emerit ædes ?
Nemo malus felix; minime corruptor et idem

Incestus, cum quo nuper vittata jacebat
10 Sanguine adhuc vivo terram subitura sacerdos.

1. Ecce denotes surprise. LU, ecce 7. Land in the immediate vicinity of Crispinus minimo me provocat; Hor. I S. the forum was of course exorbitantly dear. iv. 13 sq. R.

LU. cf. i. 105 sq. M. The forum of 'Again'i. 26. LU. understand adest. R. Augustus, which is here meant, was the Mihi for a me. VS.

most frequented part of Rome, i. 192: 2. A metaphor from the theatre, in therefore the purchase of property in land which actors were called when it was or houses near this spol shows the enor. their turn to appear on the stage. VS. mous wealth of this odious upstart. There Hernicos ad partes paratos; Liv. iii. 10. is also, probably, a covert allusion to his R. "A slave to vice with no one re presumption in imitating the Cæsars deeming virtue.' LU. cf. Pers. v. PR. whose palace and gardens of many acres

3. : Feeble both in body and mind.' R. were in this immediate neighbourhood. G.

Isti vulsi atque et politi et nusquam, 8. Nemo potest esse felis sine virtute; nisi in libidine, viri; Sen. Cont. i. Cic.“ Virtue alone is happiness below;" p. 62. R.

Pope Ess. on Man, iv. 310. “Virtue 4. To corrupt virgin innocence, to in- must be the happiness, and vice the misery, vade the sanctity of the marriage bed, of every creature;” Bp Butler Intr. to is his delight: intrigues with widows, Anal. See also Lord Shaftesbury's Inq. therefore, have too little turpitude in them concerning Virtue, pt. II. to gratify his singular depravity.' G. 9. Such was the respect for religion,

5. Nam grave quid prode'st pondus that the seducer of a vestal virgin' was mihi divitis auri? urva que si findant considered guilty of incest,' and placed pinguia mille boves? quidve domu s prodest upon a par, in criminality, with the vio. Phrygiis innixa columnis ? et nemora in lator of all natural decorum. G. The domibus sacros imitantia lucos? et quæ guilty vestal was also considered incesta; præterea populus miratur ? Non opibus Ov. F. vi. 459. mentes hominum curæque levantur; Tib. Priests and priestesses wore fillets round III. iii. 11 &c. R.

the head. LU. The luxurious Romans built ilong Nullaque dicetur vittas temerasse sacovered ways in their grounds, that they cerdos, nec viva defodietur humo; might not be deprived of their exercise in Ov. F. vi. 457 sq. iii. 30. R. bad weather: see vii. 178—181. LU. 10. This soleinnity is thus described Mart. I. xiii. 5 sqq. V. xx. 8. Plin. Ep. by Plutarch: At the Colline gate within v. 6. 17. R.

the city, there was a subterranean cavern, Equos fatigat ; Virg. Æ. i. 316. GR. in which were placed a bed, a lamp, a

6. Quid illa porticus verna semper ? pitcher of water, and a loaf. The of. quid illa mollis gestatio? Plin. Ep. i. 3. fender was then bound alive upon a bier, PR.

and carried through the forum with great Nemora‘shrubberies and groves.' Plin. silence and horror. When they reached Ep. ij. 17. LI. nemus inter pulcra the place of interment, the bier was set satum tecta; Hor. III Od. x, 5 sq. R. down, and the poor wretch unbound; a

Sed nunc de factis levioribus : et tamen alter
Si fecisset idem, caderet sub judice morum.
Nam quod turpe bonis, Titio Seioque, decebat

Crispinum. Quid agas, quum dira et foedior omni 15 Crimine persona est ? Mullum sex millibus emit,

Æquantem sane paribus sestertia libris,
Ut perhibent, qui de magnis majora loquuntur.
Consilium laudo artificis, si munere tanto
Præcipuam in tabulis ceram senis abstulit orbi.

29 sqq.

ladder was then brought, by which she de. plentiful and cheap, but seldom weighed scended into the excavation; when, upon above 21bs. In proportion as they ex. a signal given, the ladder was suddenly ceeded this they grew valuable, till at withdrawn, and the mouth of the cavity last they reached the sum mentioned in completely filled up with stones, earth, &c. the text (about £50), and even went beNum. 67. Whether the vestal debauched yond it. The fish seems to have grown by Crispinus actually suffered is doubtful. larger in the decline of the empire, as if But Domitian did put Cornelia and seve- to humour the caprice of this degenerate ral others to death. Suet. 8. Dionys. ii. people. Horace thought a surmullet of 65. viii. 90. LU. PR. G. R. see Mar- 3lbs. something quite out of the common mion, cant, ii. note 17.

way; the next reign furnished one of 11. Understand agimus. PR.

4ļlbs! here we have one of 6lbs !! and 12. · And yet any other individual we read elsewhere of others larger still ; would forfeit his life to our imperial one of 80lbs!!! (unless there be an error censor for a like offence. Plin. Ep. iv. in the figures) was caught in the Red 11. LU. As Celer, who was guilty of Sea ; Plin. ix. 18. They seem afterwards incest with Cornelia, (see above) was to have gone out of fashion, for Macroscourged to deaib. PR. Liv. xxii. 57. R. bius speaking with indignation of one that On the censorship exercised by Domitian was purchased in the reign of Claudius (Censor maxime principumque princeps ; by Asinius Celer for 561. 10s. adds pretia Mart. VI. iv. PR.) see the notes on ii. hæc insana nescimus. The surmullet of

4}]bs. was one that was presented to Cadere is opposed 10 stare in judicio. Tiberius. The emperor sent it to market, And sub means before,' as vii. 13. R. observing that he thought either P.

13. Nle crucem sceleris pretium tulit, Octavius or Apicius would buy it. hic diadema ; xiii. 105. cf. viii. 182. xi. 1 They did bid against each other, till sqq. 174 sqq. Titius and Seius were fic- it was knocked down to the former for titious personages, like our John Doe £40. cf. 23. G. and Richard Roe, and like them inserted 16. Sane · forsooth,' ironically. LU. in all law-processes : rois di óvónage Tous Phæd. III, xv. 12. R. Well! and τοις άλλως κέχρηνται κοινοίς ουσιν, ώστις that was only a thousand a pound. οι νομικοί Γάιον, Σήίον, και τίτιον: Ρlut. Q. 17. Juvenal merely gives the story as R. 30. G. LU. R.

he heard it, without vouching for its cor14.“ When the actor's person far ex- rectness ; since fama vires acquirit eundo; ceeds, In native loathsomeness, his foul. Virg. Æ. iv. 175. GR. est deeds," G.‘one is at a loss how to 18. I grant you his artifice was praisetreat him.' M.

worthy as a masterly stroke. M. cf. 15. v. 92. Plin, ix, 17. Varr. R. R. St Luke xvi. 8. ii. 17. Cic. Att. ï. 1. Parad. 5. Ath. i. 19. Cf. ii. 58. PR. præcipua cera 5. vii. 21. iv. 13. PR. .Surmullet; cf. 'the principal place in the will' and vi. 40. Mart. II. xliii. 11. VII. lxxvii. consequently • the bulk of the property. XIII. Jxxix. III. xlv. 5. X. xxxi. XI. li. The chief heir was named in the second 9. Macr. Sat. ii. 12. Suet. Tib, 34. R. line of the first table. Hor. lI S. Hor. II S. ii. 34. Sen. Ep. 95. M. “A v. 53 sq. cf. Suet. Cæs. 83, Ner. 17. mullet' is mugilis. Surmullets were very R. M.

20 Est ratio ulterior, magnæ si misit amicæ,

Quæ vehitur clauso latis specularibus antro.
Nil tale exspectes: emit sibi. Multa videmus,
Quæ miser et frugi non fecit Apicius. Hoc tu

Succinctus patria quondam, Crispine, papyro? 25 Hoc pretio squamæ? Potuit fortasse minoris

Piscator, quam piscis, emi. Provincia tanti
Vendit agros; sed majores Appulia vendit.
Quales tunc epulas ipsum glutisse putemus

Endoperatorem, quum tot sestertia, partem 20. 'A still better reason: for then he islands, and the countrymen of Crispinus may obtain her favours as well as her at the present day, are said to wear this foriune,'cf. ii. 58 sqq. PR. 11. 129 sqq. M. sort of dress. Rear-Admiral Perrée

21. Instead of glass, they used for says, La férocité des habitans est pire que the pancs of their windows thin plates of les sauvages; majeure partie habillés en mica or Muscovy talc, which was called paille ;Intercepted Leiters. G. lapis specularis; SA. the larger these panes, 25. Understand emuntur. LU. squama, the more expensive would the windows contemptuously, for the fish,' 's. be. M. i. 65. Plin. H. N. xxxvi. 22. 26. Asinius Celer e consularibus, hoc 26. Sen. Ep. 86. 90. de Prov. 4. N. Q. pisce prodigus, Caio principe unum meriv. 13. hibernis objecta Notis specii. catus octo millibus numum : quæ reputatio laria puros udmittunt soles et sine face aufert transversum animum ad contemdiem: at mihi cella datur, non tota plationem eorum, qui in conquestione luius, clausu fenestra; Mart. VIII. xiv. coquos emi singulos pluris quam equos qui3–5. Plin. Ep. ii. 17. PR. R. The ritabant: at nunc coci triumphorum pretiis satire perhaps is aimed at the affectation parantur et coquwrum pisces; Plin. ix. 17. of the lady, who pretended to conceal R. herself in a vehicle, which, from its 27. You can purchase still larger splendour, must have attracted universal estates in Apulia for the money : landed notice. G.

property being at a discount in Italy, 22. 'If you expect any such thing, especially in the wilder parts of it.' but you will be mistaken.' M.

cf. ix. 55. HN. agri suburbani tantum After videmus understand Crispinum possidet, quantum invidiose in desertis fecisse. R.

Appuliae possideret ; Sen. Ep. 87. N.Q. Compared with him, A picius v. 17. Plin. xvii. 24. Gell. ii. 22. was mean and thrifty.' See note on 15. incipit montes Appulia notos ostentare, Among several epicures of this name, quos torret Atabulus; Hor. I S. v. 77 sq. one wrote a book on cookery. VS. Plin. PR. nec tantus umquam siderum insedit ii. 5. viii. 51. ix. 17. x. 48. Sen. Ep. vapor siticulosæ Appulia ; E. iii. 15 sq. 95. LU. Id. Helv. 10. Dio Cass. 57. 28.“ To have gorged.' Hence our word The Apicius who is above mentioned, Glutton. He now attacks Domitian. after spending a fortune in gluttony, de- 29. Endoperutor x. 138. the obsolete stroyed himself

. PR. cf. xi. 3. Tac. A. poetical form of Imperator (which is iniv. 1. Mart. II. lxix. III. xxii. R. admissible in epic verse) used by Ennius Hoc; understand fecisti. LU.

and Lucretius: with you, the Greek for 24. ' Erst girt round the loins with the in, prefixed. R. Imperator (1) in its papyrus matted or stitched together.'i. 26. simplest sense denotes' the general of an Plin. xiii. 11. PR. cf. viii. 162. The pa- army,' administrator rei gerende ; Cic. de pyrus is called patria, as the siluri are

Or. 1. xlviii. 210. (2) More empha. called municipes, 33. • * "Eqws, xirave tically it is a commander in chief, who, δήσας υπέρ αυχένος παπύρω, μέθυ μοι δια- upon a signal and important service, had xovsítw. Ànacr. iv. 4. Vor. 11 S. viii. this title conferred upon him by the accla10. Phæd. II. v. 11 sqq. BO, p. 283 sqq. mation of the soldiers or a decree of the R. T'he savages of the newly-discovered sepate.' This, both during the republic,



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