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Quum fas esse putet curam sperare cohortis,

Qui bona donavit præsepibus et caret omni 60 Majorum censu, dum pervolat axe citato

Flaminiam;. (puer Automedon nam lora tenebat,
Ipse lacernatæ quum se jactaret amicæ)
Nonne libet medio ceras implere capaces

Quadrivio? quum jam sexta cervice feratur 58. ' A military tribuneship.' VS. A 97.), avròs, and ixsives, often convey a prefectship of the prætorian band.' GRÆ. notion of authority and respect; hence a A cohort consisted of 550 infantry and teacher is thus spoken of by his disciple 66 cavalry. In legione sunt centurie (as in the Pythagorean expression autos sexaginta, manipuli triginta, cohortes de- ip«), a master by his servant, a general cem; Gell. xvi. 4. A. PR. When the by a soldier, a patron as distinguished allies were admitted into the legions, the from his clients, the mind as contrasted number of military tribunes was probably with the body, &c. in which cases the increased to ten, one to command each opposition shows what is meant. v. 30. cohort. cf. x. 94. Cæs. B. C. ii. 20. Plin. V. Flacc. ii. 150, Ov. Trist. V. i. 45. iii. 9. 18. LI. R.

Calpurn. i. 46. R. [Livy xxii, 1, i; 59. Either (1) Cornelius Fuscus is xxvii, 32, b. ED.] intended, who, when a boy, had driven Jacture se is to play the agreeable' or Nero's chariot; he afterwards ' squan * to show off before.' It may be a medered his patrimony' in charioteering, taphor from a peacock spreading his tail. and at last was made prefect of the præ- cf. Pers. iv. 15. R. torian bands by Domitian, and fell in the Though spoken of in the feminine genDacian war: 'iv. 112. Suet. T. or (2) der, Sporus' the eunuch is here meant, Tigellinus, a man of obscure origin, BRI, whom this monster cum dote et MNC. and a depraved minister to Nero's flameo, nuptiarum celeberrimo officio, depleasures, who also was promoted to a ducluni ad se, pro uiore habuit; quemque, prefectship: v. 67. 155. Tac. An. xiv. Augustarum ornamentis exculium lecticas99. Hist. i. 72. or (3) Damasippus : viii. que vectum, et circa conventus mercutus147. PR.

que Græciæ ac mor Romæ circa Sigillaria Præsepia is an ambiguous term, mean comitalus est identidem exosculans; Suet. ing either' mangers' or • brothels.' PL. Ner. 28. PR. cf. sponsa turpes; v. 78.

60. The construction may be this : R. A few years afterwards this Sporus quum (is), qui censu, fuscohortis, dum was ordered by the emperor Vitellius to &c. (cf. Tac. An. i. 7.) i. e. because he personate a nymph in a pantomime, but has been Nero's charioteer. HK. Illi committed suicide to avoid appearing on instant verbere torto, et proni dant lora; the stage in a female dress! G. The volat vi fervidus a ris; Virg. G. epithet lacernata implies that this was üi. 106. R.

not a woman, lucerna being a man's 61. • The Flaminian Way,' the most cloak. FE. It was worn by soldiers in ancient and celebrated of all the Roman the camp, Plin. xviii. 25. Öv. Fast. ii. roads, Jed to the emperor's villa. It was 746. and by spectators in the amphimade by the censor C. Flaminius (A. U. theatre; in the latter case it was white, 533.) through Tuscany to Ariminum. A. Aart. XIV. cxxxvii. IV. ii. See also Strab. v. p. 333. cf. Suet. Aug. 30. Suet. Aug. 40. Claud. 6. PR. Mart. V. PR. R.

viii. This boy' was the charioteer of Nero, 63. Ceræ are the same as ceratæ tabellæ. as ' Automedon' was of Achilles. GRÆ. The pocket-books of the Romans conHom. Il. n 145 sqq. P 429 sqq. 459— sisted of thin pieces of wood, covered 537. T 395 sqq. Virg. A. i. 477. Suet. over with wax, on which they wrote with Ner. 22. viii. 148. Cicero, also, uses the point of an instrument called stylus, Automedon as the name of any charioteer; the other end of which was blunt for Rosc. Am. 35. PR. R.

the purpose of erasure. Hor. I. S. X. 62. By ipse we are to understand 72. M. Nero: M, for ipse, as well as ille (v. 64. • In the very cross-ways ;' such is

с

65 Hinc atque inde patens ac nuda pæne cathedra

Et multum referens de Mæcenate supino
Signator, falso qui se lautum atque beatum
Exiguis tabulis et gemma fecerat uda?

Occurrit matrona potens, quæ, molle Calenum 70 Porrectura, viro miscet sitiente rubetam

Instituitque rudes melior Locusta propinquas

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the impudence of these miscreants, and PR. cf. x. 336. M. Falsum was the depravity of these times! LU. technical term, as falsi reus, GRO. Lex

The litters of the rich were called Cornelia de falsis, &c. R. heraphori, Mart. II. Ixxxi. IV. li. or 68. ' A brief testament,' making him ostophri, vii. 141. from the number of sole heir. BRI. Omnia soli breviter dabit; bearers or lecticarii; persons of inferior xii. 125. PR. ii. 58. fortune used sella gestutoria a sedan,' Ut arcanus possim signare tabellas, nere carried by two chairmen. ix. 142. LI. M. tenax ceram siccuve gemma trahat, humida R. cf. B). c. 8. p. 427 sq. 443 sq. tangam prius ora; Ov. Am. II. xv. 15 65. Here the litter' is left •

sqq. Trist. V. iv. 5 sq. Pont. II. ix. 69. both sides' out of effrontery, as opposed GR. cf. xiii. 139. xiv. 132. R. to lectica tuta pelle veloque and sella 69. Nulla aconita bibuntur fictilibus ; clausa ; v. 124. Mart. XI. xcvii. Il sq. x. 25 sq. LU. The commencement of LU. clausa lectica fenestra ; iii. 242. this horrible practice is mentioned by clausum latis specularibus antrum ; iv. 21. Livy, viii. 18. PR. Agrippina poisoned This latter was also called cubiculum via- her husband Claudius by a mushroom ; torium; Plin. xxxvii. 2. Suet. Aug. 78. Tac. An. xii. 67. Suet. Claud. 44. R. Tit. 10. Ov. A. A. i. 487 sq. LI. It The allusion therefore is probably to was fitted up with cushions and pillows, some other noble matron, G. who will stood on four short legs, and was carried meet you in the public streets. M. by means of poles; iii. 245. vii. 132. Cales was in Campania. LU. The The cathedra or chair' belonged pro- choicest wines of Italy are named by perly to ladies; vi. 91. ix. 52. Mart. IV. llorace, 1 Od. xx. 9 sqq. of these the Ixxix. 3. Phæd. III. viii. 4. Prop. IV. Calenian and Cæcubian had gone out of v. 37. hence called fæminea cathedra; fashion in Pliny's time; xiv. 6. R. Mart. IIl. lxiii. 7. Calp. vii. 27. BO. Molle ó mellow' from age; Hor. I Od. Only vestals and empresses used pilenta vii. 19. Virg. G. i. 341. as opposed to and carpenta. R.

durum' rough;' G. iv. 102. R. 66. Mæcenas, though a very active 70. “A poison' supposed to be exman of business, was otherwise most‘in tracted · from the toad,' called rubeta dolent and luxurious ;' xii. 39. Sen. Ep. from its frequenting brakes. GRÆ. tur. 19. 101. 114. 120. otio et mollitiis pane gentis ranæ portenla rubelæ; Prop. III. ultra feminam fluens; Vell. Pat. i. 88. vi. 27. PR. nunc res agitur tenui pulmone Quint. X. iv. Plin. xiv. 6. DO. PR. N. rubelæ ; vi. 659. cf. iii. 44. R. He was at once a beau and a sloven. G. 71. Cæsareas soboles horrenda Locusta For the above sense of supinus see Mart. occidit, curans sævi venenata Neronis ; II. vi. 13. PR. Quint. V. xii. 10. X. i. Turnus. VS. This lag seems to have 17, &c. Plin. xvi. 37. Suet. Aug. 16. R. reduced the art of poisoning to a science :

Referre' to bring back to mind,' there. Claudius spared her life in order to avail fore' to resemble.' Virg. Æ. iv. 329. X. himself of her diabolical skill, and at last 766. Tac. Germ. 43. R.

was taken off by her agency.

“ 'Tis 67. Either (1) Aquilius Regulus, Plin. the sport,” as Shakspeare beautifully obii. 20. or (2) Sophonius Tigellinus, who serves, “ to have the engineer Hoist with poisoned his three uncles and inherited all his own petar;" Ham. III. iv. Nero their property by forgery' of their wills. employed her to destroy Germanicus, and LU. According to Pædianus the sub- perhaps Burrhus; but on the accession of scription of seven witnesses was requisite. Galba, she was dragged to execution amid

Per famam et populum nigros efferre maritos.

Aude aliquid brevibus Gyaris et carcere dignum,
Si vis esse aliquis: probitas laudatur et alget.
75 Criminibus debent hortos, prætoria, mensas,

Argentum vetus et stantem extra pocula caprum.
Quem patitur dormire nurus corruptor avaræ,
Quem sponsæ turpes et prætextatus adulter?

Si natura negat, facit indignatio versum,
80 Qualemcumque potest, quales ego vel Cluvienus.

Ex quo Deucalion, nimbis tollentibus æquor,

· The goat,'

the shouts and execrations of the populace. wood, marble, ivory, &c. GRÆ, v. 137 G. Tac. An. xii. 66. xiii. 15. Suet. sq. R. Mart. XIV. lxxxix. xc. &c. Claud. 44. Ner. 33, 47. PR. R.

76. Argentum, mensæ, murrhina, rura, Melior more knowing and daring;' domus; Mart

. XI. lxx. 8. instituit instructs;' rudes ignorant.'LU. as destructive to vines, was sacrificed to

72 "Ey dià duoir for per fumam populi. Bacchus, and was a usual device on GRÆ. per 'in defiance of,'' running the embossed goblets : or it might be a bassgantelope' as it were.

relief of Phryxus and Helle riding on the Livid' from the effects of poison, goat; stat caper Æolio Thebani vellere GRÆ, which is hence called poculu Phruxi cultus; Mart. VIII. li. (' de nigra ; Prop. 11. xxvii. 10. R.

phiala Rufi,') 9. VS. PR. altis exstanEfferre is peculiarly applied to funerals, tem signis crutera; Ov. Met. v. 81. PR. as effertur, imus, ad sepulcrum antiquus crater signis exstantibus asper ; venimus; Ter. And. I. i. 90. M. vi. 175. Id. xii. 235. cf. v. 38. R. 567. xiv. 220. (Livy xxiv, 22, r. ED.) 77. The avarice of the daughter-in-law It is here the consequent put for the is her ruin. • Who can tamely witness antecedent. R. cf. note 70 on Herod. such flagitiousness ?' LU. vii. 117.

78. · Unnatural brides.' G. v. 62. ii. 73. Gyarus, now Jura, one of the Cy- 117. 134. Mart. xii. 42. Suet. Ner. 29. clades, was the Botany Bay of Rome. vi. Ov. A. A. i. 524. Tac. An. xv. 37. 563 sq. x. 170. Plin. iv. 12. viii. 29. 57. R. Tac. An. iii. 68 sq. iv. 30. Other rocky The prætexta was a white gown (toga) islands were used for the same purpose. with a purple border, and was worn by LU. PR. R.

magistrates and priests, and by noble 74. Sese aliquem credens; Pers. i. 129. boys till they completed their fifteenth somebody;' PR. Cic. ad Att. iii. 15. year, when they exchanged it for the doxây pin ois tivas, är de oudsis. Arr. Ep. manly gown. Pers. v. 30. PR. R. ii. 24. R.

79. Ceterarum rerum studia et doctrina “ In this partial avaricious age What et præceptis et arte constant; poeta natura price bears honour? virtue? long ago ipsa valet et mentis viribus excitatur et It was but praised, and free zed? quasi dirino quodam spiritu in tatur ; Cic. but now a days 'Tis colder far, and has pro Arch. 8. cf. Hor. A. P. 408 sqq. nor love nor praise;" Massinger, Fatal PR. Dowry, II. i. G.

80. Cluvienus was a miserable versifier 75. Such 'gardens' contained villas, of whom nothing further is known. PR. summerhouses, terraces, sheets of water, 81. This proem contains the sum and fountains, grottos, statues, &c. Smaller substance of the poet's future Satires. gardens were called viridaria or nemora. cf. CAS. on Pers. i. 1. R.

Ex quo; Hor. III Od. iii. 21. igou. Palaces ;' ad lapidem Torquatus habet Hom. Il. A 7. igórov. Aristoph. N. 520. prætoria quartum; Mart. X. lxxix. 1. Quo tempore primum Deucalion racuum Suet. Tit. 8. PR. X. 161. R.

lapides jactavit in orbem, unde homines The Romans were very extravagant in nati, durum genus; Virg. G. i. 61 sqq. their 'tables,' which were made of citron · From the earliest ages :' a Pyrrha ; xv.

Navigio montem ascendit sortesque poposcit,
Paulatimque anima caluerunt mollia saxa

Et maribus nudas ostendit Pyrrha puellas,
85 Quidquid agunt homines, votum, timor, ira, voluptas,

Gaudia, discursus, nostri est farrago libelli.
Et quando uberior vitiorum copia? quando
Major avaritiæ patuit sinus? alea quando

Hos animos? Neque enim loculis comitantibus itur 90 Ad casum tabulæ, posita sed luditur arca.

Proelia quanta illic dispensatore videbis
Armigero! Simplexne furor, sestertia centum

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30. Amphiclyonis temporibus aquarum nos redundant, sæculo premimur gravi : illuvies majorem populorum Græciæ parlem Senec. Oct. GR. The predictions of absumpsit. Superfuerunt, quos refugia Horace were verified, aias parentum, montium receperunt, aut qui ad regem pejor aris, tulit nos nequiores, mox daluros Thessaliæ Deucalionem ratibus evecti sunt: progeniem vitiosiorem; Ill Od. vi. fin. a quo propterea genus humanum conditum See 147 sqq. vi. 292. R. dicitur; Just. ii. 6. PR. Ov. Met. i. 88. Some take sinus to signify the 264 sqq. He was son of Prometheus and lap' of the gown; others the bellying' of Clymene. GR.E.

the sail, or

a spread of canvas.' PR. R. 82. Parva rate; Ov. xißerã, aágvaxı, cf. 149 sq. • in the ark.' HN. The fable is a cor- Alea ; cf. Pers. v. 57. PR. vetita leruption of sacred history. PR.

gibus alea; Hor. III Od. xxiv. 58. * The mountain' Lycorea, one of the Understand habuit: hos may mean tot, or two peaks of Parnassus. R.

Romanos; R. or hos unimos is perhaps • T'he answers of the Delphian oracle' equivalent to tantas vires, such spirit were anciently. given by lots:' oracula and vigour.' M. verius dicuntur, quce vaticinatione fun- 89. Loculus' a purse;' arca 'the money duntur, sed et sortes, quæ ducuntur. chest itself.' PR. Cic. de Div. ii. 33. Sometimes sortes 90. A sarcastic reflection on his fellowsignified' oracular answers in general, countrymen as no longer strenuous in dictæ per carmina sortes; Hor. A. P. 403. other battles. LU. auxilium placuit per sacras quærere sories;

91. • With his steward for armourOv. precibus orucula poscas; Virg. Æ. bearer,' as carrying money, dice, diceiii. 456. poscens responsa; Sil

. i. 121. box, and tables. vš. vii. 219. xiy. 4 sq. PR. M. R. (Livy xxi, 62, n. ED.] R. The responses at this time were given by

92. · A hundred sestertia.' The sesThemis : Ov. VS.

tertius=about ljd. The sestertium= 83. Saza ponere duritiem capere, 1000 sestertii =about £8. 1s. 6d. (1) suumque rigorem, mollirique mora, mol. If a numeral agrees with sestertii, it delitaque ducere formam: Ov. M. This notes so many sestertii, as decem sestertii. story is supposed to have been suggested (2) If the genitive plural of sesterti is by the fanciful derivation of dads from joined with a numeral in another case, λάας. R.

it denotes so many thousand, as decem 84. The lapides Pyrrha jacti (Virg. sertertiúm = 10,000 sestertii. (3) If E. vi. 41.) produced women. Pyrrha joined with a numeral adverb, it denotes was the daughter of Epimetheus and so many hundred thousand, as Asia. GRÆ.

decies sestertiúm = 1,000,000 sestertii. 86. Discursus their different pursuits.' (4) The numeral adverb by itself has But see v. 21. R.

the same meaning, decies = 1,000,000 Furrago (see note on Pers. v. 77.) a sestertii=1,000 sesterces. KN. AD. Sesmixture, hodge-podge, olio.' M.

tertium is always the contracted genitive, 87. Collecta vitia post tot ætates diu in with which mille or millia is generally

Perdere et horrenti tunicam non reddere servo?

Quis totidem erexit villas? quis fercula septem 95 Secreto cænavit avus? Nunc sportula primo

Limine parva sedet, turbæ rapienda togatæ.
Ille tamen faciem prius inspicit et trepidat, ne
Suppositus venias ac falso nomine poscas.

Agnitus accipies. Jubet a præcone vocari 100 Ipsos Trojugenas: nam vexant limen et ipsi

Nobiscum. “ Da Prætori, da deinde Tribuno !
Sed libertinus prior est." “ Prior" inquit “ ego adsum.
Cur timeam dubitemve locum defendere, quamvis

understood ; sestertia occurs only in poets. emphatically; cf. v. 100. Prop. IV. ii. F. (Livy xxviii, 9, 8. ED.]

56. Virg. Æ. i. 282. but more probably 93. Scis comitem horridulum trita do- is used contemptuously, as the toga was nare lacerna; Pers. i. 54. PR. · shiver no longer worn by respectable persons. ing with cold,' as in Ov. A. A. ï. 213. See note on v. 3. ii. 70. ii. 127. vij. 136. Reddere for dare. R.

142. viii. 49. Hor. I S. ï. 63. 82. Mart. 94. Cf. xiv. 86 sqq. R.

II. Ivii. 5. &c. R. Patinas cænabat omasi; Hor. I Ep. 97. See note on v. 62. The meanness xv. 34. In atrio, et duobus ferculis, epu- of the patron is strongly marked by his labantur antiqui; Cato. Ferculum, ac- superintending the distribution' in person.' cording to Nonius, was ' a course. vii. 99. Agnoscere ' to recognize' is said of 184. xi. 64. R.

one known before; cognoscere to become 95. Fuit illa simplicitas antiquorum in acquainted with,' of a stranger. R. cibo capiendo, ut maximis viris prandere et The crier' was properly called nocænare in propatulo verecundiæ non esset : menclator; it was his office to announce nec sane ullas epulas habebant, quus populi the names of morning visitors, arrange oculis subjicere erubescerent; Val. Max. them in order of precedence, &c. PL. II. v. 5. PR.

100. • The patricians of the greater Quis arus' who of our ancestors ?' LU. clans,' VS. who claimed descent from

The old republicans used to admit to Æneas and the Trojans : cf. viii. 41 sqq. supper the clients, who attended them 181. xi. 95, so Troïades ; Pers. i. 4. R. from the forum. Under the emperors Limen terere; Mart. X. X. 2.' to wear.' this laudable custom was abolished, and R. furesque feræque suetæ hunc vexare • a little basket' of meat given to each of locum ; Hor. I S. viii. 17. M. 'to them to carry home. Nero ordered a pester.' small sum of money to be distributed 101. · With us poor folk.' cf. iii. 128 instead of meat, and Domitian brought sqq. R. Mart. X. x. 1 sqq. PR. back the former practice: Suet. Ner. 16. Da &c. These are either the orders of Dom. 4.7. Perhaps it was subsequently the patron to his steward, or the imporleft optional, for here we find that money tunities of the needy patricians. PR. R. was again distributed. The sum was a Prætor dictus quod exercitui prceat: hundred quadrantes, about 20d. sterling. est et magistratus juredicundo præpositus; G. v. 120. ii. 127 sqq. 249 sqq. Mart. I. Varro. The tribune' might be either Ixi. III. vii. xiv. 3. VIII.). 10. X. xxvii. military' or 'plebeian.' PR. Of the lat3. lxxv. 11, A. T. PR. R.

ter, there were originally two, afterwards 96. Vestibulum ante ipsum primoque in ten. The prælor urbanus was a magislimine ; Virg. Æ, ii. 469. vi. 427. R. trate nearly answering to • the Lord

Sedet; ii. 120. R. xsītes, see note 18 Mayor' of London. M. on Herod, vii. 198.

102. • First come, first served.' G. • The He's being snatched' or

Libertini are enfranchised slaves, M. and bled for' denotes their half-starved con the same as liberti; they are called liberti dition. Togata may, mean • Roman' when the patron's name is added. R.

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