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Et pegma et pueros inde ad velaria raptos.
Non cedit Veiento, sed, ut fanaticus astro

Percussus, Bellona, tuo, divinat et “ Ingens
125 Omen habes” inquit “ magni clarique triumphi:

Regem aliquem capies, aut de temone Britanno
Excidet Arviragus: peregrina est belua: cernis
Erectas in terga sudes ?” Hoc defuit unum

122. Tiñypa' stage machinery,' by sit. brium of Domitian's reign.

He opposed ting on which boys were suddenly raised the emperor in the Dacian war, in which to a considerable height. LI. The precise Fuscus fell, and was an enemy far from nature of this self-moving framework it contemptible. G. is very difficult to ascertain: but we may The pole of the sithed car' is put for suppose that it resembled a mountain, a the chariot itself. LU. But the Britons tower, or the like, and, by rising or sink. used to run along the pole, and fight ing suddenly, changed into some other from it. Cæs. B. G. iv. 33. PR. cf. Virg. form ; not very dissimilar to the changes G. iii. 204. Prop. II. i. 76. R. in a modern pantomime. K. It appears 127. 'Shall some Arviragus be hurled !' that slaves and malefactors were some- Arviragus (according to the monkish fatimes thrown from them to the wild- bles) was the younger son of Cymbeline, beasts. Phæd. V. vii. 6. Mart. Sp. xvi. and began his reign in the fourth year of Suet. Cal. 26. Claud. 34. Sen. Ep. 88 Claudius, whose daughter he married. sqq. Plin. xxxm. 3. R. Mart. Sp. ii. 2. He then revolted from his father, was Claud. Cons. Fl. Mall. Theod. 320 sqq. brought back to his duty by Vespasian, PR. This was always a favourite ex. reigned many years in great glory, and left hibition. Calp. vii. 23 sqq. G.

his crown to his son, a prince not less valorThe Roman Theatres were open at the ous and rather more wise than his father. top: during the performance, however, HO. According to Polydore Virg. he was they were usually covered with a large either converted to Christianity by Joseph awning stretched across with cords, G. of Arimathæa, or allowed him and his as a shelter from sun or rain : FA, be- followers to settle at Glasgow, with persides which, by keeping the spectators in mission to preach the Gospel. There is the shade, a stronger light was thrown sarcasm in this mention of the Britons, upon the stage. Plin, xix. 1. R. The whose subjugation many eminent generals ceiling of the Theatre at Oxford is painted (Vespasian among the rest) had failed in imitation of this.

in : and the only chance of their reduc123. • Does not yield in admiration.' tion was now destroyed by the recall of LU.

Agricola. Tac. Ag. 13 sqq. R. Some chief * One inspired.' LU. ii. 112. PR. is probably alluded to, who made himself

Oiorgos or púwy, in Latin tabunus or formidable to the Romans after this recall: usilus, here used metaphorically for 'sti OW. the Arviragus above mentioned mulus,'is a species of stinging fly, which, was dead. G. He is said to have reigned in the summer, almost drives cattle mad: from 45 to 73 A.D. The latter date is LU.‘a gadfly.' M. Varr. R. R. 5. Plin. eight years before Domitian's accession. ix. 15. Virg. G. iii. 146 sqq. PR. Plin. Being a foreign monster, it denotes a xi. 16. 28. V. Flacc. iij. 581. R. foreign king.' LU.

124. Bellona, the goddess of war, was 128. • The sharp fins sticking up on the sister of Mars. Her priests wor his back ? Thus shall thy bristling spears shipped her with offerings of their own stand erect in the backs of thy foes.' LU. blood; and were then gifted with prophe. Pointed stakes, charred at the ends, were tic inspiration. Some think her the same used in rude warfare. PR. jam castra as Minerva. LU. Virg. Æ. viii. 703. hostium oppugnabantur: saxisque et sudi.

126. This · monarch' may be a sar bus et omni genere telorum submovebantur castical allusion to Decebalus, whose a vallo Romani, Liv. xxxiv. 15. see name could not be brought ivto the vi. 247, note. « All with arrows verse, but whose actions were the oppro- quilled, and clothed with blood As

Fabricio, patriam ut rhombi memoraret et annos. 130 “ Quidnam igitur censes? Conciditur?” “ Absit ab illo

Dedecus hoc !" "Montanus ait. 6 Testa alta paretur,
Quæ tenui muro spatiosum colligat orbem.
Debetur magnus patinæ subitusque Prometheus.

Argillam atque rotam citius properate; sed ex hoc 135 Tempore jam, Cæsar, figuli tua castra sequantur.”

Vicit digna viro sententia. Noverat ille
Luxuriam imperii veterem noctesque Neronis
Jam medias aliamque famem, quum pulmo Falerno

Arderet. Nulli major fuit usus edendi 140 Tempestate mea. Circeis nata forent an

with a purple garment, he sustained The 136. Hæc sententia vicit; Liv. xxxvii. unequal conflict;" Southey, Madoc, vi. 19. ii. 4. xlii. 47. R. see notes on yróunye

130. The emperor now puts the ques. Her. i. 61, and évísc. vi. 101. tion to the senate in due form, M.

137. · Of the court :' R. of former 131. • A deep dish.' Vitellius in prin- emperors.' M. cipatu ducentis sestertiis condidit pati. · Nero's nights;' epulas a medio die ad nam, cui faciendæ fornux in campis mediam noctem protrahebat : refotus ædificutu erat: quoniam eo pervenit uru- sæpius calidis piscinis ac tempore æstivo ria, ut fictiliu pluris constent quam mur nivatis; Suet. 27. LU. Tac. A. xvi. 20. rhina; Plin. xxxv. 12. quam ob immen- R. cf. A. xiii. 20. and vi. 102 sq. HN. sum magnitudinem clypeum Minerva e 138. ' Provocatives and restoratives aigida rodnoúxou dictitahat; Suet. of the jaded appetite. PR. See note Vit. 13. PR. xi. 19 sq. Quamvis lata

on 67. gerat patella rhombum, rhombus latior est · Falernian' was) a fiery full-bodied tamen patella; Mart. XIII. lxxxi. R. wine of Campania. Plin. xiv. 6. xxii. 1. The silver dish of Vitellius had been pre- PR. Whence its epithets : acre ; xiii. served as a sacred deposit, but Adrian 216. indomitum ; Pers. ii. 3. Luc. x. showed his good sense by having it melted 163. ardens; Mart. IX. lxxiv. 5. XIV. down. G.

cxiii. Hor. II Od. xi. 19. severum; I Od. 132. The thinness of the earthen ware xxvii. 9. forte; II S. iv. 24. To soften (according to Pliny) constituted its excel. its austerity it was mixed with Chian; lence. LU.

Tib. II. i. 28. Ath. i. 20. R. Orbem ; cf. i. 137. R.

The lungs are considerably affected by 133. 'Some potter no less cunning in excess in liquor. GR. his craft, than was Prometheus the son of 139. ·No one better understood the Iapetus, who gave proof of his skill by practice, as well as the theory, of gorforming the first man out of clay.' Ov. M. mandizing than Montanus.' LỎ. Crispus i. 80 sqq. LU. PR. cf. vi. 13. xiv. 35. must have been at least an equal profixv. 85. Hor. I Od. iii. 29 sqq. xvi. 13 cient in the science of good eating, as he $99. Asch. P. V. See also note on vi. was the favourite of Vitellius and the 10. R.

constant companion of his scandalous exSubitus, or the fish would be spoilt. PR. cesses. D. Cass. Ixv. 2. G.

134. Hor. A. P. 22. Figlinas invenit 140. The wanton luxury of the Romans Choræbus Atheniensis, in iis orbem Anachur. may be discerned from the variety of their sis Scythes, ut alii, Hyperbius Corinthius; oysters, which were brought from every Plin. vii. 56. PR. Pers. iii. 23 sq. R. sea. HO. Ostreis et conchyliis omnibus con* Clay'is the material, and a solid wheel,' tingit, ut cum luna crescant pariter pariterrevolving horizontally, the engine on which que decrescant; Cic. Div.ii.33. ostreæ senesthe poller forms his (ware. Jer. xviii. 3 cente luna inuberes, macræ ,tenues,ersuccæ; sqq. M. Ecclus. xxxviii. 29 sq.

crescente, pinguescunt; Gell. xx, 7. luna

Lucrinum ad saxum Rutupinove edita fundo
Ostrea, callebat primo deprendere morsu;
Et semel adspecti litus dicebat echini.

Surgitur et misso proceres exire jubentur
145 Consilio, quos Albanam dux magnus in arcem

Traxerat adtonitos et festinare coactos,
Tamquam de Cattis aliquid torvisque Sygambris
Dicturus, tamquam et diversis partibus orbis

Anxia præcipiti venisset epistola pinna.
150 Atque utinam his potius nugis tota Ille dedisset

Tempora sævitiæ, claras quibus abstulit Urbi

alit ostrea et implet echinos ; Lucil. lubrica Though he soon found to his cost what nascentes implent conchylia lunæ; Hor. II an awkward mouthful it was, his Spartan S. iv. 30. Plin. ii. 41. Ath. iii. 13. The obstinacy would not allow of his putting Tarentine are extolled by Varro, R. R. it out again; but he made a solema vow iii. 3. and Gellius, vii. 16. the Lucrine that this should be the last ' sea urchin' are preferred by Seneca, Ep. 79. and he ever tasted ; iii. 13. PR. Pliny, ix. 54 s 79. Circais autem ostreis 144. Misso for dimisso. The consul caro testaque nigra sunt; his autem neque used to dismiss the senate in the following dulciora neque teneriora esse ulla comper. words · Nil vos moramur, Patres Contum est; Id. xxxii. 6 s 21. murice Baiano scripti.' LU. melior Lucrina peloris : ostrea Circeiis, 145. Cf. 61. R. · The great chief Miseno oriuntur echini ; pectinibus putulis i. e. ' the emperor.' LU. jactat se molle Tarentum; Hor. II S. iv. 146.* Had dragged them' against their 32 sqq. PR. cf. eund. ii. 31 sqq. Pers. vi. will. LU. 72 sqq. PR. 24. Plin. ix. 18 $ 32. Macr. S. ii. 11. üii. Adtonitos ; 77. 16. V. Max. ix. 1. Col. vii. 16. Varr. 147. The Catti occupied the territories R. R. iii. 17. Sen. Helv. 10. R.

of Hesse : the Sygambri those of Guel. The town of Circeii in Campania, with ders. cf. Suet. Dom. 2. 6. 13. PR. and its neighbouring promontory(now. Monte Euseb. Dio liv. 20. 22. 32. Flor. iv. Circello'), was named after the famous 12. Oros, vi. 21. The latter are termed enchantress Circe, the daughter of Sol feroces; Hor. IV Od. ii. 34. cæde gauand Perseis, and aunt of Medea. dentes; Ib. xiv. 51. Tacitus says of the

141. The Lucrine lake is between Germans, habitus corporum idem omnibus : Baix and Puteoli. Plin. iii. 5. PR. Hor. truces et cærulei oculi; 4. Cattorum hæe Ep. ii. 49. Mart. VI. xi. XII. xlviii. R. prima semper acies, visu torva; 31. R. Edita is the same as nata; 140. R. 148. In order to communicate.' R.

Fundo · in the bed of the sea,' LU. at 149. If a consul transmitted to Rome the Rutupiæ, now Richborough' in Kent. news of a victory, a small branch of bay FA.

was stuck in the letter; (Plin. H. N. 143. “At first sight.' M.

Xxxv. extr. Pan. 8.) if he sent intelEchinus piscis est marinus e genere can. ligence of any reverses, he inserted 'a crorum, spinis hirsutus, quibus et se tuetur, feather.' VS. (The latter part is questioninstar hericii, qui echinus est terrestris, able.) Couriers wore feathers in their sicut echinus murinus est hericius. Echino caps; when they brought good news they spinæ pro pedibus sunt, ingredi est in orbem wore a white feather, (libelli quos rumor convolvi ; ora in medio corpore ad terram alba vehit penna ; Mart. X. ii. 10.) and versa ; sævitiam maris præsugire traditur; a black one when the news was bad, Plin. ix. 31 s 51. Athenæus tells a laugh. (nullaque fumosa signatur lancea penna; able story ofa Laconian,who, hearing they Stat. S. V.. 93. where fumosa' dingy' were delicious eating but never having is a correction of famosa.) PL. Or, sim. seen any of them at table before, put one ply, 'with precipitate haste. R. into his mouth, shell, prickles, and all. 151, Suet, 10, 11, 15. PR.

Illustresque animas impune et vindice nullo !
Sed periit, postquam cerdonibus esse timendus
Cæperat: hoc nocuit Lamiarum cæde madenti.

152. '1pimous Yux débHom. Il. A perial family of the Antonines also sprung. 3. R.

They traced their descent from Lamus 153. Cerdo (from rigdos · lucre') a king of the Læstrygones. Hor. III Od. cobbler, or any low mechanic.' The xvii. 1 sqq. One of this ancient house assassins of Domitian were men of low was among Domitian's many victims ; birth ; Suet. xx. 14. 17. LU. 'A Ple- LU. the tyrant, before he came to the beian,' Pers. iv. 51. PR. as opposed to throne, had taken away his wife Doinitia Patricians; viii. 182. cf. iii. 294. R. Longina: M. Suet. 1. and put him to “ Of her noblest citizens deprived, Rome death, subsequently, ob suspiciosos quidem, daily mourned—and yet the wretch verum et veteres et innoxios jocos; Id. 10. survived, And no avenger rose ; but PR. cf. vi. 385. when the low And base-born rabble This is a severe reflexion on the pusilcame to fear the blow, And cobblers lanimity of the Patricians who tamely subtrembled-then, to rise no more, He mitted to such cruelties and indignities.PR. fell still reeking with the Lamian gore.” The exultation, with which the poet menBM. Beaumont and Fletcher have imi- tions the prompt and decisive vengeance tated or rather translated these lines: of the lower orders, shows that he felt “ Princes may pick their suffering nobles proud in being one of them, and seems out, And one by one, employ them to intended to convey a salutary, but awful the block; But when they once grow lesson, both to the oppressors and to the formidable to Their clowns, and cobblers, oppressed. G. This satire proves that ware then !G.

Juvenal survived Doniitian; who was 154. ^ This was fatal.' LU.

assassinated in the forty-fifth year of his The Lamian family was a noble branch age and the sixteenth of his reign, and of the Ælian clan : from which the im was succeeded Nerva, 96 A.D. M.


ARGUMENT. In this excellent Satire, Juvenal takes occasion, under pretence of advising

one Trebius to abstain from the table of Virro, a man of rank and fortune, to give a spirited detail of the mortifications to which the poor were subjected by the rich, at those entertainments to which, on account of the political connexion subsisting between patrons and clients, it was

sometimes thought necessary to invite them. He represents even a beggar's life as one of independence compared with

that of a parasite, 1-11. The supercilious patron thinks an occasional invitation to be a payment in full of all his client's services; 12—23. and yet, when at the great man's board, poor Trebius meets with nothing but mortifications and affronts. The host has all the luxuries of the season-a variety of fine old wines, 30–37. iced water, 49 sq. excellent white bread, 70 sqq. a magnificent lobster, 80 sqq. surmullet, 92–98. lamprey, 99–102. giblets, 114. poultry, 115. wild-boar, 116. truffles, 116 sqq. mushrooms, 147 sq. &c. &c. and a delicious dessert; 149–152. not to mention the splendid service of plate, 37—45. and the ostentatious retinue of pampered menials : 40. 56 sqq. 67. 72 sqq. 83. 120 sqq. while you are put at the bottom of the table among a vulgar and quarrelsome set of fellows, 25—29. and—one can hardly call it-served by some ill-conditioned underlings, 40 sq. 52–55. 66 sq. 73–75. with vile wine 24 sqq. in a cracked mug,46–48. bad water, 52. infamous bread, 67 sqq.-crab and eggs to correspond, 84 sq. stale cabbage and rancid oil, 86–91. an eel—the sight of which is enough! 103. and a well-fed fish-caught in the common sewer, 104 sq. a dish of toadstools, 146. and two or three half-rotten apples, 153—155. Besides all this, you must not open your lips, either to make any observation, 125 sqq. or to call for what you want, 60 sqq. or to ask your patron to take wine, 129–131. Money forms his criterion of merit. 132—137, especially where there is any chance of that money being one day his, 137–145. Towards his poor acquaintance he behaves just as if he derived amusement from tantalizing and insulting them, 156 sqq.. If they have the

meanness to submit to such treatment, they deserve still worse, 161-173. A train of manly indignation pervades the whole; and there is scarcely

a single trait of insult and indignity here mentioned, which is not to be found animadverted upon, with more or less severity, in the writers of

that age.

With this Satire may be compared, Pliny II Ep. vi. Athenæus vi. 5—18.

Petronius Sat. 3). Lucian gopi Two isi per done ovrórrwv: and several passages in the old comedy of The Supposes, hy G. Gascoigne. G. R.

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