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Java Invoice Weight Cargoes.
DUTY WEIGHTS compared with PURCHASE WEIGHTS.
what would be expected
ALL DISTRICT NO. 4 ENTRIES OF SUGAR FROM JAVA PURCHASED BY AMERICAN
SUGAR REFINING COMPANY OF NEW YORK on the Consular Invoice
INFORTID) NOH JXa. From Dec. 1, 1901, to Oct, 31, 196-8.
Purniagro net ditter
Number of Trucking in whicle Ibe
Entry with welyne by U.S. weigis.
Perrentage of 0.
The evidence which I
-the discovery of the
The main contention
11 109.00 13.00,5 11,200.0 127,450
29 170.770 19.861,966.5 1:1 050,11,167 2:01.001
113,703 14.872,03 10,679.701 10.014 312113
19. R.160,0074,513,144.537 229.237
197,619 9.099 7:39 10.565,90 DIN
31 2000 11.02.12 11,671 977.1998.991
14 918136 13,090.47 109,031 WH 571,170
4011 11,WN, U.SINI,
10 15,900 19,67,1!! 151,47,00 7419,999 948,7.0
* 100.000 19.742.017 13.170.440,00 970,001
20.869 11,N: 11,082,030907.10
2013.100 1100.220 12,174.819 171.711
2 9 0,19 3.NCING 10.4042319.5 2011,
230,57 12.078,0.11 10,134,309 156,
251 13 0:54 10.8.!.00 10,47.8470,41
118,370 11.01.2014,301,65 M.),134
31 20,40 11,059,151 11.609,110.603,003 245,4%
102-5,40 11,91:8,9 19,310,61M 0751) 977,035
10, 24, 19,09:1,37 1:3,4:36,059 113 112 18,1990
90 935,428 10,43311 11, 107... 011
1212018 11.021,750 11.473.70- 2019
80 207.199 11,100,100 19.432.193.501: LG,94
40.941 15,27,911 10,21,001 46-490 310,144
10.20-0-T! 15.707.2017. 1618 411
37 395,171 11.014.175 11,9,112 871.737 269,410
7 203.00 12,619.774 14,177,19 497,439 7,10.5
93 278,00 10,019,1139,04 0,303 313,000
298,067 19,341.000 19.679,97: XS7.570
PAGE FROM THE TABLES
161 203,779 13,607, 10) 13.20.9., 1.13.900 1:58.709
0 223,2 11,073,399 11,079,105 0749 211743
$31 170,1605 13.04.2013, 1817 972,77
14 103 13.0-1.00 18H18W 204 618 804,317
• Duly weight grenler than purchase weight
fraudulent practices were carried on by every month to the Company's office and the men on the docks for some reason get an envelope from the cashier. This which has not yet been discovered. statement was denied by Spitzer, but the Against this contention there is little direct Government weigher was unshaken in his evidence to place. But one thing at least assertions. is certain. It was the Sugar Company which profited by the frauds. Nearly a The American Sugar Refining Commillion and a quarter of dollars went into pany (the parent company) is a ninetythe Company's treasury in six years million-dollar corporation organized in New which, if the seventeen holes and the little Jersey. It is popularly known as the steel spring (or their equivalent) had not Sugar Trust. It produces, according to been in use, would have gone into the the best estimates, about one-half of the National Treasury. That sum was suffi- refined sugar used in the United States. cient to pay a dividend of almost six per Its relation to the American Sugar Refining cent on the capital stock of the American Company of New York is that the New Sugar Refining Company of New York York company holds the title to the prop(the corporation owning the Havemeyer erty in that State, but the stock of the & Elder refineries) annually during those latter is owned and its business is done by
the New Jersey company, all payments are The Government also introduced other made from the general treasury of the testimony bearing on this point. It showed New Jersey company, and the interests of that while there were twelve Company the two are identical. So, while in fact it checkers on the docks, only six of them is the New York company which was were uniformly assigned to the task of nominally the defendant in this case, it is checking the Government weigher in the not beside the mark to say that the Sugar scale-house, where the hole and the spring Trust itself was the real defendant. were. These six received higher pay than The Case of the Seventeen Holes rethe other checkers; and, according to the vealed that the Sugar Company had been testimony of a man who was for twenty for at least the greater part of a decade years in the cashier's office of the Com- engaged in smuggling sugar by the daily pany, they were paid the higher wages use of a fraudulent device. In the six secretly. Each employee's pay envelope years from 1901 to 1907 seventy-five had the amount of his pay marked on the million pounds of sugar were smuggled, outside. But in the case of these six the on which the unpaid duties amounted to envelope contained more money than the nearly a million and a quarter of dollars. figures on the outside called for. This Since the trial the Government attorneys testimony as to the secret method of pay- have notified the Sugar Company that ing the higher wages was contradicted the Government also claims that it was deby the men who, it was charged, were
frauded of duties on shipments of sugar so paid; but no other evidence was pro- reaching as far back as 1897, and both duced from any officer of the Company at the Brooklyn refineries and at the reor from any one in the Company's office fineries in Jersey City. to impeach it.
This petty larceny from the Government The same witness, who is now a repu- by a great corporation was an exhibition table farmer in Connecticut, testified that of the low ethical standards which had he had seen Custom-House officers come come to be prevalent in the conduct of up into the Company's office and receive great businesses a few years ago. Its money from the Company's cashier. His prosecution and conviction is only one of evidence on this point was absolutely un- many instances of the application of the contradicted. Another witness who has new spirit which is coming to rule in the been for years in the customs service tes- relations of great industries to the people tified that when he came on to the docks and to the Government. It is to be hoped about ten years ago as head Government that the new management of the Sugar weigher, the Company's dock superinten- Trust will carry on its affairs in the new dent, Oliver Spitzer, asked him to go spirit rather than in the old.
BY SIR ANDREW H. L. FRASER, K.C.S.I., LL.D.
LATE LIEUTENANT-GOVERNOR OF BENGAL
T is not a light matter to propose to each village are connected with the village
discuss an Indian question. The life, are a very small portion of the com
first thing to occur to one's mind is munity. Then, again, it is to be borne in this : That India is not one country, and mind that the educated classes, though by there is no such entity as India or “the no means inconsiderable and not to be Indian people.” There are many large ignored, are still a very small section of provinces in India, and it is certainly not the population of India. According to the saying too much to state that each one of census figures of 1901, the “ literates these provinces, at least, is a country and literate ” means possessing simply different from the other provinces and the smallest capacity for reading and writcontaining a different people. The lan- ing—of Bengal, which is probably the guages of the Punjab, of the United most advanced province in India, were Provinces of Bengal, and of Bombay, 11.06 per cent of the adult population for differ from each other as much as the males, .57 for females, or 5.77 per cent for languages of the Latin nations—Spain, both classes. . To state these figures is to France, and Italy—among themselves; show how very small the educated classes and the languages of Madras and of many The vast population of India, thereof the Dravidian peoples differ as much fore, may be taken to be agricultural ; from those of a number of the other peoples and a large proportion of that to be unof India as German differs from French. educated. These differences of language are associ- The unrest is to be found mainly in the ated with differences in traditions and in following classes. Those who have fixed history which separate the peoples from incomes have, in certain parts of the one another. This is much lost sight of country, suffered very greatly from the owing to the fact that the Government of sudden rise in prices of grain and the India holds these different provinces necessities of life. It is thirty-seven years together, and that the educated classes since I went to India. There were cerare able to communicate with one another, tain places where it was possible at that through the whole of India, through the time to get one hundred and fifty seers of medium of English. However, it is a grain for one rupee, where now you can matter that must not be forgotten in deal- hardly get fifteen. That is because of ing with Indian questions. One has many the sudden spreading of railways all over opportunities of seeing the strength of the the country, and the bringing of these differences that exist between the different remote districts into direct communication peoples, and their jealousies, so as to con- with the markets of the world. Ecovince him that there is now, and will be nomic changes, the introduction of the for a long time, no Indian nation, and that manufacture of piece goods, and the a man should only speak of that part of establishment of factories in India, have India which he knows.
very considerably affected certain indusIn considering the political situation in trial classes. All this has been favorable India one realizes that there are certain to India as a whole; but it has operated elements of unrest abroad; but it is most on certain classes in a very trying way, as important to judge accurately of the limita- the history of Western nations enables us tions of the unrest. In the first place, it easily to understand. A third section of must be borne in mind that India is mainly the community in which there is some a country of rural villages and of an agri- considerable unrest the educated cultural community. The large towns classes. These feel that through their contain a very small proportion indeed of education they have obtained certain the inhabitants; and the industrial classes, powers which they desire to exercise in apart from the technical workmen who in the service of the country, or more self
ishly perhaps in their own advantage. salaries up to 2,250 rupees a month. They are pressing into executive office in Not only so, but during my tenure of office the country, or into the legislative coun- as Lieutenant-Governor of Bengal the next cils, which are representative bodies com- executive office to my own was held by an bining with the head of each Province, or Indian gentleman, as senior member of with the Government of India, in the the Board of Revenue. I speak of Benadministration of the country. It is clear gal, where my latest
of service were that all these sections of the country which spent. This shows that, where men have are affected by unrest are comparatively been found qualified for executive office, small. The causes which have affected they have been appointed to it without any them unfavorably have been, in many disqualification on account of their race or cases, only favorable to the agricultural creed. community; and it is beyond dispute that As to the councils, there has been a the agricultural community throughout steady improvement in representation for the country is loyal. There is no doubt many years, and now Lord Morley has that in India, as among all ignorant and made proposals which will largely increase superstitious peoples, there are many ,
the Indian element in the councils, bring easily excited by any false story or rumor in more fully the representatives of bodies that may be circulated among them ; but, and of persons with a stake in the country on the whole, the agricultural community who ought to be represented, and make throughout the whole of India is loyal, these councils much more effective in their • and it is loyal because it thoroughly trusts work and more weighty in their advising the righteousness and beneficence of the of the Government. All this has been British Government.
done in pursuance of a policy which has One has deep sympathy with those who been gradually carried out and in accordare affected by economic changes, and not ance with the views of the Government of only the Government of India but local gov- India and of local governments. ernments throughout India are giving sym- There is one very important distinction pathetic attention to the means which may that manifestly arises in this discussion, be adopted to remedy the pressure upon namely, that when it is proposed to put those with fixed incomes and upon the members into legislative councils, what we industrial classes. The unrest among the want to get most of all is a man who educated classes also demands the sympa- represents a certain section of the comthy of the British Government; for that munity which ought to be represented. If Government has given the education which he represents that section keenly and has led to this awakening and to this un- effectively, and is fit to fight for its interrest; and the education has been given ests, he is the kind of man that is rewith the very purpose of raising the peo- quired. It is altogether different with a ple and qualifying them to take part in candidate for the highest executive apthe government and administration of pointment. He ought not to be the their own country. Queen Victoria, when representative of a class. He ought to she took over the government of the be able to hold the scales equally between country fifty years ago, declared that no different classes. He ought to be tried as person who was otherwise qualified for an administrator and proved to be rightemployment under the Crown should be eous, impartial, and capable. If a man is held to be disqualified on account of race found qualified in this way, he ought to be or creed. That this promise has not been appointed whether he is an Indian or not, forgotten will be manifest from the fact but the qualities in question are necessary that when I went out to India in 1871 and ought to be insisted upon. It is right there were only three Indian gentlemen in to say that where a qualified Indian can Bengal holding as high executive office as be found for high executive office he to draw 400 rupees of salary a month. · ought to be appointed; but it is not right These were the highest executive offices to say that a certain high executive office held by Indians. There are now twenty- is always to be filled by a Hindu or by a three gentlemen holding offices reserved Mohammedan, because a nation is badly for the Indian Civil Service, and drawing governed that is governed by the representatives of the interests of any section the officers of the Government and the whatsoever. As Her Majesty . Queen people, and render it impossible for the Victoria said, no man should be disquali former frankly and constantly to mingle fied for appointment on account of race with the people. When touch with the or creed; but it is surely at least equally people ceases on the part of the officers true that no man should be appointed to of the Government, when they are unable executive office merely on account of his to extend to the people their confidence race or creed.
and sympathy, it will be time for the In the above remarks I have endeavored British Government in India to cease ; to show the sections of the community to for that which has made it possible for which unrest is mainly confined, and I that Government to do what has been done should like to say briefly that the unrest in the past to raise and elevate the people is very limited in area; the classes which has been the mutual good feeling between might be affected are not wholly affected, them, and the intimate acquaintance but only portions of them. Even among with the people which the officers of the the educated there are many who are in Government have, as a body, always mainno way affected by the general unrest of tained. In my opinion, the situation in the educated classes in the direction I India is far from alarming, and I believe have indicated. Unrest is to be found it has greatly improved and will continue more among that section of the educated to improve, owing to the manner in which classes which has no stake in the country crimes of violence have led so many of than among those that have. Not only is the people to a true view of the relations unrest limited in extent, but those who which ought to exist between the Governwould have recourse to anarchy or to vio- ment and themselves. lence, or who really aim at anything like the There have been serious and regrettable setting aside of the British Government in incidents of late. But it would be foolish to India, are an infinitesimal portion of those take a pessimistic view of the situation in whose minds have awakened and who may India. People are mistaken who think that be described as sharing to some extent in the murders and crimes of violence which the unrest. On the other hand, the vast have occurred indicate general disloyalty majority is loyal ; and recent incidents or any general detestation of British authorhave shown that some of them are pre- ity. They represent that hatred of a ruling pared to go any length, even to give their power which is common to anarchists all own lives, in defense of the Government over the world ; and they demand the same they honor and the friends whom they severe repression. But, by the happy comlove. There are a few, but very, very bination of measures of repression with few, who are prepared to go any length measures of reform, the Government of in violence; and against these it is neces- India has shown to the people its determisary to be always watchful, and adopt nation to combine justice with courage, any measures, however drastic, for putting and firmness with sympathy; and in this down the crimes at which they aim ; for combination will lie, in the future as in the their object is to set up a barrier between past, the strength of British rule in India.